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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-95-197
Date: December 1996

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Comparable Systems Analysis

 

FOREWORD

This report is one of a series of nine reports produced as part of a contract designed to develop precise, detailed human factors design guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO). Among the other topics discussed in the series are functional description of ATIS/CVO, comparable systems analysis, task analysis of ATIS/CVO functions, alternate systems analysis, identification and exploration of driver acceptance, and definition and prioritization of research studies.

This report documents ATIS and CVO system objectives and performance requirements. It provides basic information regarding the range of ATIS and CVO operational capabilities, a survey of ATIS and CVO systems, a preliminary set of ATIS and CVO scenarios, and a summary of system performance requirements.

Copies of this report can be obtained through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

George Ostensen, Director
Office of Safety and Traffic
Operations Research and Development

 

NOTICE

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its content or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade and manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.

 


TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

1. Report No.

FHWA-RD-95-197

2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS GUIDELINES FOR ADVANCED TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEMS (ATIS) AND COMMERCIAL VEHICLE OPERATIONS (CVO): TASK D. COMPARABLE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

5. Report Date

December 1996

6. Performing Organization Code

 

7. Author(s)

D.L. Clarke, M.E. McCauley, T.J. Sharkey, T.A. Dingus, J.D. Lee

8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Battelle Human Factors Transportation Center
4000 NE 41st Street
Seattle, WA 98105

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

3B4C

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-92-C-00102

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R&D
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Non-Technical Report
7/1/93 through 10/29/93

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

 

15. Supplementary Notes

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) - Joseph Moyer, HSR-30

16. Abstract

A comparable systems analysis was performed on seven systems selected for their relevance to the features and functions of the Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) components of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) program. The seven systems were selected for their relevance to ATIS/CVO concepts, user time-sharing characteristics, technology level, dynamics of information flow, level of implementation, and accessibility. Five of the systems were highway transportation or CVO in-vehicle information systems, two were comparable systems featuring advanced navigation and decision aiding in Army aviation. Analyses of the seven systems resulted in human factors lessons learned. The lessons learned were compiled into preliminary human factors design guidelines for ATIS/CVO.

17. Key Words

Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO), Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS)

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

216

22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES

2. SELECTIONS OF COMPARABLE SYSTEMS FOR ANALYSIS

3. THE TravTek SYSTEM

4. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE (UMTRI)

5. THE NAVMATE SYSTEM

6. THE OmniTRACS MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS TERMINAL

7. THE TravelPilot SYSTEM

8. CREW STATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FACILITY (CSRDF)

9. THE SIKORSKY COGNITIVE DECISION–AIDING SYSTEM

10. PRELIMINARY HUMAN FACTORS GUIDELINES

11. DISCUSSION AND RESEARCH ISSUES

  • DISCUSSION
    • Strengths and Constraints of the Comparable Systems Analysis
    • User–Centered Design With or Without Human Factors

  • RESEARCH ISSUES
    • Driver Attention Management
    • Use of ATIS / CVO Systems by Older Drivers
    • The Measurement Problem

REFERENCES

 


