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Publication Number: N/A
Date: 1996

Detection Technology for IVHS

3. REFERENCES

  1. Detection Technology for IVHS . Task A Report: Development of IVHS Traffic Parameter Specifications, Federal Highway Administration Contract DTFH61-91-C-00076, U.S. Department of Transportation, Wash., D.C., 1994.
  2. L.A. Klein, N.A. Rantowich, C.C. Jacoby, and J. Mingrone, "IVHS Architecture Development and Evaluation Process,7quot;, IVHS Journal, Vol. 1(1), 13-34, 1993.
  3. A. Gelb, Applied Optimal Estimation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980.
  4. R.D. Kuhne, "Freeway Control Using a Dynamic Traffic Flow Model and Vehicle Reidentification Techniques," Paper 91-0419, TRB 70th Annual Meeting, Wash., D.C., Jan. 1991.
  5. Detection Technology for IVHS . Task F Report: Vehicle Detector Field Test Specifications and Field Test Plan, Federal Highway Administration Contract DTFH61-91-C-00076, U.S. Department of Transportation, Wash., D.C., 1994.
  6. L.A. Klein, M.S. MacCalden, Jr., and M. Mills, "Detection Technology for IVHS," in Proc. of the IVHS AMERICA Third Annual Meeting, Wash., D.C., April 1993.
  7. L.A. Klein, "Traffic Parameter Measurement Technology Evaluation," in Proc. IEEE-IEE Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference-VNIS ’93, pp. 529-533, Ottawa, Canada, Oct. 1993.
  8. L.A. Klein and M.K. Mills, "Evaluation of Modern Traffic Detector Technologies for IVHS Applications," Proc. NATDAC ’94, Sponsored by CT DOT and FHWA, September 18-22, 1994.
  9. L.A. Klein, M.R. Kelley, and M.K. Mills, "Evaluation of traffic detection technologies for IVHS," SPIE Vol. 2344 Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, pp. 42-53, 1994.
  10. L.A. Klein, M.R. Kelley, and M.K. Mills, "Traffic detection technologies for a modern transportation infrastructure," SPIE Vol. 2592 Collision Avoidance and Automated Traffic Management Sensors, 1995.
  11. Detection Technology for IVHS . Task D Report: Detector Selection, Federal Highway Administration Contract DTFH61-91-C-00076, U.S. Department of Transportation, Wash., D.C., 1994.
  12. Detection Technology for IVHS . Task C Report: Vehicle Detector Laboratory Test Specifications and Test Plan, Federal Highway Administration Contract DTFH61-91-C-00076, U.S. Department of Transportation, Wash., D.C., 1993.
  13. Detection Technology for IVHS . Task E Report, Parts I, II, and III: Vehicle Detector Laboratory Test Results, Federal Highway Administration Contract DTFH61-91-C-00076, U.S. Department of Transportation, Wash., D.C., 1993 and 1994.
  14. Detection Technology for IVHS . Task B Report: Field Test Site Selection, Federal Highway Administration Contract DTFH61-91-C-00076, U.S. Department of Transportation, Wash., D.C., 1993.
  15. Detection Technology for IVHS . Task L Final Report, Federal Highway Administration Contract DTFH61-91-C-00076, U.S. Department of Transportation, Wash., D.C., 1995.

APPENDIX A. TABLE OF CONTENTS OF TASK L FINAL REPORT

Table of Contents

1. Scope of the Program

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Purpose of the Project
  • 1.3 Organization of the Final Report

