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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-051
Date: October 2005

Crash Cost Estimates by Maximum Police-Reported Injury Severity Within Selected Crash Geometries

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APPENDIX A: CRASH TYPES AND COST LEVELS TABLES

Based on the past work by Miller et al., the needs of the red-light-camera evaluation effort, and projected needs in future FHWA safety studies, the decision was made to estimate human capital and comprehensive costs for each of the following 22 geometry categories. The geometry names used in the output tables are shown in parentheses.

  1. Single vehicle struck human, at intersection (sv, ped, int).
  2. Single vehicle struck human, not at intersection (sv, ped, n-int).
  3. Single vehicle struck animal (sv, animal).
  4. Single vehicle struck object (sv, object).
  5. Single vehicle struck parked vehicle (sv, prkveh).
  6. Single vehicle rolled over (sv, rollover).
  7. Multiple vehicles, cross paths, at signal (mcp, sig).
  8. Multiple vehicles, cross paths, at sign (mcp, sign).
  9. Multiple vehicles, cross paths, no signage (mcp, nosgn).
  10. Multiple vehicles, cross paths, unspecified (mcp, unk).
  11. Multiple vehicles, rear end, all locations (re - all locations).
  12. Multiple vehicles, rear end, at intersection with no/unknown signage (re-unk int).
  13. Multiple vehicles, rear end, at signed intersection (re-signed int).
  14. Multiple vehicles, rear end, at signalized intersection (re-signl int).
  15. Multiple vehicles, rear end, no intersection (re-no int).
  16. Multiple vehicles, sideswipe (ss).
  17. Multiple vehicles, opposite direction, not at intersection (ho, n-int).
  18. Multiple vehicles, opposite direction, at signalized intersection (ho, sig).
  19. Multiple vehicles, opposite direction, at signed intersection (ho, sign).
  20. Multiple vehicles, opposite direction, no/unknown signage (ho, unksgn).
  21. Multiple vehicles, backing (backing).
  22. Undefined crash type (undefined).

In the original analyses, multiple-vehicle, cross-path categories 7, 8, and 9 above were further categorized by turning maneuver-"both vehicles straight," "one turn right," "one turn left," or "unknown direction." These were later combined into the larger categories due to sample size.

Note that some of the rows in the table are coded 'S', 'I', or 'N' under the code column. All three codes are included as "flags" to the user that these estimates are felt to be less accurate than estimates in other rows. The 'S' coded rows indicate estimates that were derived from small sample sizes.

The 'I' coded rows indicate what are felt to be "illogical values" or "outliers" in the data-cells with ample sample sizes, but where the cost for a given injury level is an outlier when compared with either other costs within the same crash type (e.g., a B+C cost that is greater than an A-injury cost for a given crash type), or when compared to costs of different crash types at the same injury level (e.g., a no-injury cost that is much greater than all other no-injury costs). These illogical estimates were identified by looking at patterns of costs in similar severity levels or crash types. Since it was not possible to examine each illogical finding in detail, they were flagged for the user's benefit. Again, suggestions for dealing with these are found in the next section.

In addition, there are crash types in the NASS data used to develop these estimates where no fatal crashes were present. For example, if the comparable "Level 1 w SL" table had been presented here, the user would note the absence of a crash cost estimate for fatal crashes within the Type 3, single-vehicle animal crashes. No such fatal crash existed in the NASS data used to develop these estimates. All combined estimates (e.g., K+A, K+A+B, K+A+B+C) with no fatal component are coded 'N' in the tables.

Table 2. Level 1 by speed limit

Code   Crash geometry Speed limit (mi/h) Maximum injsev in crash Maximum injsev code Observ Mean human capital cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval] Mean comprehensive cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval]
  1 sv, ped, int <=45 No injury 0 31 $ 8,512 997 6,537 10,486 $ 10,249 1,408 7,461 13,036
S 1 sv, ped, int >=50 No injury 0 5 $ 3,672 - - - $ 4,015 - - -
  1 sv, ped, int <=45 B or C 1.5 515 $ 33,369 4,561 24,340 42,398 $ 60,333 9,021 42,474 78,192
  1 sv, ped, int >=50 B or C 1.5 35 $ 54,605 32,590 - 119,126 $ 101,712 61,756 - 223,975
  1 sv, ped, int <=45 A 3 354 $ 163,157 15,153 133,157 193,157 $ 316,380 33,532 249,994 382,766
  1 sv, ped, int >=50 A 3 12 $ 116,545 26,407 64,265 168,824 $ 189,805 36,182 118,174 261,436
  1 sv, ped, int <=45 K 4 47 $ 975,643 30,468 915,323 1,035,963 $ 3,234,016 114,015 3,008,294 3,459,737
  1 sv, ped, int >=50 K 4 5 $ 1,022,983 1,695 1,019,626 1,026,340 $ 3,404,944 2,819 3,399,363 3,410,526
  1 sv, ped, int <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 53 $ 67,342 22,127 23,536 111,149 $ 129,418 42,249 45,774 213,061
S 1 sv, ped, int >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 2 $ 61,573 - - - $ 146,281 - - -
S 1 sv, ped, int <=45 Unknown 9 4 $ 14,386 - - - $ 22,841 - - -
  2 sv, ped,n-int <=45 No injury 0 33 $ 28,370 18,026 - 64,059 $ 40,428 27,351 - 94,577
  2 sv, ped,n-int >=50 No injury 0 18 $ 2,797 145 2,509 3,085 $ 2,831 175 2,484 3,178
  2 sv, ped,n-int <=45 B or C 1.5 721 $ 38,674 3,258 32,225 45,123 $ 70,188 7,021 56,288 84,087
  2 sv, ped,n-int >=50 B or C 1.5 54 $ 31,103 8,151 14,967 47,240 $ 54,703 16,739 21,563 87,843
  2 sv, ped,n-int <=45 A 3 602 $ 143,333 9,895 123,743 162,924 $ 284,403 21,568 241,703 327,103
  2 sv, ped,n-int >=50 A 3 77 $ 177,246 28,631 120,564 233,928 $ 348,100 66,386 216,672 479,529
  2 sv, ped,n-int <=45 K 4 131 $ 1,008,927 10,105 988,922 1,028,932 $ 3,355,959 33,842 3,288,960 3,422,958
  2 sv, ped,n-int >=50 K 4 44 $ 994,717 33,843 927,716 1,061,719 $ 3,303,364 113,434 3,078,790 3,527,937
  2 sv, ped,n-int <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 59 $ 26,089 8,056 10,139 42,039 $ 42,107 14,891 12,627 71,587
S 2 sv, ped,n-int >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 3 $ 36,790 - - - $ 65,026 - - -
  2 sv, ped,n-int <=45 Unknown 9 25 $ 24,427 8,511 7,578 41,276 $ 35,189 10,607 14,190 56,189
S 2 sv, ped,n-int >=50 Unknown 9 2 $ 12,423 - - - $ 18,224 - - -
  3 sv, animal <=45 No injury 0 10 $ 2,617 - 2,617 2,617 $ 2,617 - 2,617 2,617
  3 sv, animal >=50 No injury 0 61 $ 4,904 2,047 852 8,956 $ 5,619 2,661 351 10,887
S 3 sv, animal <=45 B or C 1.5 3 $ 37,280 - - - $ 89,287 - - -
  3 sv, animal >=50 B or C 1.5 18 $ 14,246 3,482 7,353 21,139 $ 22,916 7,663 7,745 38,087
S 3 sv, animal <=45 A 3 3 $ 67,137 - - - $ 96,055 - - -
  3 sv, animal >=50 A 3 20 $ 76,781 20,958 35,288 118,273 $ 165,302 40,911 84,308 246,296
  4 sv, object <=45 No injury 0 608 $ 4,835 1,016 2,825 6,846 $ 5,721 1,195 3,355 8,087
  4 sv, object >=50 No injury 0 618 $ 4,513 298 3,923 5,104 $ 5,565 428 4,718 6,413
  4 sv, object <=45 B or C 1.5 446 $ 34,027 2,466 29,145 38,909 $ 65,888 6,016 53,978 77,797
  4 sv, object >=50 B or C 1.5 688 $ 30,965 4,069 22,910 39,020 $ 62,025 9,203 43,806 80,244
  4 sv, object <=45 A 3 695 $ 110,069 27,670 55,289 164,849 $ 213,926 53,846 107,322 320,529
  4 sv, object >=50 A 3 1430 $ 127,805 15,770 96,584 159,026 $ 252,767 28,168 197,001 308,533
  4 sv, object <=45 K 4 78 $ 1,146,488 43,236 1,060,891 1,232,084 $ 3,686,830 115,708 3,457,756 3,915,904
  4 sv, object >=50 K 4 287 $ 1,257,090 28,045 1,201,568 1,312,612 $ 4,041,313 87,734 3,867,621 4,215,005
S 4 sv, object <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 9 $ 19,267
-
- - $ 33,034 - - -

Table 2. Level 1 by speed limit (continued)

Code   Crash geometry Speed limit (mi/h) Maximum injsev in crash Maximum injsev code Observ Mean human capital cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval] Mean comprehensive cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval]
  4 sv, object >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 21 $ 9,205 1,629 5,980 12,430 $ 14,358 3,114 8,193 20,522
  4 sv, object <=45 Unknown 9 74 $ 12,992 744 11,520 14,465 $ 22,521 1,332 19,884 25,158
  4 sv, object >=50 Unknown 9 25 $ 11,690 213 11,268 12,112 $ 20,024 389 19,253 20,794
  5 sv, prkveh <=45 No injury 0 161 $ 3,438 278 2,887 3,988 $ 3,738 407 2,932 4,544
  5 sv, prkveh >=50 No injury 0 25 $ 5,288 462 4,373 6,203 $ 6,223 1,364 3,523 8,923
  5 sv, prkveh <=45 B or C 1.5 59 $ 17,434 3,051 11,394 23,473 $ 28,188 6,444 15,430 40,946
  5 sv, prkveh >=50 B or C 1.5 32 $ 26,234 4,849 16,634 35,835 $ 52,251 11,729 29,031 75,472
  5 sv, prkveh <=45 A 3 64 $ 86,245 30,807 25,255 147,235 $ 178,027 65,217 48,914 307,141
  5 sv, prkveh >=50 A 3 41 $ 111,920 37,026 38,618 185,223 $ 210,159 72,792 66,047 354,270
S 5 sv, prkveh <=45 K 4 3 $ 1,211,910 - - - $ 3,757,471 - - -
  5 sv, prkveh >=50 K 4 16 $ 1,045,397 13,444 1,018,780 1,072,014 $ 3,475,275 32,346 3,411,238 3,539,312
S 5 sv, prkveh <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 5 $ 13,616 - - - $ 17,840 - - -
S 5 sv, prkveh >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 3 $ 28,688 - - - $ 57,388 - - -
  5 sv, prkveh <=45 Unknown 9 44 $ 11,941 137 11,669 12,213 $ 20,581 249 20,089 21,073
  6 sv, rrollover <=45 No injury 0 31 $ 6,940 806 5,343 8,536 $ 9,697 1,398 6,930 12,464
  6 sv, rrollover >=50 No injury 0 89 $ 8,798 3,583 1,705 15,892 $ 13,526 5,772 2,098 24,954
  6 sv, rrollover <=45 B or C 1.5 147 $ 31,170 2,925 25,379 36,961 $ 57,820 6,324 45,299 70,341
  6 sv, rrollover >=50 B or C 1.5 247 $ 36,312 9,490 17,524 55,101 $ 70,548 19,852 31,247 109,850
  6 sv, rrollover <=45 A 3 134 $ 78,704 24,866 29,476 127,933 $ 149,754 50,463 49,848 249,659
  6 sv, rrollover >=50 A 3 450 $ 152,275 22,178 108,368 196,183 $ 316,117 46,358 224,339 407,895
  6 sv, rrollover <=45 K 4 17 $ 1,085,757 37,715 1,011,090 1,160,425 $ 3,527,283 73,033 3,382,695 3,671,871
  6 sv, rrollover >=50 K 4 125 $ 1,283,820 48,179 1,188,437 1,379,202 $ 4,179,740 152,995 3,876,847 4,482,632
S 6 sv, rrollover <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 5 $ 15,202 - - - $ 32,393 - - -
S 6 sv, rrollover >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 4 $ 248,826 - - - $ 465,130 - - -
S 6 sv, rrollover <=45 Unknown 9 1 $ 11,888 - - - $ 20,537 - - -
S 6 sv, rrollover >=50 Unknown 9 2 $ 11,888 - - - $ 20,537 - - -
  7 mcp, sig <=45 No injury 0 1043 $ 7,503 925 5,671 9,334 $ 8,673 1,285 6,130 11,217
  7 mcp, sig >=50 No injury 0 301 $ 6,735 863 5,027 8,443 $ 8,544 1,294 5,983 11,105
  7 mcp, sig <=45 B or C 1.5 625 $ 29,271 6,547 16,310 42,232 $ 46,660 11,847 23,206 70,114
  7 mcp, sig >=50 B or C 1.5 636 $ 29,636 2,959 23,778 35,493 $ 53,195 5,794 41,724 64,666
  7 mcp, sig <=45 A 3 327 $ 67,332 11,352 44,858 89,807 $ 120,810 22,042 77,173 164,447
  7 mcp, sig >=50 A 3 828 $ 91,786 17,354 57,428 126,143 $ 182,177 30,442 121,908 242,446
  7 mcp, sig <=45 K 4 16 $ 1,302,570 116,570 1,071,790 1,533,350 $ 4,090,042 305,360 3,485,501 4,694,582
  7 mcp, sig >=50 K 4 98 $ 1,258,183 34,427 1,190,026 1,326,340 $ 4,025,777 109,148 3,809,690 4,241,865
  7 mcp, sig <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 15 $ 31,469 9,239 13,179 49,759 $ 47,639 14,994 17,954 77,323
S 7 mcp, sig >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 5 $ 24,588 - - - $ 45,148 - - -
  7 mcp, sig <=45 Unknown 9 55 $ 16,983 1,688 13,641 20,324 $ 26,911 2,496 21,969 31,852
  7 mcp, sig >=50 Unknown 9 11 $ 25,684 3,867 18,028 33,340 $ 37,871 6,988 24,037 51,705

Table 2. Level 1 by speed limit (continued)

Code   Crash geometry Speed limit (mi/h) Maximum injsev in crash Maximum injsev code Observ Mean human capital cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval] Mean comprehensive cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval]
  8 mcp, sign <=45 No injury 0 773 $ 6,574 724 5,141 8,007 $ 7,910 1,255 5,426 10,394
  8 mcp, sign >=50 No injury 0 194 $ 4,797 975 2,867 6,726 $ 5,444 1,265 2,941 7,948
  8 mcp, sign <=45 B or C 1.5 463 $ 28,436 4,701 19,128 37,744 $ 48,035 10,156 27,928 68,142
  8 mcp, sign >=50 B or C 1.5 328 $ 43,234 5,109 33,119 53,348 $ 77,886 10,157 57,778 97,995
  8 mcp, sign <=45 A 3 323 $ 118,781 19,681 79,817 157,745 $ 218,027 28,767 161,076 274,977
  8 mcp, sign >=50 A 3 453 $ 122,047 17,848 86,712 157,382 $ 233,136 34,669 164,500 301,772
  8 mcp, sign <=45 K 4 18 $ 1,426,917 150,590 1,128,784 1,725,050 $ 4,402,315 392,377 3,625,500 5,179,129
  8 mcp, sign >=50 K 4 77 $ 1,214,659 61,754 1,092,401 1,336,918 $ 3,917,185 181,562 3,557,736 4,276,634
  8 mcp, sign <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 11 $ 57,990 13,690 30,888 85,092 $ 102,485 21,789 59,348 145,621
S 8 mcp, sign >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 5 $ 62,318 - - - $ 123,919 - - -
  8 mcp, sign <=45 Unknown 9 44 $ 18,249 1,235 15,805 20,694 $ 25,553 3,294 19,032 32,073
S 8 mcp, sign >=50 Unknown 9 4 $ 22,226 - - - $ 41,391 - - -
  9 mcp, nosgn <=45 No injury 0 244 $ 5,257 366 4,532 5,982 $ 5,604 471 4,672 6,537
  9 mcp, nosgn >=50 No injury 0 69 $ 6,708 1,456 3,826 9,590 $ 7,920 2,000 3,961 11,880
  9 mcp, nosgn <=45 B or C 1.5 153 $ 21,012 2,879 15,312 26,712 $ 32,708 5,017 22,776 42,640
  9 mcp, nosgn >=50 B or C 1.5 108 $ 35,837 6,324 23,317 48,357 $ 66,026 11,270 43,714 88,337
  9 mcp, nosgn <=45 A 3 79 $ 113,013 38,489 36,813 189,212 $ 220,991 79,947 62,715 379,266
  9 mcp, nosgn >=50 A 3 143 $ 161,624 40,502 81,439 241,809 $ 297,296 76,356 146,129 448,464
  9 mcp, nosgn >=50 K 4 9 $ 1,228,360 161,555 908,519 1,548,201 $ 3,802,881 315,457 3,178,351 4,427,410
S 9 mcp, nosgn <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 6 $ 196,721 - - - $ 508,627 - - -
S 9 mcp, nosgn >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 1 $ 13,917 - - - $ 22,566 - - -
S 9 mcp, nosgn <=45 Unknown 9 9 $ 27,860 - - - $ 49,825 - - -
  10 mcp, unk <=45 No injury 0 687 $ 5,230 370 4,498 5,961 $ 5,607 554 4,510 6,705
  10 mcp, unk >=50 No injury 0 69 $ 4,682 251 4,185 5,178 $ 4,844 299 4,252 5,436
  10 mcp, unk <=45 B or C 1.5 267 $ 41,536 10,224 21,295 61,777 $ 73,694 19,429 35,230 112,159
  10 mcp, unk >=50 B or C 1.5 31 $ 38,410 6,896 24,758 52,061 $ 69,357 11,681 46,231 92,483
  10 mcp, unk <=45 A 3 108 $ 168,993 49,016 71,953 266,032 $ 338,201 93,816 152,467 523,935
  10 mcp, unk >=50 A 3 25 $ 73,469 10,859 51,970 94,967 $ 142,085 20,168 102,157 182,012
S 10 mcp, unk >=50 K 4 2 $ 1,175,471 - - - $ 3,723,798 - - -
S 10 mcp, unk <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 6 $ 26,944 - - - $ 50,197 - - -
S 10 mcp, unk >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 1 $ 70,578 - - - $ 137,479 - - -
  10 mcp, unk <=45 Unknown 9 27 $ 16,510 1,295 13,946 19,074 $ 27,255 2,777 21,758 32,753
S 10 mcp, unk >=50 Unknown 9 4 $ 17,186 - - - $ 27,805 - - -
  11 re-all locations <=45 No injury 0 1916 $ 7,465 1,261 4,969 9,962 $ 8,399 1,653 5,127 11,671
  11 re-all locations >=50 No injury 0 1040 $ 8,911 1,474 5,992 11,829 $ 10,764 2,167 6,473 15,055
  11 re-all locations <=45 B or C 1.5 1274 $ 29,079 9,064 11,135 47,023 $ 39,038 10,423 18,404 59,673
  11 re-all locations >=50 B or C 1.5 895 $ 38,040 6,002 26,157 49,923 $ 65,298 14,951 35,698 94,897
  11 re-all locations <=45 A 3 375 $ 67,682 20,697 26,707 108,658 $ 129,799 40,851 48,923 210,675

 

Table 2. Level 1 by speed limit (continued)

Code   Crash geometry Speed limit (mi/h) Maximum injsev in crash Maximum injsev code Observ Mean human capital cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval] Mean comprehensive cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval]
  11 re-all locations >=50 A 3 556 $ 60,472 11,586 37,534 83,410 $ 116,043 22,213 72,066 160,019
  11 re-all locations <=45 K 4 5 $ 1,093,043 76,787 941,023 1,245,063 $ 3,566,627 175,139 3,219,893 3,913,360
  11 re-all locations >=50 K 4 83 $ 1,205,689 64,889 1,077,224 1,334,155 $ 3,876,484 173,224 3,533,541 4,219,427
  11 re-all locations <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 20 $ 32,655 8,696 15,440 49,870 $ 55,850 17,596 21,014 90,686
  11 re-all locations >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 10 $ 35,395 2,190 31,059 39,731 $ 73,527 8,798 56,109 90,946
  11 re-all locations <=45 Unknown 9 164 $ 17,215 1,228 14,783 19,647 $ 27,432 2,100 23,275 31,590
  11 re-all locations >=50 Unknown 9 65 $ 20,771 3,219 14,398 27,144 $ 33,123 5,861 21,520 44,725
  12 re - unk int <=45 No injury 0 422 $ 5,297 785 3,744 6,851 $ 5,649 914 3,839 7,459
  12 re - unk int >=50 No injury 0 109 $ 11,783 6,066 - 23,793 $ 13,573 6,809 93 27,053
I 12 re - unk int <=45 B or C 1.5 300 $ 65,077 23,715 18,127 112,027 $ 78,872 24,711 29,950 127,795
  12 re - unk int >=50 B or C 1.5 116 $ 40,144 4,035 32,156 48,132 $ 55,679 5,115 45,553 65,805
  12 re - unk int <=45 A 3 85 $ 93,454 35,487 23,197 163,711 $ 141,623 42,431 57,621 225,626
  12 re - unk int >=50 A 3 52 $ 88,912 16,368 56,506 121,317 $ 170,096 34,658 101,481 238,711
S 12 re - unk int <=45 K 4 1 $ 1,021,014 - - - $ 3,401,670 - - -
  12 re - unk int >=50 K 4 5 $ 1,315,720 118,458 1,081,202 1,550,238 $ 4,253,444 392,486 3,476,415 5,030,474
S 12 re - unk int <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 6 $ 29,812 - - - $ 52,029 - - -
S 12 re - unk int >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 1 $ 5,235 - - - $ 5,235 - - -
  12 re - unk int <=45 Unknown 9 37 $ 19,416 1,445 16,555 22,277 $ 31,827 2,795 26,294 37,360
S 12 re - unk int >=50 Unknown 9 4 $ 17,386 - - - $ 26,753 - - -
  13 re - signed int <=45 No injury 0 99 $ 10,586 3,540 3,577 17,595 $ 12,295 4,622 3,145 21,445
  13 re - signed int >=50 No injury 0 18 $ 3,302 549 2,215 4,389 $ 3,788 978 1,851 5,725
  13 re - signed int <=45 B or C 1.5 50 $ 25,003 4,819 15,463 34,542 $ 46,644 16,047 14,875 78,412
  13 re - signed int >=50 B or C 1.5 14 $ 11,759 1,367 9,052 14,465 $ 15,268 2,002 11,305 19,230
  13 re - signed int <=45 A 3 22 $ 71,190 18,954 33,666 108,714 $ 127,706 39,338 49,826 205,586
S 13 re - signed int >=50 A 3 7 $ 88,088 - - - $ 159,658 - - -
S 13 re - signed int <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 1 $ 13,878 - - - $ 15,958 - - -
S 13 re - signed int >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 1 $ 83,223 - - - $ 267,019 - - -
S 13 re - signed int <=45 Unknown 9 7 $ 13,737 - - - $ 20,755 - - -
  14 re - signl int <=45 No injury 0 492 $ 9,454 2,295 4,910 13,997 $ 11,463 3,338 4,853 18,072
  14 re - signl int >=50 No injury 0 142 $ 4,810 671 3,481 6,139 $ 5,901 1,082 3,758 8,044
  14 re - signl int <=45 B or C 1.5 418 $ 26,255 4,476 17,394 35,117 $ 39,398 8,202 23,160 55,637
  14 re - signl int >=50 B or C 1.5 165 $ 19,658 4,724 10,306 29,010 $ 32,761 8,592 15,750 49,772
  14 re - signl int <=45 A 3 90 $ 43,601 10,054 23,696 63,506 $ 84,820 19,977 45,269 124,370
  14 re - signl int >=50 A 3 119 $ 45,685 14,383 17,210 74,161 $ 76,587 25,960 25,194 127,981
  14 re - signl int >=50 K 4 8 $ 1,379,204 224,716 934,319 1,824,089 $ 4,541,549 766,973 3,023,124 6,059,974
S 14 re - signl int <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 6 $ 29,111 - - - $ 44,120 - - -
S 14 re - signl int >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 2 $ 30,447 - - - $ 58,458 - - -
  14 re - signl int <=45 Unknown 9 49 $ 16,136 1,579 13,011 19,262 $ 26,930 4,043 18,926 34,934

Table 2. Level 1 by speed limit (continued)

Code   Crash geometry Speed limit (mi/h) Maximum injsev in crash Maximum injsev code Observ Mean human capital cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval] Mean comprehensive cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval]
S 14 re - signl int >=50 Unknown 9 3 $ 30,665 - - - $ 48,029 - - -
  15 re - no int <=45 No injury 0 903 $ 5,516 176 5,168 5,864 $ 5,756 269 5,223 6,289
  15 re - no int >=50 No injury 0 771 $ 9,055 1,556 5,975 12,135 $ 10,972 2,319 6,382 15,562
  15 re - no int <=45 B or C 1.5 506 $ 18,630 2,479 13,722 23,539 $ 26,642 3,940 18,842 34,442
  15 re - no int >=50 B or C 1.5 600 $ 43,717 12,936 18,108 69,327 $ 88,498 33,108 22,951 154,045
  15 re - no int <=45 A 3 178 $ 95,474 48,023 400 190,548 $ 187,886 98,120 - 382,140
  15 re - no int >=50 A 3 378 $ 61,150 13,487 34,449 87,852 $ 120,371 26,588 67,733 173,009
S 15 re - no int <=45 K 4 4 $ 1,207,297 - - - $ 3,828,285 - - -
  15 re - no int >=50 K 4 70 $ 1,189,841 65,935 1,059,306 1,320,377 $ 3,817,558 169,794 3,481,406 4,153,710
S 15 re - no int <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 7 $ 41,326 - - - $ 75,081 - - -
S 15 re - no int >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 6 $ 34,399 - - - $ 68,218 - - -
  15 re - no int <=45 Unknown 9 71 $ 18,029 1,668 14,728 21,331 $ 27,042 1,646 23,783 30,301
  15 re - no int >=50 Unknown 9 58 $ 20,478 3,347 13,853 27,104 $ 32,695 6,093 20,633 44,758
  16 ss <=45 No injury 0 1658 $ 5,679 330 5,026 6,332 $ 6,007 416 5,185 6,830
  16 ss >=50 No injury 0 681 $ 5,218 211 4,801 5,636 $ 5,762 348 5,072 6,452
  16 ss <=45 B or C 1.5 590 $ 30,396 7,243 16,055 44,736 $ 51,211 11,817 27,817 74,606
  16 ss >=50 B or C 1.5 506 $ 37,641 4,667 28,402 46,880 $ 68,009 8,958 50,274 85,743
  16 ss <=45 A 3 340 $ 66,070 9,314 47,630 84,510 $ 132,981 25,544 82,409 183,552
  16 ss >=50 A 3 578 $ 78,551 17,404 44,095 113,007 $ 141,088 32,543 76,660 205,516
  16 ss <=45 K 4 10 $ 1,133,746 76,354 982,583 1,284,909 $ 3,754,731 242,558 3,274,524 4,234,937
  16 ss >=50 K 4 120 $ 1,325,226 47,759 1,230,675 1,419,778 $ 4,228,996 152,281 3,927,516 4,530,476
  16 ss <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 13 $ 93,418 21,175 51,495 135,340 $ 173,762 41,739 91,129 256,396
S 16 ss >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 7 $ 34,884 - - - $ 60,877 - - -
  16 ss <=45 Unknown 9 134 $ 16,110 1,092 13,948 18,272 $ 24,956 1,132 22,716 27,197
  16 ss >=50 Unknown 9 61 $ 13,978 915 12,167 15,789 $ 21,870 1,763 18,381 25,360
  17 ho, n-int <=45 No injury 0 55 $ 3,830 703 2,438 5,222 $ 3,948 739 2,486 5,410
  17 ho, n-int >=50 No injury 0 25 $ 3,272 396 2,487 4,056 $ 3,471 510 2,460 4,481
  17 ho, n-int <=45 B or C 1.5 55 $ 25,137 4,715 15,801 34,472 $ 40,463 9,495 21,666 59,260
  17 ho, n-int >=50 B or C 1.5 51 $ 72,561 11,836 49,129 95,993 $ 126,409 18,294 90,190 162,627
  17 ho, n-int <=45 A 3 74 $ 143,913 30,745 83,045 204,781 $ 261,596 58,929 144,931 378,262
  17 ho, n-int >=50 A 3 250 $ 235,646 13,880 208,167 263,126 $ 445,413 28,962 388,075 502,751
  17 ho, n-int <=45 K 4 7 $ 1,737,819 264,933 1,213,314 2,262,324 $ 5,424,317 840,137 3,761,045 7,087,590
  17 ho, n-int >=50 K 4 100 $ 1,489,908 74,012 1,343,381 1,636,434 $ 4,673,628 201,957 4,273,801 5,073,455
S 17 ho, n-int >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 3 $ 36,258 - - - $ 64,704 - - -
S 17 ho, n-int <=45 Unknown 9 2 $ 5,560 - - - $ 5,984 - - -
S 17 ho, n-int >=50 Unknown 9 3 $ 13,001 - - - $ 21,528 - - -
  18 ho, sig <=45 No injury 0 42 $ 5,053 229 4,599 5,507 $ 5,101 245 4,617 5,586
S 18 ho, sig >=50 No injury 0 2 $ 2,617 - - - $ 2,617 - - -

Table 2. Level 1 by speed limit (continued)

Code   Crash geometry Speed limit (mi/h) Maximum injsev in crash Maximum injsev code Observ Mean human capital cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval] Mean comprehensive cost per crash Std. Err [95% Conf. Interval]
  18 ho, sig <=45 B or C 1.5 18 $ 67,648 9,797 48,252 87,043 $ 119,622 11,151 97,545 141,700
S 18 ho, sig >=50 B or C 1.5 2 $ 19,761 - - - $ 29,181 - - -
S 18 ho, sig <=45 A 3 8 $ 141,744 - - - $ 239,933 - - -
  18 ho, sig >=50 A 3 12 $ 204,874 45,975 113,856 295,893 $ 360,354 130,323 102,345 618,363
S 18 ho, sig <=45 Unknown 9 2 $ 14,384 - - - $ 23,033 - - -
S 18 ho, sig >=50 Unknown 9 1 $ 44,909 - - - $ 75,386 - - -
  19 ho, sign <=45 No injury 0 10 $ 4,793 407 3,987 5,599 $ 4,806 399 4,017 5,596
S 19 ho, sign >=50 No injury 0 4 $ 5,027 - - - $ 6,169 - - -
S 19 ho, sign <=45 B or C 1.5 3 $ 20,809 - - - $ 27,351 - - -
S 19 ho, sign >=50 B or C 1.5 7 $ 44,684 - - - $ 74,466 - - -
S 19 ho, sign <=45 A 3 4 $ 43,138 - - - $ 73,751 - - -
S 19 ho, sign >=50 A 3 8 $ 100,465 - - - $ 259,822 - - -
S 19 ho, sign >=50 K 4 2 $ 1,734,700 - - - $ 5,495,375 - - -
  20 ho, unksgn <=45 No injury 0 29 $ 7,000 4,060 - 15,037 $ 10,110 7,031 - 24,030
S 20 ho, unksgn >=50 No injury 0 6 $ 4,738 - - - $ 4,738 - - -
  20 ho, unksgn <=45 B or C 1.5 14 $ 22,311 8,526 5,431 39,191 $ 33,767 14,933 4,204 63,330
S 20 ho, unksgn >=50 B or C 1.5 3 $ 38,747 - - - $ 72,630 - - -
S 20 ho, unksgn <=45 A 3 8 $ 67,464 - - - $ 121,628 - - -
S 20 ho, unksgn <=45 Unknown 9 2 $ 15,264 - - - $ 24,292 - - -
  21 backing <=45 No injury 0 11 $ 4,579 548 3,495 5,663 $ 4,579 548 3,495 5,663
S 21 backing <=45 B or C 1.5 2 $ 35,485 - - - $ 68,936 - - -
S 21 backing <=45 A 3 1 $ 12,654 - - - $ 16,172 - - -
S 21 backing <=45 Unknown 9 1 $ 14,506 - - - $ 23,154 - - -
  22 undefined <=45 No injury 0 735 $ 5,193 1,539 2,147 8,240 $ 6,386 2,323 1,787 10,985
  22 undefined >=50 No injury 0 304 $ 3,617 262 3,098 4,135 $ 3,826 330 3,172 4,479
  22 undefined <=45 B or C 1.5 794 $ 32,737 3,914 24,989 40,485 $ 62,752 9,564 43,818 81,687
  22 undefined >=50 B or C 1.5 261 $ 30,933 4,466 22,091 39,775 $ 54,777 8,173 38,595 70,958
  22 undefined <=45 A 3 680 $ 100,526 9,455 81,807 119,244 $ 197,468 19,478 158,906 236,029
  22 undefined >=50 A 3 309 $ 165,327 21,138 123,479 207,175 $ 300,201 39,200 222,593 377,808
  22 undefined <=45 K 4 24 $ 1,055,005 28,556 998,471 1,111,538 $ 3,459,892 49,940 3,361,024 3,558,761
  22 undefined >=50 K 4 42 $ 1,395,316 83,640 1,229,727 1,560,904 $ 4,537,653 254,912 4,032,989 5,042,318
  22 undefined <=45 Injured, sev unk 5 39 $ 30,476 4,280 22,002 38,951 $ 57,595 10,398 37,009 78,180
S 22 undefined >=50 Injured, sev unk 5 3 $ 59,349 - - - $ 117,523 - - -
  22 undefined <=45 Unknown 9 200 $ 13,341 684 11,986 14,696 $ 22,856 1,216 20,450 25,263
  22 undefined >=50 Unknown 9 18 $ 13,196 1,904 9,427 16,965 $ 21,671 3,747 14,254 29,089

45 mi/h = 72 km/h 50         mi/h=80 km/h


Code S = Derived from small sampleInjsev = Injury severityConf. Interval = Confidence Interval
Code I = Illogical values or outliers in data.Observ = Observations. - = Sample size was too small to calculate or the lower bound of the confidence interval was below zero.
Code N = Combined estimate with no fatal component.St. Err. = Standard Error  

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