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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-13-045
Date: October 2013

 

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control: Human Factors Analysis

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FOREWORD

Traffic is an increasing concern in many urban areas, and traffic congestion is growing at a faster rate than can be alleviated solely by additional road construction. This report examines a technology called Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) that aims to increase traffic throughput by safely permitting shorter following distances between vehicles.

This report establishes a framework that the can be used to evaluate the human-factors, safety, and implementation issues associated with CACC. This document discusses CACC benefits and identifies various ways in which the CACC concept could be realized as well as human-factors-related issues of implementation. Several research areas are suggested to address these issues.

Human-factors, operations, safety, and transportation researchers can use this report as a starting point to further define and execute critical research studies. These studies will, in turn, help facilitate the safe implementation of this mobility-enhancing technology in the years to come.

Monique R. Evans
Director, Office of Safety
Research and Development
Joseph I. Peters
Director, Office of Operations
Research and Development

 

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

 

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-13-045

2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control: Human Factors Analysis

5. Report Date

October 2013

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

Stephen Jones

8. Performing Organization Report No.

 

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Science Applications International Corporation
1710 SAIC Drive
McLean, VA 22102

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

 

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

 

15. Supplementary Notes

The Co-Principal Investigator was Brian H. Philips. The Contracting Officer’s Representative (COR) was C. David Yang.

16. Abstract

Traffic congestion is growing at a faster rate than can be alleviated solely by additional road construction. Various Intelligent Transportation Systems technologies aim to increase and improve transportation via non-traditional means. Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) is one such technology, intended to increase traffic throughput by safely permitting shorter following distances between vehicles. Both vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications help such endeavors at the micro- and macro-levels of traffic management. This report identifies the various ways in which the CACC concept could be realized and the human-factors-related implementation issues. Several research areas are suggested to address these human-factors issues.

17. Key Words

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, CACC, Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITS, Automation

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through NTIS:
National Technical Information Service
Springfield, VA 22161

19. Security Classification
(of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classification
(of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

44

22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 Reproduction of completed page authorized

 

SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Illustration. Merging into a CACC platoon
Figure 2. Illustration. Exiting a CACC platoon
Figure 3. Illustration. CACC-equipped vehicle followed by non-equipped vehicle
Figure 4. Illustration. Closely following vehicles in CACC platoon

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Overview of human-factors issues

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND SYMBOLS

ACC Adaptive cruise control
BRT Brake response time
CACC Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control
CCC Conventional cruise control
DSCR Dedicated short-range communications
HOV High-occupancy vehicle
I2V Infrastructure-to-vehicle
ITS Intelligent Transportation Systems
SA Situation awareness
SPAT Signal phase and timing
v/h/l Vehicles per hour per lane
V2I Vehicle-to-infrastructure
V2V Vehicle-to-vehicle
   

 

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