2. Task A Summary: Development of IVHS Traffic Parameter Specifications

  • 2.1 Traffic Flow Parameters
  • 2.2 Traffic Parameters for Interrupted Flow
  • 2.3 Traffic Parameter Definitions
    • 2.3.1 Quantity Measures
    • 2.3.2 Quality Assessment Measures
    • 2.3.3 Movement Measures
    • 2.3.4 Composition and Classification Measures
  • 2.4 Traffic Parameter and Accuracy Specifications for Future IVHS Applications
    • 2.4.1 Detector Specification Development
    • 2.4.2 Traffic Parameter Categories
    • 2.4.3 Matching Traffic Parameter Needs to Selected IVHS Services
    • 2.4.4 Signalized Intersection Control
    • 2.4.5 Freeway Incident Management
    • 2.4.6 Freeway Metering Control
    • 2.4.7 Future Traffic Parameter Specifications References

3. Task B Summary: Select Field Sites for Detector Field Tests

  • 3.1 Test Site Selection and Criteria
  • 3.2 Minnesota Test Sites
  • 3.3 Florida Test Sites
  • 3.4 Arizona Test Sites

4. Task D Summary: Select and Obtain Vehicle Detectors

  • 4.1 Selection Criteria
  • 4.2 Selection Process
  • 4.3 Technical Justification
  • 4.4 On-Bench Photographs of Detectors References

5. Theory of Operation of Detector Technologies

  • 5.1 Video Image Processors
    • 5.1.1 Operation
    • 5.1.2 Mounting and Traffic Viewing Considerations
    • 5.1.3 Signal Processing
  • 5.2 Microwave Detectors
  • 5.3 Infrared Detectors
  • 5.4 Ultrasonic Detectors
  • 5.5 Passive Acoustic Detector Arrays
  • 5.6 Inductive Loop Detectors
  • 5.7 Magnetic Detectors
    • 5.7.1 Magnetometers
    • 5.7.2 Passive Magnetic Detectors
    • 5.7.3 Selection Criteria and Future Trends
  • 5.8 Relative Cost of Detectors
  • 5.9 Automatic Vehicle Identification References

6. Task C Summary: Develop Vehicle Detector Laboratory Test Specifications and Laboratory Test Plan

  • 6.1 Laboratory Test Specifications for Vehicle Detectors
    • 6.1.1 Ultrasonic Detectors
    • 6.1.2 Microwave Detectors
    • 6.1.3 Active Infrared Detectors
    • 6.1.4 Passive Infrared Detectors
    • 6.1.5 Video Image Processors
    • 6.1.6 Inductive Loop Detectors
    • 6.1.7 Magnetometers
    • 6.1.8 Interface, Cost, and Environmental Requirements
    • 6.1.9 Summary
  • 6.2 Laboratory Test Plan
    • 6.2.1 Ultrasonic Detectors
    • 6.2.2 Microwave Detectors
    • 6.2.3 Active Infrared Detectors
    • 6.2.4 Passive Infrared Detectors
    • 6.2.5 Video Image Processors
    • 6.2.6 Summary
  • References

7. Task E Summary: Conduct Laboratory Detector Tests

  • 7.1 Scope
  • 7.2 Detectors Evaluated
  • 7.3 Munson Track Facilities
    • 7.3.1 Test Track
    • 7.3.2 Detector Mounting Page
    • 7.3.3 Target Vehicle Descriptions
    • 7.3.4 Detector Evaluation Procedure
  • 7.4 Lessons Learned From Test Track Detector Evaluation
    • 7.4.1 Microwave Detectors
    • 7.4.2 Ultrasonic Detectors
    • 7.4.3 Infrared Laser Radar Detector
  • 7.5 Detector Performance Results From Test Track Measurements
    • 7.5.1 TC-20 Microwave Detector
    • 7.5.2 TC-26 Microwave Detector
    • 7.5.3 TDN-30 Microwave Detector
    • 7.5.4 TC-30C Ultrasonic Detector
    • 7.5.5 SDU-200 Ultrasonic Detector
    • 7.5.6 SDU-300 Ultrasonic Detector
    • 7.5.7 780D1000 Laser Radar Detector
  • 7.6 Detector Performance Results From Bench Test Measurements
  • 7.7 Detector Performance Results Form Tests in the City of Los Angeles
    • 7.7.1 Test Site Description
    • 7.7.2 Data Analysis Methods and Results

