Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-03-050

Surrogate Safety Measures From Traffic Simulation Models

PDF Version (903 KB)

PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader®

11. References

  1. W.G. Najm, J.D. Smith, and D.L. Smith, 2001. Analysis of crossing path crashes, DOT Report HS-809-423.

  2. E. Hauer, et al., 1988. "Estimation of safety at signalized intersections," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1185.

  3. B. Persaud, 1988. "Do traffic signals affect safety? Some methodological issues," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1185.

  4. T. Datta, 1991. "Head-on, left-turn accidents at intersections with newly installed traffic signals," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1318.

  5. G. Davis and Y. Gao, 1995. "Statistical methods to support induced exposure analyses of traffic accident data," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1401.

  6. M. Zhou and V. Sisiopiku, 1997. "Relationship between volume-to-capacity ratios and accident rates," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1581.

  7. K. Bauer and D. Harwood, 2000. Statistical models of at-grade intersection accidentsAddendum, Report No. FHWA-RD-99-094. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.

  8. P. Ossenbruggen, 1998. "A method of identifying hazardous highway locations using the principle of individual lifetime risk," Risk, Health, and Environment, Volume 83, Winter.

  9. Anderson, et al., 1999. "Relationship to safety of geometric design consistency measures for rural two-lane highways," Transportation Research Record, No. 1658.

  10. J. Bared, et al., 1999. "Safety evaluation of acceleration and deceleration lane lengths," ITE Journal, May, pp. 50-54.

  11. F. Council and J. Stewart, 1999. "Safety effects of the conversion of rural two-lane to four-lane roadways based on cross-sectional models," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1665.

  12. D. Harwood, et al., 2000. Prediction of the expected safety performance of rural two-lane highways, Report No. FHWA-RD-99-207. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.

  13. N. Garber and S. Subramanyan, 2001. "A procedure for incorporating crash risk in selecting congestion mitigation strategies: A case study: Hampton Roads area," Paper presentation at 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

  14. D. Malahel, 1986. A note on accident risk, Vol. 13. Transportation Research Institute, Israel Institute of Technology.

  15. C. Zegeer, 1986. "Methods for identifying hazardous highway elements," NCHRP Synthesis 128, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

  16. E. Hauer, 1996. "Identification of sites with promise," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1542.

  17. J. Higle and M. Hecht, 1989. "A comparison of techniques for the identification of hazardous locations," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1238.

  18. J. Higle and J. Witkowski, 1988. "Bayesian identification of hazardous locations," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1185.

  19. M. Lau and A. May, 1988. Accident prediction model development: Signalized intersections, Final Report, Report No. UCB-ITS-RR-88-7. University of California at Berkeley.

  20. A. Mensah and E. Hauer, 1998. "Two problems of averaging arising in the estimation of the relationship between accidents and traffic flow," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1635.

  21. T. Ha, 1994. "Development of a safety-based level-of-service criteria for isolated signalized intersections," UMI 9419575, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin at Madison.

  22. T. Sayed, et al., 1994. "Simulation of traffic conflicts at unsignalized intersections," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 26, No. 5.

  23. A. Kaub, 2000. "Highway corridor safety levels of service based on annual risk of injury," 79th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

  24. W. Glauz and D. Migletz, 1980. Application of traffic conflict analysis at intersections, NCHRP Report 219, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

  25. D. Perkins and J. Harris, 1967. Criteria for traffic conflict characteristics, Report GMF 632, General Motors Corp., Warren, MI.

  26. M. Parker and C. Zegeer, 1988. Traffic conflict technique for safety and operationsEngineers guide, Report No. FHWA-IP-026, FHWA, Washington, DC.

  27. FHWA, 1990. Traffic conflict techniques for safety and operationsCourse Materials, NHI Course 38059. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

  28. F. Amundsen and C. Hyden, 1977. Proceedings of first workshop on traffic conflicts, Oslo, Institute of Transport Economics.

  29. B. Allen, et al., 1978. "Analysis of traffic conflicts and collisions," Transportation Research Record, No. 667.

  30. D. Migletz, et al., 1985. Relationships between traffic conflicts and accidents, Report No. FHWA-RD-84-042, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.

  31. C. Hyden, 1987. The development of a method for traffic safety evaluation: The Swedish conflicts technique, Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.

  32. J. Fazio and N. Rouphail, 1990. "Conflict simulation in INTRAS: Application to weaving area capacity analysis," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1287.

  33. T. Sayed and S. Zein, 1999. "Traffic conflict standards for intersections," Transportation Planning and Technology, Vol. 22.

  34. K. Fitzpatrick, 1991. "Gaps accepted at stop-controlled intersections," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1301.

  35. F. Gharaybeh, 1991. "Identification of accident-prone locations in greater Amman," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1318.

  36. N. Salman and K. Al-Maita, 1995. "Safety evaluation at three-leg, unsignalized intersections by traffic conflict technique," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1485.

  37. N. Katamine and I. Hamarneh, 1998. "Use of the traffic conflict technique to identify hazardous intersections," Road and Transport Research, Vol. 7, No. 3.

  38. R. Risser, 1985. "Behavior in traffic conflict situations," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 17:2, pp. 179-197.

  39. J. Archer, 2000. "Developing the potential of microsimulation modeling for traffic safety assessment," Proceedings of 13th Annual International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts on Traffic Safety Workshop. Corfu, Greece.

  40. J. Hayward, 1972. Near-miss determination through use of a scale of danger, Report TTSC-7115. University Park, The Pennsylvania State University.

  41. H. Kruysse, 1991. "The subjective evaluation of traffic conflicts based on an internal concept of dangerousness,"Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 23, No. 1.

  42. G. Tiwari, et al., 1995. "Conflict analysis for prediction of fatal crash locations in mixed traffic streams," Proceedings of the 29th Annual Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Oct 17-18. Chicago, IL.

  43. D. Cooper and N. Ferguson, 1976. "A conflict simulation model," Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 17, pp. 306-309.

  44. J. Darzentas, et al., 1980. "Minimum acceptance gaps and conflict involvement in a single crossing maneuver," Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 21, pp. 58-62.

  45. M. Ghaffari, 1990. "A stochastic computer simulation of traffic conflicts," Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Illinois at Chicago.

  46. D. Perkins and B. Bowman, 1986. "Effectiveness evaluation by using non-accident measures of effectiveness," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 905.

  47. H. Thompson and D. Perkins, 1983. "Surrogate measures for accident experience at rural isolated horizontal curves," Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

  48. K. Fitzpatrick, et al., 2000. Accident mitigation guide for congested rural two-lane highways, NCHRP Report 440. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

  49. M. Minderhoud and P. Bovy, 2001. "Extended time to collision measures for road traffic safety assessment," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 33, pp. 89-97.

  50. J. Darzentas, et al., 1980. "Simulation of road traffic conflicts at T-junctions," Simulation, May, pp. 155-164.

  51. V. Hernandez, 1982. "A microscopic digital computer simulation of traffic conflicts at four-way fixed-time signalized urban intersections," Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles.

  52. B. Persaud and K. Mucsi, 1995. "Microscopic accident potential models for two-lane rural roads," Transportation Research Record. No. 1485, pp. 134-139.

  53. P. Huang and P. Pant, 1996. "Simulation neural-network model for evaluating dilemma zone problems at high-speed signalized intersections," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1456.

  54. V. Rao and V. Regaraju, 1998. "Modeling conflicts of heterogeneous traffic at urban uncontrolled intersections," Journal of Transportation Engineering, Jan./Feb.

  55. A. Mehmood, et al., 2001. "Simulation of road crashes using systems dynamics," Paper presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

  56. T. Rioux and Lee, 1977. TexasA microscopic traffic simulation package for isolated intersections, Center for Highway Research, University of Texas at Austin.

  57. J. Fazio, et al., 1995. "Use of freeway conflict rates as an alternative to crash rates in weaving section safety analyses," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1401.

  58. I. Kosonen, 1999. "HUTSIM—Urban traffic simulation and control model: Principles and applications," Ph.D. Dissertation, Transportation Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.

  59. I. Kosonen and S. Ree, 2000. "The potential for microscopic simulation in traffic safety and conflict studies," Proceedings of Conference on Road Safety on Three Continents, Pretoria, South Africa.

  60. Alumnus Software, 1993. Document on the micro-node logic as implemented in the FORTRAN code of CORSIM (TSIS, Version 4.01 Beta), Internal Technical Report, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

  61. S. Lin, 1998. CORSIM micro-node logic, Technical Report, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

  62. T. Rioux, 2002. "Comments on SSAM literature and models review version 1.0," personal e-mail communication.

  63. A. Torday and A. Dumont, 2002. Safety indicator for microsimulation-based assessments, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Traffic Facilities, LAVOC-EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

  64. A. Avgoustis, 1999. "Quantifying the safety impacts of intelligent transportation systems," M.S. Thesis, Civil Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.

  65. S. Algers, et al., 1997. Review of microsimulation models, SMARTEST Project Deliverable D3, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, U.K. (

  66. I. Kosonen, et al., 2001. "A short HUTSIM description," web document.

  67. M. Kokkinen, 1996. HUTSIM 4.2: Quick reference guide. Traficon, Ltd., Helsinki, Finland.

  68. J. Barcelo, 2001. Microscopic traffic simulation: A tool for the analysis and assessment of ITS systems, Transport Simulation Systems Internal Report (

  69. J. Barcelo, et al., 1998. AIMSUN modeling issues, Transport Simulation Systems Internal Report (

  70. J. Barcelo, et al., 1998. Microscopic traffic simulation for ATT systems analysisA parallel computing version, Transport Simulation Systems Internal Report (

  71. Transport Simulation Systems, 2002. AIMSUN 4.0 User Manual, (

  72. KLD and Associates, 2002. WATSIM features, Internal Report (

  73. C. Lee, et al., 1993. Texas model for intersection traffic version 3.0 documentationUpdated for version 3.20, Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas at Austin.

  74. PTV AG, 2001. VISSIM user manual, version 3.6, Demo CD, Karlsruhe, Germany.

  75. Quadstone Ltd., 2002. Paramics Developer Suite, Internal Report (

  76. Quadstone Ltd., 2002. Paramics Modeler Reference V3, Internal Report (

  77. Quadstone Ltd., 2002, Paramics System Overview V3, Internal Report (

  78. M. Van Aerde, et al., 1998. Integration: Overview of simulation features, Internal Report, Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.

  79. FHWA, 2002.  TSIS Help files, Version 5.0.  Software help system.

  80. Trafficware, 2001.  Simtraffic 5.0 Help files.  Demo Software help system.

  81. H. Rakha and B. Crowther, 2002. "A comparison of the Greenshields, Pipes, and Van Aerde car-following and traffic-stream models," presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

  82. E. Pasanen, 1994. "Traffic simulation in pedestrian safety research," Proceedings of the 7th Annual ICTCT Workshop, Prague, Czech Republic (

  83. A. Svensson, 1998. "A method for analyzing the traffic process in a safety perspective," Proceedings of the 11th Annual ICTCT Workshop, Budapest, Hungary (

  84. Hogema and W. Janssen, 1996. Effects of intelligent cruise control on driving behavior, Report No. TM-1996-C-12. TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, The Netherlands.

  85. Van Der Horst, 1990. "A time-based analysis of road user behavior in normal and critical A. encounters," Ph.D. Dissertation, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.

Previous | Table of Contents

United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration