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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-95-176
Date: November 1996

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Task Analysis of ATIS/CVO Functions

 

FOREWORD

This report is one of a series of nine reports produced as part of a contract designed to develop precise, detailed human factors design guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO). Among the other topics discussed in the series are functional description of ATIS/CVO, comparable systems analysis, task analysis of ATIS/CVO functions, alternate systems analysis, identification and exploration of driver acceptance, and definition and prioritization of research studies.

This report documents ATIS and CVO system objectives and performance requirements. It provides basic information regarding the range of ATIS and CVO operational capabilities, a survey of ATIS and CVO systems, a preliminary set of ATIS and CVO scenarios, and a summary of system performance requirements.

Copies of this report can be obtained through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia, 22161, telephone (703) 487–4650, fax (703) 321–8547.

George Ostensen, Director
Office of Safety and Traffic
Operations Research and Development

 

NOTICE

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its content or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade and manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.

 


TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

1. Report No.

FHWA–RD–95–176

2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS GUIDELINES FOR ADVANCED TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND COMMERCIAL VEHICLE OPERATIONS: TASK ANALYSIS OF ATIS/CVO FUNCTIONS

5. Report Date

November 1996

7. Author(s)

W. Wheeler, J. Lee, M. Raby, R. Kinghorn, A. Bittner, M. McCallum

8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Battelle
4000 41st Street NE
Seattle, Washington 98105

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

3B2C

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61–92–C–00102

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R&D
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101–2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

TECHNICAL REPORT

June - November, 1993

14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR): Joe Moyer, HSR–30

16. Abstract

The document type of resource materials.

This working paper documents Task E of the present project, Task Analyses for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) systems. The goal of Task E is to conduct detailed analyses of the influence of using ATIS on driving tasks for both private and commercial vehicle operators. The task analyses specifying the tasks to be performed by the users as well as the information displayed in the ATIS (including IRANS, IMSIS, ISIS, and IVSAWS) are based on scenarios developed from previous project tasks. Information for the task analysis was obtained from a review of the literature, observations, and interviews of drivers and dispatchers using prototype and first–generation operational systems. The report organizes the tasks people and systems do while driving into three usable formats: (1) a graphical representation of the interactions that take place between driving and ATIS/CVO functions; (2) a diagram (i.e., an Operational Sequence Diagram [OSD]) of the sequence of task actions, the types of tasks involved, and the relationship between various human and non–human parts of the system; and (3) a description of each task in terms of its purpose, initiating conditions, task type, and performance considerations. General characteristics and performance considerations are examined for four types of tasks: setup, bridging, decision–making, and integrated. A summary of research issues and additional research needs are identified.

17. Key Words

Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS); Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO); Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS)

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

432

22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

FOREWORD, NOTICE AND TECHNICAL FORM

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. TASK ANALYSIS OF ATIS/CVO SYSTEMS

2. TASK ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

3. AN OVERVIEW OF DRIVING AND ATIS TASKS

4. TASK ANALYSIS RESULTS

5. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDICES

A. LITERATURE REVIEW

B. FUNCTION AND SCENARIO SELECTION

C. HIERARCHICAL TASK DESCRIPTIONS

D. DETAILED TASK ANALYSIS

E. INTEGRATION OF ATIS TASKS A THROUGH E

  • BACKGROUND

    • Structure of the Project

      • Task Objectives

    • Project Goals

    • Research Issues

      • Issue 1: Existing Status of Research and Development

      • Issue 2: Formatting of Information

      • Issue 3: Driver Capacity to Assimilate Information

      • Issue 4: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities Requirements

      • Issue 5: Information Requirements of ATIS/CVO Users

      • Issue 6: Driver Acceptance of ATIS/CVO

      • Issue 7: Driver Decision Strategies for Trip Taking

      • Issue 8: Factors Influencing the Performance of Drivers

      • Issue 9: Issues Related to CVO System Use

      • Issue 10: Interactions Between ATIS Use and Driving

      • Issue 11: ATIS System Interactions

  • FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS RELATED TO PROJECT GOALS AND TASK OBJECTIVES

    • Findings and Observations Related to Project Goals

    • Findings Related to Task Objectives

      • Findings Related to Task A. Literature Review

      • Findings Related to Task B. System Objectives and Performance Requirements

      • Findings Related to Task C. Function Description

      • Findings Related to Task D. Comparable Systems Analysis

      • Findings Related to Task E. Task Analysis

  • FINDINGS RELATED TO RESEARCH ISSUES

    • Findings Related to Issue 1: Existing Status of Research and Development

      • Findings from Task A. Literature Review

      • Findings from Task E. Task Analysis

    • Findings Related to Issue 2: Formatting of Information

      • Findings from Task A. Literature Review

      • Findings from Task C. Function Description

      • Findings from Task E. Task Analysis

    • Findings Related to Issue 3: Driver Capacity to Assimilate Information

      • Findings from Task B. System Objectives and Performance Requirements

      • Findings from Task C. Function Description

    • Findings Related to Issue 4: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities Requirements

      • Findings from Task E. Task Analysis

    • Findings Related to Issue 5: Information Requirements of ATIS/CVO Users

      • Findings from Task C. Function Description

      • Findings from Task E. Task Analysis

    • Findings Related to Issue 6: Driver Acceptance of ATIS/CVO

      • Findings from Task B. System Objectives and Performance Requirements

      • Findings from Task C. Function Description

      • Findings from Task E. Task Analysis

    • Findings Related to Issue 7: Driver Decision Strategies for Trip Taking

      • Findings from Task A. Literature Review

      • Findings from Task C. Function Description

      • Findings from Task E. Task Analysis

    • Findings Related to Issue 8: Factors Influencing the Performance of Drivers

      • Findings from Task A. Literature Review

      • Findings from Task C. Function Analysis

      • Findings from Task E. Task Analysis

    • Findings Related to Issue 9: Issues Related to CVO System Use

      • Findings from Task A. Literature Review

      • Findings from Task B. System Objectives and Performance Requirements

      • Findings from Task C. Function Analysis

    • Findings Related to Issue 10: Interactions Between ATIS Use and Driving

      • Findings from Task C. Function Analysis

    • Findings Related to Issue 11: ATIS Interactions

      • Findings from Task B. System Objectives and Performance Requirements

      • Findings from Task C. Function Analysis

  • RECOMMENDATIONS

    • Recommendations Related to Human Factors Design Guidelines

    • Recommendations Related to Research Issues

REFERENCES

 


LIST OF FIGURES

  1. Hierarchy of tasks involved in IRANS function "pre–drive route and destination selection"

  2. Standard operation symbols

  3. Interactions between the functional characteristic "immediate hazard warning" and other IVSAWS components

  4. Example of nested driving functions

  5. Example of functional links

  6. Example of integrated ATIS–specific and driving–specific tasks

  7. Example of interactions between ATIS–specific tasks

  8. Example of integrating ATIS information and commands into driving behavior

  9. Results of prior tasks

  10. Example of setup task (system turn on)

  11. Example of setup task (critical information)

  12. Example of setup task using menu lists

  13. Example of setup task for parameter information

  14. Example of setup task (review of recommendation)

  15. Bridging task between destination selection and route guidance

  16. Bridging task coordinating destination requirements

  17. Bridging task caused by change of plans

  18. Bridging task across parts of the system (i.e., dispatch and drivers)

  19. Decision task to determine if route meets requirements

  20. Decision task to determine if recommendation is appropriate

  21. Decision task to determine if warning requires action

  22. Decision task for recognition of change in situation

  23. Integration task for route following

  24. Driving integration task response to CVO regulatory notice

  25. Graphical representation of the first row and column of the matrix (table 24)

  26. Example of a differential weight applied to a functional characteristic

  27. Graphical depiction of the information flows linking a subset of ATIS/CVO functions

  28. Examples of input and output centrality

  29. Function interaction diagram for Scenario P6

  30. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario P6

  31. Function interaction diagram for Scenario P14

  32. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario P14

  33. Function interaction diagram for Scenario P22

  34. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario P22

  35. Function interaction diagram for Scenario P16

  36. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario P16

  37. Function interaction diagram for Scenario P1

  38. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario P1

  39. Function interaction diagram for Scenario P20

  40. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario P20

  41. Function interaction diagram for Scenario P2

  42. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario P2

  43. Function interaction diagram for Scenario P8

  44. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario P8

  45. Function interaction diagram for Scenario C12

  46. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario C12

  47. Function interaction diagram for Scenario C13

  48. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario C13

  49. Function interaction diagram for Scenario C4

  50. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario C4

  51. Function interaction diagram for Scenario C11

  52. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario C11

  53. Function interaction diagram for Scenario C15

  54. Operational sequence diagram for Scenario C15

 


LIST OF TABLES

  1. Contributions of previous tasks to the task analysis

  2. Focus groups to gather information on ATIS functions and tasks

  3. Scenario P1 as used in the Prospective Verbal Protocol Analysis

  4. Scenario P8 as used in the Prospective Verbal Protocol Analysis

  5. Scenario P12 as used in the Prospective Verbal Protocol Analysis

  6. Scenario P16 as used in the Prospective Verbal Protocol Analysis

  7. Scenario P22 as used in the Prospective Verbal Protocol Analysis

  8. Functional characteristics used for the Prospective Verbal Protocol Analysis

  9. Purpose categories used to characterize functions and tasks

  10. Taxonomy of initiating conditions

  11. Summary of decision–making elements that describes driver interaction with ATIS/CVO systems

  12. Summary of decision-making elements and human task performance considerations

  13. Driving functions and the associated ATIS functional characteristics for private drivers

  14. Driving functions and the associated ATIS functional characteristics for commercial drivers

  15. Summary of assumptions used in the task analysis

  16. Function and description of setup tasks

  17. Summary of the general characteristics and considerations associated with setup tasks

  18. Function and description of bridging tasks

  19. Summary of the general characteristics and considerations associated with bridging tasks

  20. Function and description of decision–making tasks

  21. Summary of the general characteristics and considerations of decision–making tasks associated with the use of ATIS

  22. Summary of tasks integrated with critical driving functions

  23. Summary of the general characteristics and considerations associated with integration tasks that involve both driving and ATIS use

  24. Information flows between functions for private vehicle operations

  25. Rank ordering of the private functional characteristics

  26. Matrix of input/output (centrality/links)

  27. Calculating input and output centrality

  28. Centrality measures for private driver functional characteristics

  29. Cliques for private functions

  30. Clusters for private functions

  31. Private vehicle cluster analysis

  32. Information flows between functions for commercial vehicle operations

  33. Rank ordering of the commercial functional characteristics

  34. Centrality measures for commercial driver functional characteristics

  35. Cliques for commercial functions

  36. Clusters for commercial functions

  37. Commercial vehicle cluster analysis

  38. Functional characteristics used in private vehicle scenarios as originally designed in Task B

  39. Functional characteristics used in commercial vehicle scenarios as originally designed in Task B

  40. Functional characteristics used in the expanded private vehicle scenarios

  41. Functional characteristics used in the expanded commercial vehicle scenarios

  42. Description of Scenario P6

  43. Description of Scenario P14

  44. Description of Scenario P22

  45. Description of Scenario P16

  46. Description of Scenario P1

  47. Description of Scenario P20

  48. Description of Scenario P2

  49. Description of Scenario P8

  50. Description of Scenario C12

  51. Description of Scenario C13

  52. Description of Scenario C4

  53. Description of Scenario C11

  54. Description of Scenario C15

  55. Task characterization of Scenario P6

  56. Task characterization of Scenario P14

  57. Task characterization of Scenario P22

  58. Task characterization of Scenario P16

  59. Task characterization of Scenario P1

  60. Task characterization of Scenario P20

  61. Task characterization of Scenario P2

  62. Task characterization of Scenario P8

  63. Task characterization of Scenario C12

  64. Task characterization of Scenario C13

  65. Task characterization of Scenario C4

  66. Task characterization of Scenario C11

  67. Task characterization of Scenario C15

 


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ADIS Advanced Driver Information Systems

ARI Army Research Institute

ATIS Advanced Traveler Information Systems

ATMS Automatic Traffic Management Systems

AVCS Automatic Vehicle Control Systems

AVI Automatic Vehicle Identification

AVL Automatic Vehicle Location

CAD computer-aided dispatch

CB Citizens band

CDM Critical Decision Method

CM Concept Mapping

CRT Cathode Ray Tube

CTA Cognitive Task Analysis

CVO Commercial Vehicle Operations

DAWS Driver Alert Warning System

ERGS Electronic Route Guidance Systems

ETA Estimated Time of Arrival

FHWA Federal Highway Administration

GPS Global Positioning System

IDA Information Decision Action

IGOR Interactive Guidance on Routes

IMSIS In-Vehicle Motorist Services Information Systems

IRANS In-Vehicle Routing and Navigation Systems

ISIS In-Vehicle Signing Information Systems

IVHS Intelligent Vehicle Highway System

IVNS In-Vehicle Navigation Systems

IVSAWS In-Vehicle Safety Advisory and Warning Systems

LCD Liquid Crystal Display

MDS Multi-dimensional scaling

OSD Operational Sequence Diagram

PVPA Prospective Verbal Protocol Analysis

TA Task Analysis

UTM Universal Traverse Mercader

VPA Verbal Protocol Analysis

WIM Weigh in Motion

 

FHWA-RD-95-176

 

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