8. Task F Summary: Develop Vehicle Detector Field Test Specifications and Field Test Plan

  • 8.1 Test Objectives
  • 8.2 Detector Technologies Evaluated
  • 8.3 Traffic Parameters Measured
  • 8.4 Environmental Factors
    • 8.4.1 Precipitation
    • 8.4.2 Wind
    • 8.4.3 Barometric Pressure
    • 8.4.4 Acoustic Noise
    • 8.4.5 Electromagnetic Interference
    • 8.4.6 Shadows
    • 8.4.7 Vibration
  • 8.5 Ground Truth
    • 8.5.1 Volume
    • 8.5.2 Speed
    • 8.5.3 Occupancy and Presence
    • 8.5.4 Queue Length, Turning Movements, and Vehicle Classification
  • 8.6 Traffic Data Collection Requirements
    • 8.6.1 Freeway Test Locations
    • 8.6.2 Surface Arterial Test Locations
  • 8.7 Test Site Locations
  • 8.8 Detector Installation
    • 8.8.1 Site Preparation
    • 8.8.2 Overhead Detector Mounting
    • 8.8.3 Overhead Detector Layouts
    • 8.8.4 In-ground Detectors
    • 8.8.5 Cable Requirements
  • 8.9 Test Procedures
    • 8.9.1 Run Times
    • 8.9.2 Weather Data
    • 8.9.3 Equipment Checkout Runs
    • 8.9.4 Video Feed to Image Processors
  • 8.10 Data Recording and Analysis
  • 8.11 Security for the Evaluation Site References

9. Task G: Install Vehicle Detectors at Field Sites and Collect Field Test Data

  • 9.1 Minneapolis Evaluation Sites
  • 9.2 Orlando Evaluation Sites
  • 9.3 Phoenix Evaluation Site
  • 9.4 Tucson Evaluation Site
  • 9.5 Amount of Data Collected at Each Site

10. Task H: Generate Field Tests Results

  • 10.1 Field Test Objective
  • 10.2 Data Collection and Analysis Process
    • 10.2.1 Acquisition Phase
    • 10.2.2 Data Conversion Phase
    • 10.2.3 Extraction Phase
    • 10.2.4 Analysis Phase
  • 10.3 Traffic Parameter Calculation
    • 10.3.1 Parameter Descriptions
    • 10.3.2 Count Accuracy
    • 10.3.3 Speed
    • 10.3.4 Flow
    • 10.3.5 Density
  • 10.4 FORTRAN Programs
    • 10.4.1 COUNT.FOR
    • 10.4.2 INT_CNT.FOR
    • 10.4.3 DENSITY.FOR
    • 10.4.4 OVF.FOR
    • 10.4.5 DENS_TOD.FOR
    • 10.4.6 DENS_232.FOR
    • 10.4.7 GP_COUNT.FOR
    • 10.4.8 OCC.FOR
    • 10.4.9 SVF.FOR
  • 10.5 Video/Data Synchronization Using the PC -VCR
  • 10.6 A Qualitative View on Detector Installation and Applications to Traffic Management
    • 10.6.1 Ultrasonic Detectors
    • 10.6.2 Microwave Radars
    • 10.6.3 Infrared Detectors
    • 10.6.4 Video Image Processors
    • 10.6.5 Acoustic Array
    • 10.6.6 Magnetic Detectos
  • 10.7 Presentation of Data Analysis Results
  • 10.8 Minnesota Freeway Data
    • 10.8.1 Run 02081127
    • 10.8.2 Run 02091626
    • 10.8.3 Run 02110625
  • 10.9 Minnesota Surface Street Data
    • 10.9.1 Run 03091019
    • 10.9.2 Run 03101343
  • 10.10 Florida Freeway Data
    • 10.10.1 Run 07221647
    • 10.10.2 Run 07231329
    • 10.10.3 Run 07280615
  • 10.11 Florida Surface Street Data
    • 10.11.1 Run 09071553
    • 10.11.2 Run 09141730
  • 10.12 Phoenix Autumn 1993 Freeway Data
    • 10.12.1 Run 11090822
      10.12.2 Run 11221359
  • 10.13 Phoenix Summer 1994 Freeway Data
    • 10.13.1 Run 07281536
    • 10.13.2 Run 08041552
  • 10.14 Tucson Surface Street Data
    • 10.14.1 Run 03101008
    • 10.14.2 Run 04121633
    • 10.14.3 Run 04131703