LIST OF FIGURES

  1. TravTek main menu
  2. TravTek CRT screen
  3. TravTek steering wheel with buttons
  4. Enter Destination menu
  5. Saved Destinations screen
  6. Services / Attractions menu
  7. Hotel Information screen
  8. Automatic Teller Machine menu
  9. Map of local area display
  10. Emergency Help screen
  11. Police / Fire/Medical screen
  12. Information map when in motion
  13. Information map at zero speed
  14. Guidance map display
  15. Route map display
  16. Traffic information overlaid on a map
  17. Global TravTek usability questionnaire responses
  18. Mean trip planning time as a function of display configuration
  19. Mean travel time as a function of display configuration
  20. Mean number of wrong turns as a function of display configuration
  21. Questionnaire ratings of the usability of the TravTek visual displays
  22. Questionnaire ratings of the usability of the TravTek route map
  23. Questionnaire ratings of the usability of the TravTek guidance display
  24. Relative use of TravTek visual route guidance displays
  25. Questionnaire rating of the "swap map" feature
  26. Use of the voice feature by rental drivers
  27. Use of the voice feature by local drivers
  28. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek voice presentation
  29. Questionnaire comparison of the TravTek route guidance modes
  30. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek information map
  31. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek services/attractions directory
  32. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek emergency services feature
  33. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek on–screen instructions
  34. Questionnaire rating of the route map traffic condition/incidence information
  35. Questionnaire rating of the guidance screen traffic condition/incidence information
  36. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek main menu
  37. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek on–screen keyboard
  38. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek steering wheel buttons
  39. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek help features
  40. Questionnaire rating of the TravTek help desk
  41. TravTek design process
  42. Schematic of UMTRI display
  43. Message displayed when vehicle ignition is turned on
  44. NAVMATE map display screen
  45. NAVMATE route guidance display
  46. NAVMATE controls
  47. Dimensions of the MCT display unit
  48. Features of the MCT display unit
  49. Display unit STATUS VIEW screen activated at start–up
  50. Sample text message received by driver
  51. Sample text message created and sent by driver
  52. MCT display unit controls
  53. Warning notice engraved on front of MCT display unit
  54. Sample map display screen that appears when vehicle is started or when requested by driver
  55. Text–based status screen that is activated by pressing the S button on the map screen
  56. CSRDF tactical situation display in MAP/NAV mode

 


LIST OF TABLES

  1. ATIS/CVO functional characteristics
  2. Comparison of TravTek functions with those from ATIS/CVO systems
  3. Comparison of UMTRI functions with those from ATIS/CVO systems
  4. Comparison of Navmate functions with those from ATIS/CVO systems
  5. Comparison of OmniTRACS functions with those from ATIS/CVO systems
  6. Comparison of TravelPilot functions with those from ATIS/CVO systems
  7. Comparison of CSRDF functions with those from ATIS/CVO systems
  8. Comparison of Sikorsky functions with those from ATIS/CVO systems

 


LIST OF ACRONYMS

AAA – American Automobile Association

AATD – Aviation Advanced Technology Directorate

AI – Artificial Intelligence

ATIS – Advanced Traveler Information Systems

ATMS – Advanced Travel Management Systems

AVCS – Automated Vehicle Control Systems

AVL – Automatic Vehicle Location

CASE – Computer–Aided Software Engineering

CB – Citizens Band

CD – Compact Disc

CDAS – Cognitive Decision–Aiding Systems

CRT – Cathode Ray Tube

CSRDF – Crew Station Research and Development Facility

CVO – Commercial Vehicle Operations

D/NAPS – Day/Night Adverse Weather Pilotage Systems

DOD – Department of Defense

DOT – Department of Transportation

ES – Expert Systems

ETA – Estimated Time of Arrival

FHWA – Federal Highway Administration

GPS – Global Positioning Systems

HCI – Human–Computer Interaction

HFE – Human Factors Engineering

HMD – Helmet–Mounted Display

HUD – Head–Up Display

IMSIS – In–Vehicle Motorist Services Information Systems

IRANS – In–Vehicle Route and Navigation Systems

ISIS – In–Vehicle Signing Information Systems

ITS – Intelligent Transportation Systems

IVSAWS – In–Vehicle Safety and Warning Systems

LCD – Liquid Crystal Display

MCT – Mobile Communications Terminal

MP – Mission Planner

NMC – Network Management Center

NOE – Nap of Earth

O/D – Origin/Destination

PVI – Pilot–Vehicle Interface

REALM – Reactor Emergency Action Level Monitor

RF – Radio Frequency

RMPD – Right Multi–Purpose Display

RPA – Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate

SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers

SMD – Systems Management Display

SME – Subject Matter Expert

TISC – TravTek Information Services Center

TMC – Traffic Management Center

TMS – Traffic Management System

TSD – Tactical Situation Display

 


LIST OF CODES USED IN LESSONS LEARNED

CS – Crew Station Research and Development Facility (CSRDF)

NM – Navmate System

OM – OmniTRACS Mobile Communications Terminal

SK – Sikorsky Cognitive Decision–Aiding System

TP – TravelPilot System

TT – TravTek System

UM – University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI)

 

FHWA-RD-95-197

 

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