Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home
Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-97-152

Guidelines for the Use of Raised Pavement Markers

 

SECTION 5. REFERENCES

 

1. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. (1988). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

2. Migletz, J., Fish, J. K., and Graham, J. L. (1994). Roadway Delineation Practices Handbook. Technical Report No. FHWA–SA–93–001. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.

3. Freedman, M., Staplin, L. K., Gilfillan, D. P., and Byrnes, A. M. (1988). Noticeability Requirements for Delineation on Non–Illuminated Highways. Technical Report No. FHWA–RD–88–028. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.

4. Shinar, D., McDowell, E. D., and Rockwell, T. H. (1977). Eye Movements in Curve Negotiation. In Human Factors, 19, 63–71.

5. Allen, R. W. et al. (1977). Drivers' Visibility Requirements for Roadway Delineation, Vol. 1: Effects of Contrast and Configuration on Driver Performance and Behavior. Technical Report No. FHWA–RD–77–165. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.

6. Blaauw, G. J. and Padmos, P. (1982). Nighttime Visibility of Various Types of Road Markings; A Study on Durability, Including Conditions of Rain, Fog and Dew. In SAE Technical Paper Series. Paper No. 820412. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

7. Fildes, B. N. and Triggs, T. J. (1985). The Effect of Changes in Curve Geometry on Magnitude Estimates of Road–like Perspective Curvature. In Perception and Psychophysics, 37, 218–224.

8. Zador, P., Stein, H. S., Wright, P., and Hall, J. (1987). Effects of Chevrons, Post–Mounted Delineators, and Raised Pavement Markers on Driver Behavior at Roadway Curves. Transportation Research Record No. 1114. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

9. Pagano, A. M. (1972) Validation of Intermediate Criteria on Rural Horizontal Curves. In Roadway Delineation Systems. NCHRP Report No. 130. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

10. Bali, S. G., Potts, R., Fee, J. A., and Taylor, J. I. (1978). Cost–Effectiveness and Safety of Alternative Roadway Delineation Treatments for Rural Two–Lane Highways Vol 2. Technical Report No. FHWA–RD–78–51. LaJolla, California: Systems Applications, Inc.

11. Matthias, J. S. (1988). Spacing of Raised Reflective Pavement Markers. Technical Report No. FHWA–AZ88–836. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.

12. Nemeth, et al. (1986). Recommended Delineation Treatments at Selected Situations on Rural State Highways, Part 1. Technical Report No. FHWA–OH–86–009. Ohio State University, Columbus, OH: Engineering Experiment Station.

13. Taylor, J. I., McGee, H. W., Seguin, E. L., and Hostetter, R. S. (1972). Roadway Delineation Systems. NCHRP Report No. 130. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

14. Krammes, R. A. and Tyer, K. D. (1991). Post Mounted Delineators and RPMs: Their Effect on Vehicle Operations at Horizontal Curves on two–lane Rural Highways. Transportation Research Record No. 1324. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

15. Kallberg, V. (1993). Reflector Posts – Signs of Danger? Transportation Research Record No. 1403. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

16. Stimpson, W. A., Kittelson, W. K., and Berg, W. D. (1977). Methods for Field Evaluation of Roadway Delineation Treatments. Transportation Research Record No. 621. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

17. Blaauw, G. J. (1985). Vehicle Guidance by Delineation Systems at Night. In Ergonomics, 28, 1601–1615.

18. Good, M. C. and Baxter, G. L. (1986). Evaluation of Short–Range Roadway Delineation. In Human Factors, 28, 645–660.

19. Pennell, E. (1993). Guidelines for Highway Delineation. Technical Report No. FHWA– NJ–93–002. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.

20. Hall, J. W. (1987). Evaluation of Wide Edgelines. Transportation Research Record No. 1114. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

21. Zwahlen, H. T. and Schnell, T. (1996). Visibility of Yellow Center Line Pavement Markings as a Function of Line Configuration and Line Width. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting. Ohio University, Athens, Ohio: Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, pages 919–921.

22. Zwahlen, H. T. (1987). Driver Lateral Control Performance as a Function of Delineation. Transportation Research Record No. 1149. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

23. Fitzpatrick, K., Lance, M., and Lienau, T. (1995). Effects of Pavement Markings on Driver Behavior at Freeway Lane Drop Exits. Transportation Research Record No. 1495. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

24. Bali, S. G., McGee, H. W., and Taylor, J. I. (1976). State–of–the–Art on Roadway Delineation Systems. Technical Report No. FHWA–RD–76–73. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.

25. Witt, H. and Hoyos, C. G. (1976). Advance Information on the Road: A Simulator Study of the Effect of Road Markings. In Human Factors, 18, 521–532.

26. Zwahlen, H. T. (1993). Optimal Application and Placement of Roadside Reflective Devices for Curves on Two–Lane Rural Highways. Technical Report No. FHWA–OH–94–011. Ohio University, Athens, OH: Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering.

27. Davis, T. D. (1993). Construction Zone Delineation – Special Geometric Situations. Technical Report No. FHWA–NJ–092–003. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration

28. Part VI of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices: Standards and Guides for Traffic Controls for Street and Highway Construction, Maintenance, Utility, and Incident Management Operations. (1993). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

29. Ullman, G. L. (1994). Retroflective Raised Pavement Markers: A Two–Year Field Evaluation in Texas. Technical Report No. FHWA–TX–94–1946–3F. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.

30. Tielking, J. T. and Noel, J. S. (1989). Research on Raised Pavement Markers. Transportation Research Record No. 1230. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

31. McNees, R. W. (1987). Establishing a Minimum Functional Reflectance for Raised Pavement Markers. Transportation Research Record No. 1149. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

32. Lee, R. L. Jr., Hostetter, R. S., and Liebowitz, H. W. (1991). Driver Visibility Under Wet Pavement Conditions: Size, Shape, and Spacing of Object Markers/Delineators. Technical Report No. FHWA–RD–91–016. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.

33. Dejaiffe, R. (1987). Measuring Wet–Night Delineation Reflectivity. Transportation Research Record No. 1149. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

34. King, E. and Graham, J. R. (1989). Evaluation of Pavement Marking Materials for Wet Night Conditions. Technical Report No. FHWA–NC–89–004. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.

 

FHWA-RD-97-152

 

Previous | Table of Contents | Next

ResearchFHWA
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration