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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-13-060
Date: June 2013

 

Ultra-High Performance Concrete: A State-Of-The-Art Report for The Bridge Community

CHAPTER 6. ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

This chapter describes specific applications of UHPC in infrastructure projects. Separate sections contain descriptions of the applications in North America (United States and Canada), Europe, and Asia/Australasia. Potential applications described in the literature are also presented.

NORTH AMERICA

Table 14 provides a list of the applications in the United States and Canada.

Table 14. UHPC applications in North America

Name Country Year Application Reference
(First Author)
Mars Hill Bridge, Wapello County, IA United States 2006 Three 45-in.-deep bulb-tee beams Bierwagon(237)
Endicott(238)
Route 624 over Cat Point Creek, Richmond County, VA United States 2008 Five 45-inch-deep bulb-tee girders Ozyildirim(45)
Jakway Park Bridge, Buchanan County, IA United States 2008 Three 33-inch-deep pi-shaped girders Keierleber(239)
State Route 31 over Canandaigua Outlet, Lyons, NY United States 2009 Joints between deck bulb tees Shutt(240)
State Route 23 over Otego Creek, Oneonta, NY United States 2009 Joints between full-depth deck panels Royce(241)
Little Cedar Creek, Wapello County, IA United States 2011 Fourteen 8-inch-deep waffle deck panels Moore(242)
Fingerboard Road Bridge over Staten Island Expressway, NY United States 2011 to 2012 Joints between deck bulb tees Royce(241)
State Route 248 over Bennett Creek, NY United States 2011 Joints between deck bulb tees Royce(237)
U.S. Route 30 over Burnt River and UPRR bridge, Oregon United States 2011 Haunch and shear connectors and transverse joints Bornstedt(243)
U.S. Route 6 over Keg Creek, Pottawatomie County, IA United States 2011 Longitudinal and transverse joints between beams Graybeal(63)
Ramapo River Bridge, Sloatsburg, NY United States 2011 Joints between full-depth deck panels Anon(244)
State Route 42 Bridges (2) near Lexington, NY United States 2012 Joints between full-depth deck panels and shear pockets Anon(244)
State Route 31 over Putnam Brook near Weedsport, NY United States 2012 Joints between full-depth deck panels Anon(244)
I-690 Bridges (2) over Peat Street near Syracuse, NY United States 2012 Joints between full-depth deck panels Anon(244)
I-690 Bridges (2) over Crouse Avenue near Syracuse, NY United States 2012 Joints between full-depth deck panels Anon(244)
I-481 Bridge over Kirkville Road near Syracuse, NY United States 2012 Joints between full-depth deck panels Anon(244)
Windham Bridge over BNSF Railroad on U.S. Route 87 near Moccasin, Montana United States 2012 Joints between full-depth deck panels and shear connections to beams Anon(244)
Sherbrooke Pedestrian Overpass, Quebec Canada 1997 Precast, post-tensioned space truss Blaise(2)
Highway 11 over CN Railway at Rainy Lake, Ontario Canada 2006 Joints between precast panels and shear connector panels Perry(245)
Glenmore/Legsby Pedestrian Bridge, Calgary Canada 2007 Precast, post-tensioned tee-section Perry(246)
Highway 11/17, Sunshine Creek, Ontario Canada 2007 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Graybeal(139)
Highway 17, Hawk Lake, Ontario Canada 2007 to 2008 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Graybeal(139)
Sanderling Drive Pedestrian Overpass, Calgary Canada 2008 Tee section drop-in girder Anon(244)
Highway 105 over Buller Creek, Ontario Canada 2009 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Graybeal(139)
Highway 71 over Log River, Ontario Canada 2009 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Graybeal(139)
Route 17 over Eagle River, Ontario Canada 2010 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs and to establish live load continuity Graybeal(63,139)
La Vallee River Bridge, Ontario Canada 2010 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Graybeal(139)
Highway 105 over Wabigoon River, Ontario Canada 2010 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Graybeal(139)
Highway 105 over the Chukuni River, Ontario Canada 2010 Shear connector pockets and panel joints Graybeal(139)
Steel River Bridge on
Highway 17, Ontario
Canada 2010 Shear connector pockets and panel joints Anon (244)
Mathers Creek Bridge on Highway 71, Ontario Canada 2010 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Anon (244)
Noden Causeway on Highway 11, Ontario Canada 2010 to 2013 Joint fill between adjacent precast panels Anon (244)
Highway 17 over Current River, Ontario Canada 2011 Joints between precast curbs Perry(247)
Mackenzie River Bridges (2) on Highway 11/17, Ontario Canada 2011 Shear connector pockets and panel joints Anon (244)
Wabigoon River Bridge on Highway 605, Ontario Canada 2011 Shear connector pockets and panel joints Anon (244)
Whiteman Creek Bridge on Highway 24, Ontario Canada 2011 Shear pockets and longitudinal and transverse joints between precast panels. Connections between H-piles and precast abutments Young(248,249)
Shashawanda Creek Bridge, Ontario Canada 2011 Shear connector pockets and longitudinal and transverse joints between precast panels Anon (244)
Hodder Ave Overpass over Highway 11/17, Ontario Canada 2012 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Anon (244)
Hawkeye Creek Bridge on Highway 589, Ontario Canada 2012 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Anon (244)
Hawkeye Creek Tributary Bridge on Highway 589, Ontario Canada 2012 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Anon (244)
Black River Bridge on Highway 17, Ontario Canada 2012 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Anon (244)
Beaver Creek Bridge on Highway 594, Ontario Canada 2012 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Anon (244)
Middle Lake Bridge on Highway 17A, Ontario Canada 2012 Joint fill between precast curbs and precast approach slabs Anon (244)
Jackpine River Bridge on Highway 17, Ontario Canada 20131 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Young2
Bug River Bridge on
Highway 105, Ontario
Canada 20131 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Young2
Beaver Creek Bridge on Highway 17, Ontario Canada 20131 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Young2
Sturgeon River Bridge on Highway 11, Ontario Canada 20131 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Young2
Blackwater River Bridge on Highway 11, Ontario Canada 20131 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Young2
Nugget Creek Bridge on Highway 17, Ontario Canada 20131 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Young2
Little Wabigoon Bridge on Highway 17, Ontario Canada 20131 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Young2
Melgund Creek Bridge on Highway 17, Ontario Canada 20131 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Young2
McCauley Creek Bridge on Highway 11, Ontario Canada 20131 Joint fill between adjacent box beams and between precast curbs Young2
Little Pic River Bridge on Highway 17, Ontario Canada 20131 Shear connector pockets and panel joints Young2
Jackfish River Bridge on Highway 17, Ontario Canada 20131 Shear connector pockets and panel joints Young2
Westminster Drive, Ontario Canada 20141 Longitudinal joints to connect superstructure modules. Young2
1 Projected construction date.
2. W. Young to B. Graybeal, personal email communication, December 21, 2012.

The first highway bridge constructed in North America was the Mars Hill bridge in Wapello County, IA.(238) The simple single-span bridge, as shown in figure 13, comprises three 110-ft (33.5-m)-long precast, prestressed concrete modified 45-inch (1.14-m)-deep Iowa bulb-tee beams topped with a cast-in-place concrete bridge deck. Each beam contained forty-seven 0.6-inch (15.2-mm)-diameter, low-relaxation prestressing strands and no shear reinforcement.

The photograph shows an oblique elevation view of the single-span bridge as viewed from the creek bank. The side of an exterior girder, the side of the bridge deck, and the side of the barrier railing is visible, along with the rip-rap protecting the stream bank from erosion.

Figure 13. Photo. Mars Hill Bridge, Wapello County, IA

One span of the 10 spans of the Route 624 bridge over Cat Point Creek in Richmond County, VA, was built using UHPC.(45) (See figure 14.) Bulb-tees with a depth of 45 inches (1.14 m) and a length of 81 ft 6 inches (24.8 m) were used. The specified compressive strengths were 12.0 ksi (83 MPa) at release of the strands and 23.0 ksi (159 MPa) for design. The beams did not contain any nonprestressed shear reinforcement.

The photograph shows one span of the bridge over water. The side of an exterior girder, the side of the bridge deck, and the side of the barrier railing are visible, along with the pier cap that supports the ends of this span.

Figure 14. Photo. Route 64 over Cat Point Creek, Richmond County, VA

Following extensive research and testing by FHWA, a UHPC bridge using pi-shaped girders was constructed in Buchanan County, IA, in 2008.(239,250) (See figure 15.) The shape is named after the Greek letter . The cross section, shown in figure 16, is similar to a double-tee section but with bottom flanges on the outside of each web. Three pi-girders were used in the central 51-ft 4-inch (15.6-m)-long center span of the three-span bridge.

The photograph shows an oblique elevation view of the three-span bridge as viewed from the waterway bank. The sides of the reinforced concrete slab end spans as well as the ultra-high performance concrete pi-girder middle span are visible. Piers with pier caps are visible at the edges of the waterway.

Figure 15. Photo. Jakway Park Bridge, Buchanan County, IA

The drawing shows a pi-shaped cross section with a top flange width of 100 inches, a total depth of 33 inches, a clear distance between the insides of the webs of 50.5 inches, a top flange thickness midway between the webs of 4 inches, and two bottom flanges on the outside of the webs with widths of 12 inches.

Figure 16. Illustration. Cross section of pi-shaped girder

In New York State, several bridges have been built using field-cast UHPC to create connections between adjacent precast concrete elements.(241) (See figure 17.) These applications take advantage of the short development lengths that can be used for splice lengths of nonprestressed reinforcement in UHPC. The same technique was used on the transverse joints over the piers of the Keg Creek Bridge, IA, to establish continuity for live load and in the longitudinal joints between deck panels. The use of UHPC in the construction of connections is described by Graybeal.(251)

The drawing shows two adjacent deck bulb tee girders with a 6-inch-wide closure pour between the top flanges. The bulb-tees have a depth of 41 inches and a top flange width of 61 inches.

Figure 17. Illustration. Cross section showing CIP UHPC connection between precast beams

Little Cedar Creek in Wapello County, IA, used 14 UHPC waffle panels for the deck on a 60-ft (18.3-m)-long 33-ft (10.0-m)-wide concrete bridge. (242) The panels were 15 ft by 8 ft by 8 inches deep (4.6 m by 2.4 m by 203 mm deep) at the deepest point, with the waffle squares having a thickness of only 2.5 inches (64 mm). All connections between adjacent panels and from panels to the precast, prestressed concrete beams used UHPC.

The first bridge to use UHPC in Canada was the pedestrian/bikeway bridge in Sherbrooke, Quebec, as shown in figure 18.(2) The structural concept consists of a space truss with a top UHPC chord that serves as the riding surface, two UHPC bottom chords, and truss diagonals that slope in two directions. Each diagonal consists of UHPC confined in 6-inch (152-mm)-diameter stainless steel tubes. The bridge was constructed from six prefabricated match-cast segments with two half-spans assembled prior to erection across the river to create a 197-ft (60-m)-long span.

The photograph shows an elevation of the main span of the space truss bridge viewed from the waterway bank.

Source: Lafarge

Figure 18. Photo. Pedestrian bridge, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada

Other bridges in Canada that have used UHPC are listed in table 14. The applications include longitudinal and transverse joints between precast components, shear connector pockets between beams and slabs, and a precast post-tensioned tee section for a pedestrian bridge. See Figure 19. Most of the applications have been in Ontario with leadership by the Ministry of Transportation.

The photograph shows a view of the center span of the bridge as viewed from the side at one end of the bridge.

Source: Lafarge

Figure 19. Photo. Glenmore/Legsby pedestrian bridge, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

EUROPE

UHPC has been used in bridges in Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, and Switzerland as listed in table 15.

Table 15. UHPC applications in Europe

Name Country Year Application Reference
(First Author)
WILD bridge, Völkermarkt Austria 2010 Arch bridge with five straight chords Freytag(252)
Hecht(253)
Bakar bridge Croatia Arch bridge Candrlic(254)
Sermaises footbridge France U-shaped footbridge with a 30-min fire rating Behloul(255)
Bourg-Les-Valence overpass bridges (2) France 2001 Pi-shaped beams (double tee) Hajar(256)
PS 34 overpass on the A51 Campenon Bernard France 2005 Precast, post-tensioned segmental single cell box girder Resplendino (257)
Sainte Pierre La Cour bridge, Mayenne France 2005 Precast, prestressed I-beams and deck panels Resplendino (257)
Pinel bridge, Rouen France 2007 Prestressed beams de Matteis(258)
Pont du Diable footbridge France 2008 Prestressed beams and deck to form a U-shape Behloul(259)
TGV East High Speed Line, aqueduct France Post-tensioned U-shape Resplendino (214)
Angels footbridge, Herault France 221-ft span, 5.9 ft-deep section Resplendino(214)
Pedestrian/cycle track Niestetal Germany Post-tensioned trough section Fehling(260)
Gaertnerplatz bridge, Kassel Germany 2007 Variable depth space truss Fehling(260,261)
Obertiefenbach Germany 2007 Waterproofing layer and hinge Kim(43)
Friedberg Germany 2007 Pi-shaped beam Fehling(260)
Weinheim Germany 2007 Pi-shaped beam Fehling(260)
Italy Bridge Meda(262)
Rehabilitation of orthotropic bridge deck, Caland Netherlands Toppings and deck panels Buitelaar(263)
Yuguang(264)
Kaag bridges, Sassenheim Netherlands 2002 Deck panels Kaptijn(265)
Log Cezsoski bridge Slovenia 2009 Bridge deck overlay Sajna(266)
Luaterbrunnen footbridge Switzerland Flooring Resplendino (267)
Single span road bridge Switzerland 2004 Rehabilitation and widening of a bridge deck Brühwiler(268)
Crash barrier repair Switzerland 2006 Protective surface layer Brühwiler(268)
Bridge pier repair Switzerland 2007 Precast panels for a protective layer Brühwiler(268)
Various Various Repair and strengthening Resplendino(214)
—Construction date is unknown.

The Bourg-Les-Valence bridges in France are claimed to be the first UHPC road bridges.(256) Each bridge consists of two spans made continuous with a CIP UHPC connection between spans. The cross section consists of five spliced pretensioned beams that resemble a double-tee with the addition of bottom flanges similar to a pi-shaped section. Beam lengths are 67.3 and 73.8 ft (20.5 and 22.5 m). The only nonprestressed reinforcement is provided where the components are joined together longitudinally or transversely and at locations of attachments. UHPC was used in the longitudinal joints between beams.

The PS34 Overpass on the A51 motorway in France is a precast, post-tensioned, single-cell box girder bridge with a length of 155.5 ft (47.4 m). (257) The cross section has a constant depth of 63 inches (1.60 m), a top slab thickness of 5.5 inches (140 mm), and web and bottom slab thickness of 4.7 inches (120 mm). The bridge is post tensioned longitudinally with six external tendons.

The St. Pierre La Cour bridge in France consists of 10 UHPC precast, prestressed concrete I-beams spaced at 55-inch (1.395-m) centers with a simple span length of 62.3 ft (19 m).(257) The deck consists of 1-inch (25-mm)-thick UHPC precast panels and an 8-inch (200-mm)-thick CIP deck.

According to Fehling, the first UHPC bridges in Germany were built in Niestetal near Kassel with span lengths of 23.0, 29.5, and 39.4 ft (7, 9, and 12 m).(260) The longest span used a shallow trough section and was post tensioned. The other two spans used a pi-shaped section and were pretensioned. Two other bridges using the pi-shaped cross-section were built near Friedberg and Weinheim with span lengths of 39.4 and 59.0 ft (12 and 18 m), respectively.

The Gaertnerplatz bridge, a pedestrian/bicycle bridge across the Fulda River in Kassel, Germany, is a six-span structure with a total length of 437 ft (133.2 m) and a main span of 118 ft (36 m).(261) The structural system is a variable-depth space truss consisting of two top UHPC chords and a single bottom tubular steel chord. The diagonal tubular steel chords are inclined both longitudinally and transversely. The deck spans between and cantilevers beyond the two top chords for a total width of 16.4 ft (5 m). Its thickness varies from 3.1 to 3.9 inches (80 to 100 mm). The deck is glued to the top chords.

In Slovenia, a bridge deck was overlaid with 1 to 1.2 inches (25 to 30 mm) of UHPC.(266) An inspection 2 years after installation showed no damage, cracks, or spalling. Applications in Switzerland include rehabilitation and widening of an existing bridge, protection layers to repair a crash barrier and bridge piers, and flooring for a footbridge.(267,268)

ASIA AND AUSTRALASIA

UHPC applications for highway infrastructure in Australia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, and South Korea are listed in table 16. Descriptions of some of these bridges are provided below.

Table 16. UHPC applications in Asia and Australia

Name Country Year Application Reference
(First Author)
Shepherds Creek Road bridge, New South Wales Australia 2005 Precast, pretensioned I-beams Rebentrost(269)
Anon(270)
Cavill(271)
Yarra River bridge Australia 2008 to 2009 Noise barrier protection panels Anon(272)
Kuyshu Expressway bridge Japan Okuma(273)
Riverside Senshu footbridge, Nagaoka-shi Japan Three-span continuous structure Matsubara(274)
Sakata-Mirai footbridge, Sakata Japan 2002 Post-tensioned box girder Rebentrost (269)
Resplendino (275)
Tanaka(276)
Akakura Onsen
Yukemuri pedestrian bridge
Japan 2004 Prestressed U-shaped girder Tanaka(276)
Yamagata Japan 2004 Box girder Rebentrost(269)
Tahara bridge Aichi Japan 2004 Box girder Rebentrost(269)
Horikoshi Highway C-ramp Fukuoka Japan 2005 Composite I-girder Rebentrost(269)
Tanaka(276)
Keio University footbridge, Tokyo Japan 2005 Pretensioned slab Rebentrost(269)
Tanaka(276)
Torisaka, River Highway bridge, Hokkaido Japan 2006 Launching nose Rebentrost(269)
Toyota City Gymnasium footbridge, Aichi Japan 2007 Box girder Tanaka(276)
Sankin-ike footbridge, Fukuoka Japan 2007 Box girder Rebentrost(269)
Hikita pedestrian bridge, Tottori Japan 2007 U-shaped girder Rebentrost(269)
Haneda Airport Runway D, Tokyo Japan 2007 Precast, pretensioned slabs Rebentrost(269)
Tanaka(276)
Mikaneike footbridge. Fukuoka Japan 2007 U-shaped girder Musha(277)
Kobe Sanda premium outlet footbridge Japan 2008 U-shaped girder Tanaka(276)
Akasaka Yogenzaka footbridge Japan 2009 U-shaped girder Tanaka(276)
Torisalogawa bridge Japan 2006 Box girder Tanaka(276)
Tokyo Monorail Japan 2007 U-girder upside down Tanaka(276)
GSE bridge Tokyo Airport Japan 2008 U-girders Tanaka(276)
Kampung Linsum bridge Rantau, Negeri Seremban Malaysia U-beam Lei(278)
Voo(150)
Sungai Muar bridge Malaysia Curved saddles for cable stays Resplendino(275)
Papatoetoe footbridge New Zealand 2005 Pi-beam Anon(279)
Five pedestrian bridges, Auckland New Zealand 2006 to 2007 Precast, post-tensioned Pi-girder Rebentrost(269)
Anon(279)
Seonyu Sunyudo footbridge, Seoul (Peace Bridge) South Korea 2002 Precast, post-tensioned pi-section Rebentrost(269) Resplendino(275)
Office pedestrian bridge South Korea 2009 Cable-stayed bridge Kim(9)
— Data are unknown.

The Shepherds Creek bridge in Australia is a single 49-ft (15-m)-span bridge with a 16-degree skew.(269,271) The superstructure consists of sixteen 23.6-inch (600-mm)-deep precast, prestressed UHPC beams spaced at 51 inch (1.3 m) centers. These support 1-inch (25-mm)-thick precast UHPC panels and a 6.7-inch (170-mm)-thick CIP reinforced concrete deck.

Numerous bridges, as listed in table 16, have been constructed in Japan beginning with the Sakata-Mirai bridge in 2002.(269,276) (See figure 20.) This footbridge consists of pretensioned box girder segments that were post tensioned together to form a single span of 161 ft (49.2 m).

Most of the UHPC footbridges in Japan consist of precast segmental U-beams with a separate top slab that is integrally connected to the U-beam. The U-beam segments are connected longitudinally with a CIP joint and post tensioning.

The Horikoshi Highway C-Ramp bridge was Japan's first highway bridge using UHPC.(276) The composite girder bridge is composed of four pretensioned UHPC I-shaped girders and a conventional CIP concrete deck. The use of UHPC in the girders allowed reduction of the number of girders from 11 to 4. The weight of each girder was less than it would have been with conventional concrete, allowing the use of a smaller crane. The overall weight of the bridge was reduced by 30 percent.

The photograph shows a side view of the single span pedestrian bridge taken from the river bank.

Source: Lafarge

Figure 20. Photo. Sakata-Mirai bridge, Sakata, Japan

The Toyota Gymnasium footbridge is a two-cell segmental box girder using match-cast segments and dry joints with epoxy. To overcome the shortening caused by autogenous shrinkage of the lead segment before casting the next segment, a steel plate was used at the end of the lead segment and becomes the end form for the new segment.(276)

The construction of Runway D at Tokyo's Haneda International Airport used 9.8-inch (250-mm)-deep UHPC panels spanning between longitudinal steel girders above the Tamar River.(276) The panels consist of ribs supporting a slab with a minimum thickness of 3 inches (75 mm). This reduced the dead load of the slab by about 56 percent compared with conventional concrete. Approximately 6,900 panels were produced for this application.

The Sunyudo (Peace) footbridge in South Korea is an arch bridge with a main span of 394 ft (120 m).(275) (See figure 21.) It is built from six precast, post-tensioned pi-shaped sections 4.3 ft (1.30 m) deep. The upper flange is a ribbed slab 1.19 inches (30 mm) thick with transverse prestressing. The webs of the pi-shaped section are 6.35 inches (160 mm) thick and inclined outward at the bottom. The six precast sections are post tensioned together by tendons located in the upper and lower haunches of the section. This bridge is the longest span UHPC bridge in the world.

The photograph shows an elevation of the arch bridge over water taken at night from the river bank.

Source: Rualt Philippe

Figure 21. Photo. Footbridge of Peace, Seoul, South Korea

REALIZED AND POTENTIAL SECURITY APPLICATIONS

Significant research and development efforts have also occurred with regard to the potential security applications afforded by UHPC. Infrastructure security can be a critical consideration, thus leading to opportunities to use UHPC components either as barrier protection systems or as inherent portions of the critical infrastructure. A state-of-the-art report on fiber-reinforced UHPC with a focus on security applications was completed in 2010.(280)

Research on the mechanical properties of UHPC when subjected to high strain rate loading has been completed by Parent et al., Ngo et al., Millard et al., Habel and Gauvreau, and Millon et al. (See references281, 282, 283, 284, and 285.) Blast resistance testing has been reported by Wu et al., Ngo et al., and Rebentrost and Wight. (See references 286, 282, 287, and 288.) Penetration resistance tests have been reported by Rebentrost and Wight(287,288) and by Nöldgen et al.(289)

OTHER POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

This section identifies other potential applications found during the literature search.

Almansour and Lounis compared the design of a prestressed concrete girder bridge using either UHPC or HPC in the girders.(290) The design of the UHPC bridge was based on a combination of the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC) and the AFGC-IR-02. (291,4) The design of the HPC bridge was based only on the CHBDC. Both bridges had a span length of 147.6 ft (45 m). Five girders with a depth of 63 inches (1,600 mm) were required for the HPC bridge, and only four girders with a depth of either 35.4 inches (900 mm) or 47.2 inches (1200 mm) were required for the UHPC bridge. The 47.2-inch (1,200-mm)-deep girders represented a conservative design, whereas the shallower sections required more prestressing strands. An optimum solution would be a girder with a depth between 35 and 47 inches (900 and 1,200 mm).

The design of a pilot project for a 39-ft (12-m) span pedestrian bridge using composite steel-concrete construction was reported by Jungwith et al. (188)

Obata et al. examined the use of prefabricated UHPC panels 1.2 inches (30 mm) thick as an overlay for asphalt pavement.(292) The panels were bonded to the asphalt using a grout. About 517 ft2 (48 m2) of test pavement was constructed at a test track in Japan using different construction bonding procedures. No cracks were observed before load testing began. Delaminations occurred and increased with the number of wheel passes in some test sections. The authors concluded that early opening of the pavement to traffic is possible with the use of high-strength fast-curing grout.

Oesterlee et al. performed finite element analyses of a conceptual bridge girder using UHPC as an overlay material in place of a conventional waterproofing membrane.(293) The structural response under combined loading from restrained shrinkage and traffic loads showed stresses close to the elastic tensile strength of the UHPC overlay where there was a high degree of restraint. The risk of transverse cracking in the overlay was deemed unlikely.

Schafers and Seim described theoretical and experimental investigations into the composite behavior of UHPC decks on timber beams.(294) They conducted shear tests of the glued joint between the UHPC and timber to identify the best adhesives and timber surface preparation methods.

Using finite element modeling and experimental verification, Toutlemende et al. investigated the possible use of UHPC precast ribbed waffle slabs for a bridge deck.(175) The slabs were pretensioned in the transverse direction and then post tensioned longitudinally before being connected to the longitudinal steel girders. The test results were compared with analytical models.(295)

Vande Voort et al. explored the use of UHPC in H-shaped precast, prestressed concrete piles.(296) They used laboratory tests to verify moment-curvature response. Two piles were successfully driven into clay soils and tested under vertical and lateral loads. (See figure 22.) The impact resistance of UHPC for use in piles was investigated by Leonhardt et al.(127)

The photograph shows a precast ultra-high performance concrete pile after it has been driven into the ground. Three I-shaped steel piles that have also been driven into the ground are visible nearby.

Source: Iowa State University

Figure 22. Photo. Experimental precast pile made of UHPC

Other potential applications that have been investigated are listed in table 17.

Table 17. Other potential applications of UHPC

Application Reference
(First Author)
Drill bits for special foundation engineering Ibuk(297)
Sewer pipes Schmidt(298)
Precast spun columns and poles Adam(299), Müller(300)
Barrier walls Young(249)
Field-cast thin-bonded overlays Young(249), Sritharan(301), Shann(302 ), Schmidt(303), Scheffler(55)
Cable-stayed bridge superstructure Kim(9), Park(304)
Bridge bearings Hoffmann(305)
Precast tunnel segments Randl(306)
Seismic retrofit of bridge columns Massicotte(307)
ResearchFHWA
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration