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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-96-143
Date: April 1997

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Definition and Prioritization of Research Studies

 

TRAVTEK SYSTEM CAPABILITIES

For this section, please indicate which functions/features you think the TravTek system has by marking the "HAS" column with an "X." Base your responses on what you learned from the video(s).

# HAS Trip Planning, Navigation, and Routing
    Position/location of your vehicle provided by:
1  
  • electronic map display
2  
  • text or icon display
3  
  • voice
    Congestion information provided by:
4  
  • electronic map display
5  
  • text or icon display
6  
  • voice
    Coordination of Travel:
7  
  • with bus time tables
8  
  • with real-time bus information
9  
  • with airline arrivals/departures

 

# HAS Trip Planning, Navigation, and Routing
    Toll Information:
10  
  • toll prices
11  
  • toll credit remaining (toll automatically deducted from account bar code on vehicle)
    Pre-drive Route Selection:
12  
  • that accepts driver preferences
13  
  • that calculates route to avoid congestion
    Route Guidance:
14  
  • that corrects your route after a missed turn
15  
  • that responds to changes in congestion by generating a new route
16  
  • shown on an electronic map with a view of the whole route
17  
  • that shows only current position and next turn with directional arrows
18  
  • given by voice
    Multi-destination Trip Planning Function:
(planning a route with more than one stop)
19  
  • allows selection of scenic routes
20  
  • coordinates hotel accommodations
21  
  • calculates mileage, time, and cost estimates
    Other features not mentioned:
22  
  •  
23  
  •  
24  
  •  

 

# HAS Services and Attraction Information
    Parking information present:
(e.g., location of parking, cost)
25  
  • on electronic map display
26  
  • on a text or icon display
27  
  • by voice
    Restaurant reservations:
28  
  • made by the system
    Advertising information provided by:
(similar to billboard advertising, radio commercials, tourist information signs)
29  
  • electronic map
30  
  • text or icon display
31  
  • voice
    Computer-based yellow pages:
32  
  • that provides a services and attractions directory
    Other features not mentioned:
33  
  •  
34  
  •  
35  
  •  

 

# HAS In-Vehicle Road Sign Information
    Notification of road closures or detours provided by:
36  
  • electronic map display
37  
  • text or icon display
38  
  • voice
    Advisory speeds for potential hazards such as sharp turns provided by:
39  
  • electronic map display
40  
  • text or icon display
41  
  • voice
    Street names, highway numbers, and distances to towns/exits provided by:
42  
  • electronic map display
43  
  • text or icon display
44  
  • voice
    Regulation information such as speed limits and one–way streets provided by:
45  
  • electronic map display
46  
  • text or icon display
47  
  • voice
    Only signs relevant to driver's pre-planned route provided in vehicle:
48  
  • electronic map display
49  
  • text or icon display
50  
  • voice
    Other features not mentioned:
51  
  •  
52  
  •  
53  
  •  

 

# HAS Safety and Warning Information
    Hazard warning of road construction or accident occurrence provided by:
54  
  • electronic map display
55  
  • text or icon display
56  
  • voice
    Vehicle monitoring, such as oil level, fuel level, or engine status, provided by:
57  
  • text or icon display
58  
  • voice
     Notification of poor road conditions due to weather, congestion, ice, and snow provided by:
59  
  • electronic map display
60  
  • text or icon display
61  
  • voice
    Aid request:
(e.g., 911 emergency dispatch, tow truck request)
62  
  • automatic aid request when airbag is activated
63  
  • use the system to call for help
    Other features not mentioned:
64  
  •  
65  
  •  
66  
  •  

 

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TRAVTEK SYSTEM FEATURE DESIRABILITY

For this section, please indicate which functions/features you think are Essential, Desirable, or Not Needed by marking the "VALUE" columns with values from the scale below. In the first column, indicate the value of each item in an unfamiliar city. In the second column, indicate the value of each item in a familiar city.

Scale:

0 = Not Needed.

1 = Desirable: The feature would be nice to have but is not essential for me to consider buying the program.

2 = Essential: I would not consider buying the program without this feature.

VALUE: 0 = Not Needed 1 = Desirable 2 = Essential
# Unfamiliar City Familiar
City
Trip Planning, Navigation, and Routing
      Position/location of your vehicle provided by:
1     electronic map display
2     text or icon display
3     voice
      Congestion information provided by:
4     electronic map display
5     text or icon display
6     voice
      Coordination of Travel:
7     with bus time tables
8     with real-time bus information
9     with airline arrivals/departures

 

VALUE: 0 = Not Needed 1 = Desirable 2 = Essential
# Unfamiliar
City
Familiar
City
Trip Planning, Navigation, and Routing:
      Toll Information:
10     toll prices
11     toll credit remaining (toll automatically deducted from account bar code on vehicle)
      Pre-drive Route Selection:
12     that accepts driver preferences
13     that calculates route to avoid congestion
      Route Guidance:
14     that corrects your route after a missed turn
15     that responds to changes in congestion by generating a new route
16     shown on an electronic map with a view of the whole route
17     that shows only current position and next turn with directional arrows
18     given by voice
      Multi-destination Trip Planning Function:
(planning a route with more than one stop)
19     allows selection of scenic routes
20     coordinates hotel accommodations
21     calculates mileage, time and cost estimates
      Other features not mentioned:
22    
  •  
23    
  •  
24    
  •  

 

VALUE: 0 = Not Needed 1 = Desirable 2 = Essential
# Unfamiliar
City
Familiar
City
Services and Attraction Information
      Parking information present:
(e.g., location of parking, cost)
25     on electronic map display
26     on a text or icon display
27     by voice
      Restaurant reservations:
28     made by the system
      Advertising information provided by:
(similar to billboard advertising, radio commercials, tourist information signs)
29     electronic map
30     text or icon display
31     voice
      Computer-based yellow pages:
32     that provides a services and attractions directory
      Other features not mentioned:
33    
  •  
34    
  •  
35    
  •  

 

VALUE: 0 = Not Needed 1 = Desirable 2 = Essential
# Unfamiliar
City
Familiar
City
In-Vehicle Road Sign Information
      Notification of road closures or detours provided by:
36     electronic map display
37     text or icon display
38     voice
      Advisory speeds for potential hazards such as sharp turns provided by:
39     electronic map display
40     text or icon display
41     voice
      Street names, highway numbers, and distances to towns/exits provided by:
42     electronic map display
43     text or icon display
44     voice
      Regulation information such as speed limits and one-way streets provided by:
45     electronic map display
46     text or icon display
47     voice
      Only signs relevant to driver's pre-planned route provided in vehicle:
48     on an electronic map display
49     on a text or icon display
50     by voice
      Other features not mentioned:
51    
  •  
52    
  •  

 

VALUE: 0 = Not Needed 1 = Desirable 2 = Essential
# Unfamiliar

City

Familiar

City

Safety and warning information:
      Hazard warning of road construction or accident

occurrence provided by:

53     electronic map display
54     text or icon display
55     voice
      Vehicle monitoring, such as oil level, fuel level, or engine status, provided by:
56     text or icon display
57     voice
      Notification of poor road conditions due to weather, congestion, ice, and snow provided by:
58     electronic map display
59     text or icon display
60     voice
      Aid request (911 emergency dispatch, tow truck request):
61     automatic when airbag is activated
62     use the system to call for help manually
      Other features not mentioned:
63    
  •  
64    
  •  
65    
  •  

 

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TRAVTEK DEMONSTRATION FIDELITY

It is important to understand how much the TravTek demonstration put you in the place of a user. To help us, please mark with an "X" to indicate how much the statements below apply to you. Marking toward the 100 indicates that a statement strongly applies. Marking toward the 0 indicates that it does not apply.

1. I felt the demonstration captured my attention.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

2. In my opinion, other drivers will feel the demonstration captures what using the system will be like.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

3. In my opinion, other drivers will feel their attention captured by the demonstration.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

4. The demonstration gave me the feel of what using the system would be like.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

5. I would like to see other new system demonstrations.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

6. My attention wandered during the demonstration.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

7. In my opinion, other drivers' attention will wander during the demonstration.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

8. The demonstration gave me a realistic impression of how the system might work.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

9. The demonstration will give other drivers a realistic impression of how the system might work.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

 

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TRAVTEK: MODIFYING YOUR TRIP TO AVOID TRAFFIC

This section is used to help us understand how accurate navigation advice needs to be for drivers to use it. Pick the response that's best for you.

1. Would you pay attention to navigation advice which might occasionally make your trip longer (in minutes) intentionally, but would reduce overall traffic congestion?

Yes   No

2. If so, how many extra minutes of travel, for a trip that normally takes 35 minutes, would you be willing to accept?

0–1 min.   5–10 min.

1–5 min.   more than 10 min.

3. How often would you tolerate such delays and still use the advice?

0–1 times in 20 trips   5–10 times in 20 trips

1–5 times in 20 trips   more than 10 times in 20 trips min.

4. For a journey that normally takes 35 minutes, how many minutes would you need to save to make it worthwhile to use an unfamiliar route?

0–1 min.   5–10 min.

1–5 min.   more than 10 min.

5. Imagine you can get a time estimate for a trip that accounts for traffic conditions. This trip normally takes 35 minutes. If the system was occasionally wrong, how many minutes would you accept arriving early and still use the system?

0–1 min.   5–10 min.

1–5 min.   more than 10 min.

6. For the same system, how many minutes would you accept arriving late and still use the system?

0–1 min.   5–10 min.

1–5 min.   more than 10 min.

7. Imagine you have a system that predicts traffic congestion but does not always warn you of traffic delays. How frequently could the system fail to predict delays and still be useful to you?

0–1 times in 20 trips   5–10 times in 20 trips

1–5 times in 20 trips   more than 10 times in 20 trips min.

8. Imagine you have a system that predicts traffic congestion but you find that it occasionally predicts congestion when traffic is moving smoothly. How frequently could the system falsely report congestion and still be useful to you?

0–1 times in 20 trips   5–10 times in 20 trips

1–5 times in 20 trips   more than 10 times in 20 trips min.

 

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TRAVTEK: TRUST & SELF–CONFIDENCE

We are interested in your judgments of how trustworthy you believe the technology to be. In addition, we are interested in how much self–confidence you have in your ability to do things yourself.

First, think about your trust in people. We all trust some people more than others. If you think about people you know, you can probably think of some you trust very much and others you trust much less. We do not trust all people equally, and we can express how much we trust a particular person.

We also think about trusting things, such as products. For example, I trust my car to start in the morning because it has never failed to do so. I trust my spouse's car much less because of a history of trouble.

Similar to trust, we can also consider the self–confidence in our own abilities. For example, you might have a great deal of self–confidence in your ability to walk to work because you have been doing it every day for several years.

If you think about it for a moment, we could rate our degree of trust and self–confidence in many of the things we use on a scale like those shown below. So let's rate a few functions that may be available in your vehicle in the future. Marking toward the 100 would indicate that a statement strongly applies. Marking toward the 0 would indicate it does not apply.

1a. I would trust a navigation system to guide me through an unfamiliar city.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

1b. I have confidence in my ability to navigate myself through an unfamiliar city.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

2a. I would trust a navigation system to guide me through a familiar city (e.g., home town).

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

2b. I have confidence in my ability to navigate myself through a familiar city (e.g, home town).

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

3a. I would trust a warning system to notify me of icy roads.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

3b. I have confidence in my ability to identify icy roads based on my own experience.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

4a. I would trust a navigation system to guide me through an unfamiliar city to the airport on time.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

4b. I have confidence in my ability to navigate myself through an unfamiliar city to the airport on time.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

5a. I would trust a new automatic route guidance system to avoid highway congestion.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

5b. I have confidence in my ability to avoid highway congestion based upon my own observation of traffic.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

6a. I would trust an in-vehicle service directory to locate a restaurant in an unfamiliar town.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

6b. I have confidence in my ability to locate a restaurant in an unfamiliar town.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

7a. I would trust an in-vehicle system to notify me of changes in the speed limit.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

7b. I have confidence in my ability to recognize changes in the speed limit by observing roadway signs.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

 

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TRAVTEK USER ACCEPTANCE ISSUES

The following items will give us a better idea of your opinion of TravTek. For each item, please mark with an "X" to indicate how much the statements below apply to you. Marking toward the 100 indicates that a statement strongly applies. Marking toward the 0 would indicate it does not apply.

1. TravTek would match my driving style.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

2. I can see benefits of using TravTek.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

3. I can explain the benefits of using TravTek to other drivers.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

4. TravTek is easy to understand.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

5. TravTek is easy to use.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

6. The demonstration let me experience what using TravTek would be like.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

7. The driver in the video benefited from using TravTek.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

8. TravTek has advantages over paper maps.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

9. TravTek has advantages over listening to traffic reports on the radio.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

10. I am comfortable evaluating TravTek after watching the video.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

11. I would be able to use TravTek successfully.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

12. Using TravTek would be consistent with my daily activities.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

13. Using TravTek would be consistent with the way I drive.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

14. I think other drivers will see the benefits of using TravTek.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

15. I think that other drivers would find TravTek easy to use.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

16. I think that other drivers would find TravTek easy to understand.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

17. TravTek is an improvement over currently existing information sources.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

18. TravTek has advantages over guide books.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

19. I think it will be easy for me to tell when other drivers are using TravTek.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

20. I could use TravTek effectively.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

21. Other drivers could use TravTek effectively.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

22. I would use TravTek if it was available in a rental (or borrowed) vehicle.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

23. I would consider buying TravTek for use in my own vehicle.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

24. I think other drivers would use TravTek if it were available in a rental (or borrowed) vehicle.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

25. I think other drivers would consider buying TravTek for use in their vehicles.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

26. TravTek will reduce the probability of automobile accidents in unfamiliar cities.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

27. TravTek will reduce the probability of automobile accidents in familiar cities.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

28. TravTek will force a change in my driving habits.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

29. TravTek is a technological fad.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

30. TravTek will reduce the amount of time I spend in traffic jams.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

31. TravTek will decrease the amount of money I spend on gas.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

32. TravTek will decrease the amount of time I spend navigating in unfamiliar areas.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

 

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TRAVTEK PERCEIVED USEFULNESS

The following items will help us to understand the usefulness of TravTek. For each item, please mark with an "X" to indicate how much the statements below apply to you. Marking toward the 100 indicates that a statement strongly applies. Marking toward the 0 would indicate it does not apply.

1. Using TravTek would enable me to reach my destination faster.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

2. Using TravTek would improve my driving performance.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

3. Using TravTek would increase my productivity.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

4. Using TravTek would make traveling safer.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

5. Using TravTek would help me arrive on time.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

6. Using TravTek would enhance my driving effectiveness.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

7. Using TravTek would make traveling easier.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

8. I would find TravTek useful.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

 

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TRAVTEK PERCEIVED EASE OF USE

The following items will help us to understand how easy to use drivers find TravTek to be. For each item, please mark with an "X" to indicate how much the statements below apply to you. Marking toward the 100 indicates that a statement strongly applies. Marking toward the 0 would indicate it does not apply.

1. Learning to operate TravTek would be easy for me to do on my own.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

2. I would find it easy to get TravTek to do what I want it to do.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

3. TravTek would be clear to interact with.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

4. TravTek would be understandable.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

5. I would find TravTek to be flexible to interact with.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

6. It would be easy for me to become skilled at using TravTek.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

7. I would find TravTek easy to use.

scale with Does not Apply at one end and Strongly Applies on the other end

 

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TRAVTEK USER TEST QUESTIONS

Please mark with an "X" how much the statements below apply to you. Marking toward the "6" indicates that you strongly agree with the statement. Marking toward the "1" indicates that you strongly disagree with the statement.

1. The TravTek system's Guidance Display:

The TravTek system's Guidance Display

 

was easy to learn

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

was easy to use

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

was useful

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

2. The TravTek System's Route Map:

TravTek System's Route Map

 

was easy to learn

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

was easy to use

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

was useful

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

3. The TravTek System's Voice Guide Feature ("Turn right on Robinson."):

was easy to learn

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

was easy to use

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

was useful

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

4. Of the two routing displays, Route Map and Guidance Display, which did you prefer?

Route Map and Guidance Display

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

5. Overall, the TravTek system:

was easy to learn

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

was easy to use

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

was useful

Graph showing Strongly Disagree and Strongly Agree

6. Do you think TravTek would be useful for:

  • At home daily driving Yes No

  • Out-of-town vacation driving Yes No

  • Out-of-town business trips Yes No

The following questions relate to views your household might have regarding TravTek.

7. How much would you be willing to pay for a TravTek system such as shown in the Orlando videotapes? Please place a mark along the line below that best represents the price you'd be willing to pay.

Graph with dollar amounts from zero to four thousand in increments of 500

8. Given that TravTek's purpose is to help drivers reach their destinations safely and efficiently, how important do you feel each of the following factors are in the development of systems such as TravTek? Rank each from 1 to 4 with 1 being the most important and 4 being the least important.

  Rank
Energy Conservation

Environmental Quality

Highway/Traffic Safety

Relief of Highway Congestion

_____

_____

_____

_____

 

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FHWA-RD-96-143

 

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