11. Task I: Determine Which of the Currently Available Vehicle Detectors Meet the IVHS Specifications of Task A

12. Conclusions

  • 12.1 Assessment of Best Performing Technologies by Application
    • 12.1.1 Most Accurate Vehicle Count for Low Traffic Volume
    • 12.1.2 Most Accurate Vehicle Count for High Traffic Volume
    • 12.1.3 Most Accurate Speed for Low Traffic Volume
    • 12.1.4 Most Accurate Speed for High Traffic Volume
    • 12.1.5 Best Performance in Weather
    • 12.1.6 Microscopic Single Lane vs. Macroscopic Multiple Lane Data
  • 12.2 Lessons Learned
  • 12.3 Concluding Remarks

Appendix A: Task J: Determine Need and Feasibility of Establishing Permanent Vehicle Detector Test Facility

  • A.1 Conclusions From the Detection Technology for IVHS Program
  • A.2 New Mexico State University Investigation
  • A.3 Recommendations

Appendix B: Detector Manufacturers and Contact People

Appendix C: Data Logger

  • C.1 Function of Data Logger
  • C.2 Types of Detector Outputs Supported
  • C.3 Major Data Logger Assemblies
    • C.3.1 Main Processing Unit
    • C.3.2 Removable Processing Unit
    • C.3.3 Intelligent Serial Interface System
    • C.3.4 Discrete Interface Subsystem
    • C.3.5 Video Control System
  • C.4 Data Analysis Software
  • C.5 Data Recording

Appendix D: Conceptual Design of an FMCW Microwave Radar that Resolves Multiple Vehicles in its Field of View

  • D.1 FMCW Waveform Parameters
  • D.2 Resolving Multiple Vehicles in the Footprint

Appendix E: Pipe Tree Installation and Intersection Plan-View Drawings for Minneapolis Sites

Appendix F: Detector Footprints as a Function of Aperture Beamwidth, Mounting Height, and Angle of Incidence

Appendix G: Inductive Loop Detector Specifications for Loops Installed During the Detector Field Evaluations

Appendix H: Detector Connections to Data Logger and Power Supplies at the Field Sites

  • H.1 Minneapolis Hookup Files
  • H.2 Orlando Hookup Files
  • H.3 Phoenix Hookup Files
  • H.4 Tucson Hookup Files

Appendix I: Pipe Tree Installation and SR 436 at I-4 Overpass Construction Plans

Appendix J: Local Climatological Data From Field Sites

  • J.1 Minneapolis Climatological Data: November 1992-March 1993
  • J.2 Orlando Climatological Data: April 1993-September 1993
  • J.3 Phoenix Climatological Data: November 1993-December 1993 and July 1994-August 1994
  • J.4 Tucson Climatological Data: March 1994-April 1994

Appendix K: FORTRAN Data Analysis Programs

  • K.1 COUNT.FOR
  • K.2 INT_CNT.FOR
  • K.3 DENSITY.FOR
  • K.4 OVF.FOR
  • K.5 DENS_TOD.FOR
  • K.6 DENS_232.FOR
  • K.7 GP_COUNT.FOR
  • K.8 OCC.FOR
  • K.9 SVF.FOR

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