Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home
Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-02-089
Date: July 2002

Safety Effectiveness of Intersection Left- and Right-Turn Lanes

PDF Version (1.48 MB)

PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader®

8. REFERENCES

  1. Griffin, L. I., and R. J. Flowers. "A Discussion of Six Procedures for Evaluating Highway Safety Projects," Federal Highway Administration, December 1997.

  2. Hauer, E. Observational Before-After Studies in Road Safety, Pergamon/Elsevier Science, Inc., Tarrytown, New York, 1997.

  3. Parker, M. R., et al. Geometric Treatments for Reducing Passing Accidents at Rural Intersections on Two-Lane Rural Highways: Vol. I—Final Report, Report No. FHWA/RD-83/074, Federal Highway Administration, 1983.

  4. McCoy, P. T., and M. S. Malone. "Safety Effects of Left-Turn Lanes on Urban Four-Lane Roadways," Transportation Research Record 1239, Transportation Research Board, 1989.

  5. Foody, T. J., and W. C. Richardson. "Evaluation of Left Turn Lanes as a Traffic Control Device," Ohio Department of Transportation, 1973.

  6. Gluck, J., H.S. Levinson, and V. Stover. Impacts of Access Management Techniques, NCHRP Report 420, Transportation Research Board, 1999.

  7. New Jersey Department of Transportation. 1992.

  8. New Jersey Department of Transportation. Route 130 Accident Study, 1993.

  9. Greiwe, R.R. "Intersection Management Techniques for the Left-Turning Vehicle," ITE Journal, June 1986.

  10. Agent, K.R. "Warrants for Left-Turn Lanes," Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 1, Eno Foundation for Transportation, Inc., 1983.

  11. Ben-Yakov, Y., and J. Craus. "Warrants for Left-Turn Lanes on Two-Lane Roads," Publication No 80-28, Transportation Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 1980.

  12. Craus, J., and D. Mahalel. "Analysis of Operations and Safety Characteristics of Left-Turn Lanes," ITE Journal, July 1986.

  13. Tamburri, T.N. and C.G. Hammer. Evaluation of Minor Improvements: (Part 5) Left-Turn Channelization, State of California, Division of Highways, Traffic Department, 1968.

  14. Wilson, J.C. et al. "Simple Types of Intersection Improvements," Improved Street Utilization Through Traffic Engineering Special Report 93, Highway Research Board, 1967.

  15. Hauer, E. "The Safety of Older Persons at Intersections," Transportation in an Aging Society: Improving Mobility and Safety for Older Persons, Volume 2, Special Report 218, Transportation Research Board, 1988, pp. 194-252.

  16. McFarland, W. F., et al. Assessment of Techniques for Cost-Effectiveness of Highway Accident Countermeasures, Report No. FHWA-RD-79-53, Federal Highway Administration, 1979.

  17. California Department of Public Works. Evaluation of Minor Improvements: Flashing Beacons, Safety Lighting, Left-Turn Channelization, Traffic Department, 1967.

  18. Lacy, J. D. "Traffic Operations Program to Increase Capacity and Safety," Traffic Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 3, July 1972, pp. 327-340.

  19. Dale, C.W. Cost-Effectiveness of Safety Improvement Projects, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, May 1973.

  20. Bauer, K. M., and D. W. Harwood. Statistical Models of At-Grade Intersection Accidents, Report No. FHWA-RD-96-125, Federal Highway Administration, 1996.

  21. McCoy, P. T., W. J. Hoppe, and D. V. Dvorak. "Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Left-Turn Lanes on Uncontrolled Approaches of Rural Intersections," Transportation Research Record 1026, Transportation Research Board, 1985.

  22. Poch, M., and F. L. Mannering. "Negative Binomial Analysis of Intersection Accident Frequencies," presented at the 75th annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 1996.

  23. Maze, T. H., J. L. Henderson, and S. Sankar. Impacts on Safety of Left-Turn Treatment at High-Speed Signalized Intersections, Iowa Highway Research Board Project HR-347, Iowa State University, January 1994.

  24. Vogt, A. Crash Models for Rural Intersections: Four-Lane by Two-Lane Stop-Controlled and Two-Lane by Two-Lane Signalized, Report No. FHWA-RD-99-128, Federal Highway Administration, October 1999.

  25. Harwood, D.W., F.M. Council, E. Hauer, W.E. Hughes, and A. Vogt. Prediction of the Expected Safety Performance of Rural Two-Lane Highways, Report No. FHWA-RD-99-207, Federal Highway Administration, December 2000.

  26. David, N. A., and J. R. Norman. Motor Vehicle Accidents in Relation to Geometric and Traffic Features of Highway Intersections: Vol II - Research Report, Report No. FHWA-RD-76-129, Federal Highway Administration, 1976.

  27. Harwood, D. W., M. T. Pietrucha, M. D. Wooldridge, R. E. Brydia, and K. Fitzpatrick. Median Intersection Design, NCHRP Report 375, Transportation Research Board, 1995.

  28. McCoy, P. T., U. R. Navarro, and W. E. Witt. "Guidelines for Offsetting Opposing Left-Turn Lanes on Four-Lane Divided Roadways," Transportation Research Record 1356, Transportation Research Board, 1992.

  29. Joshua, S. C., and A. A. Saka. "Mitigation of Sight Distance Problem for Unprotected Left-Turning Traffic at Intersections," Transportation Research Record 1356, Transportation Research Board, 1992.

  30. Vogt, A., and J. Bared. "Accident Models for Two-Lane Rural Segments and Intersections," Transportation Research Record 1635, Transportation Research Board, 1998.

  31. Neuman, T. R. Intersection Channelization Design Guide, NCHRP Report 279, Transportation Research Board, November 1985.

  32. Templer, J. A. Provisions for Elderly and Handicapped Pedestrians, Volume 3: The Development and Evaluation of Countermeasures, Report No. FHWA/RD-79/3, Federal Highway Administration, 1980.

  33. Exnicios, H. F. "Accident Reduction Through Channelization of Complex Intersections," Improved Street Utilization Through Traffic Engineering, Special Report 93, Highway Research Board, 1967, pp. 160-165.

  34. Rowan, N. J., and T. G. Williams. Channelization, Report 19-4 (Final), Texas Transportation Institute, March 1966.

  35. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Washington, DC, 2001.

  36. Washington, S. P. et al. Evaluation of High-Speed Isolated Intersections in California, Report No. FHWA/CA/TO/91-2, Federal Highway Administration, June 1991.

  37. Forrestel, R. R. Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities, prepared by: ITE Technical Council Committee 5A-5, December 1994.

  38. Hanna, J. T., T. E. Flynn, and L. T. Webb. "Characteristics of Intersection Accidents in Rural Municipalities," Transportation Research Record 601, Transportation Research Board, 1976.

  39. Lau, M. Y., and A. D. May. Accident Prediction Model Development: Signalized Intersections, Research Report No. UCB-ITS-RR-88-7, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Berkeley, December 1988.

  40. Lau, M. Y., and A. D. May. Accident Prediction Model Development: Unsignalized Intersections, Research Report No. UCB-ITS-RR-89-12, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Berkeley, May 1989.

  41. Robinson, B.W., L. Rodegerdts, W. Scarborough, W. Kittelson, R. Troutbeck, W. Brilon, L. Bondzio, K. Courage, M. Kyte, J. Mason, A. Flannery, E. Myers, J. Bunker, and G. Jacquemart. An Informational Guide, Report No. FHWA-RD-00-67, Federal Highway Administration, June 2000.

  42. McCoy, P. T., E. J. Tripi, and J. A. Bonneson. Guidelines for Realignment of Skewed Intersections, Nebraska Department of Roads Research Project Number RES1 (0099) P471, 1994.

  43. Mitchell, R. "Identifying and Improving Highway Accident Locations," Public Works, December 1972.

  44. Fambro, D. B. Geometric Design Consideration for Rural Roads, Report 1125-1F, Texas Transportation Institute, 1989.

  45. Fambro, D. B., K. Fitzpatrick, and R. Koppa. Determination of Stopping Sight Distances, Draft Final Report of NCHRP Project 3-42, Texas Transportation Institute, 1996.

  46. Priest, R. V. "Statistical Relationships Between Traffic Volume, Median Width, and Accident Frequency on Divided Highway Grade Intersections," Highway Research News, No. 13, Highway Research Board, June 1964.

  47. Van Maren, P. A. Correlation of Design and Control Characteristics with Accidents at Rural Multi-Lane Highway Intersections, Purdue University and Indiana State Highway Commission, July 1980.

  48. Transportation Research Board. Designing Safer Roads: Practices for Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation, Special Report 214, 1987.

  49. Kuciemba, S. R., and J. A. Cirillo. "Safety Effectiveness of Highway Design Features," Volume V: Intersections, Report No. FHWA/RD-91/048, Federal Highway Administration, 1992.

  50. Hall, D. L., K. C. Sinha, and H. Michael. "Comprehensive Evaluation of Nonsignalized Control at Low Volume Intersections," Transportation Research Record 681, Transportation Research Board, 1978.

  51. Agent, K. R., and R. C. Deen. "Relationship Between Roadway Geometrics and Accidents," Transportation Research Record 541, Transportation Research Board, 1975.

  52. King, G. F., and R. B. Goldblatt. "Relationship of Accident Patterns to Type of Intersection Control," Transportation Research Record 540, Transportation Research Board, 1975.

  53. Persaud, B.N., R.A. Retting, P.E. Garder, and D. Lord. "Observational Before-After Study of the Safety Effect of U.S. Roundabout Conversions Using the Empirical Bayes Method," presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2001, Preprint CD-ROM, ID# 01-0562.

  54. Smith, S. A., and R. Knoblauch. "Guidelines for the Installation of Crosswalk Markings," Transportation Research Record 1141, Transportation Research Board, 1987.

  55. Herms, B. F. Pedestrian Crosswalk Study: Accidents in Painted and Unpainted Crosswalks, City of San Diego, California, 1970.

  56. Gattis, J. L., and Z. Iqbal. "Effectiveness of Do Not Block Intersection Signs," Transportation Research Record 1456, Transportation Research Board, 1994.

  57. Pant, P. D., and X. H. Huang. "Active Advance Warning Signs at High-Speed Signalized Intersections: Results of a Study in Ohio," Transportation Research Record 1368, Transportation Research Board, 1992.

  58. Klugman, A. et al. Use and Operation of Advance Warning Flashers at Signalized Intersections, Report No. MN/RC-93/01, Minnesota Department of Transportation. November 1992.

  59. Styles, W. J. Evaluation of the Flashing RED SIGNAL AHEAD Sign, Report No. FHWA/MD-83/06, Maryland State Highway Administration, June 1982.

  60. Styles, W. J. Evaluation of Flashing Red Strobe Signal, Report No. FHWA/MD-83/07, Maryland State Highway Administration, June 1982.

  61. Box, P.C. "Major Road Accident Reduction by Modern Illumination," presented at Visibility Symposium in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Transportation Research Board, 1988 (cited in Reference 71).

  62. City of Los Angeles. "Intersection Accident Reduction Through Street Lighting," OTS Project 127803, Bureau of Street Lighting, 1980 (cited in Reference 71).

  63. Hauer, E., J.C.N. Ng, and J. Lovell. "Estimation of Safety at Signalized Intersections," Transportation Research Record 1185, Transportation Research Board, 1988.

  64. Hauer, E., D. Terry, and M. S. Griffith. "The Effect of Resurfacing on Safety of Two-Lane Roads in New York State," presented at the 73rd annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 1994.

  65. Shaw, R.B., and H.L. Michael. "Evaluation of Delays and Accidents to Warrant Construction of a Median Lane," Highway Research Record 257, Highway Research Board, 1968.

  66. Jorgensen and Associates, Inc. Cost and Safety Effectiveness of Highway Design Elements, NCHRP Report 197, Transportation Research Board, 1978.

  67. Hagenaur, G. F., J. Upchurch, D. Warren, and M. J. Rosenbaum. "Intersections," Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Traffic Control and Roadway Elements, Report No. FHWA-TS-82-232, Federal Highway Administration, 1982.

  68. Knoblauch, R. L., H. N. Tobey, and E. M. Shunaman. "Pedestrian Characteristics and Exposure Measures," Transportation Research Record 959, Transportation Research Board, 1984.

  69. "What Not to Expect from Crosswalk Signals," Civic Administration, Vol. 19, No. 5, May 1967, cited in J. P. Braaksma, A Survey of Special Crosswalks in Canada, Report No. TP981-CR7708, Transport Canada, Ottawa, September 1976.

  70. Untermann, R. K. Accommodating the Pedestrian—Adapting Towns and Neighborhoods for Walking and Bicycling, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1984.

  71. Baerwald, J. R. (ed.). Traffic Engineering Handbook, Third Edition, Institute of Traffic Engineers, Washington, DC, 1965.

  72. Keck, M.E. The Relationship of Fixed and Vehicular Lighting to Accidents, Report No. FHWA-SA-91-019, Federal Highway Administration, March 1991.

  73. "A Comparison of Pedestrian Safety of Median Islands and Marked Crossings," Western Roads, Western Australia, August 1978 (cited in Reference 37).

  74. McCullagh, P., and Nelder, J. A. Generalized Linear Models, Second Edition (1989), New York: Chapman & Hall.

  75. SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STAT® User's Guide, Version 8, Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., 1999, pp. 1363-1464.

  76. Fridstrøm, L., et al. "Measuring the Contribution of Randomness, Exposure, Weather, and Daylight to the Variation in Road Accident Counts," Accident Analysis and Prevention (1995), Vol. 27, pp. 1-20.

  77. Miaou, S-P. Measuring the Goodness-of-Fit of Accident Prediction Models, Report No. FHWA-RD-96-040, Federal Highway Administration, December 1996.

Previous | Table of Contents | Next

ResearchFHWA
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration