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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-133
Date: December 2005

Enhanced Night Visibility, Volume II: Overview of Phase I and Development of Phase II

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U.S. Department of Transportation

Federal Highway Administration

Research, Development, and Technology

Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center

6300 Georgetown Pike

McLean, VA 22101-2296


FOREWORD

The overall goal of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Visibility Research Program is to enhance the safety of road users through near-term improvements of the visibility on and along the roadway. The program also promotes the advancement of new practices and technologies to improve visibility on a cost-effective basis.

The following document provides an overview of the initial series of studies conducted in Phase I of the Enhanced Night Visibility (ENV) project, and the development of the Phase II plan for the experiment. The ENV project provided a comprehensive evaluation of evolving and proposed headlamp technologies in various weather conditions. The individual studies within the overall project are documented in an 18-volume series of FHWA reports, of which this is Volume II. It is anticipated that the reader will select those volumes that provide information of specific interest.

This report will be of interest to headlamp designers, automobile manufacturers and consumers, third-party headlamp manufacturers, human factors engineers, and people involved in headlamp and roadway specifications.

 

 

Michael F. Trentacoste
Director, Office of Safety
    Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.
FHWA-HRT-04-133

2. Government Accession No.

3. Recipient’s Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle
Enhanced Night Visibility Series, Volume II: Overview of Phase I and Development of Phase II Experimental Plan

5. Report Date
December 2005

6. Performing Organization Code

7. Author(s)
Thomas A. Dingus, Gary R. Allen, Stephen C. Brich, Vicki L. Neale, Aaron D. Schroeder, Myra Blanco, Thomas Schnell,
James S. Gillespie, Tracey Talley Schroeder, Carole J. Simmons, and Jonathan M. Hankey

8. Performing Organization Report No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute
3500 Transportation Research Plaza
Blacksburg, VA 24061

10. Work Unit No.

11. Contract or Grant No.
DTFH61-98-C-00049

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Office of Safety Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13.Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report

14. Sponsoring Agency Code
HRDS-05

15. Supplementary Notes
Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative (COTR): Carl Andersen, HRDS-05

16. Abstract
The focus of the Phase I effort was on the establishment of performance and design objectives to facilitate the deployment of ultraviolet A (UV–A) headlamps. This report describes the plan to develop UV–A headlamp specifications, evaluate fluorescent infrastructure materials, quantify glare and photobiological risks, expand the cost/benefit analysis, and demonstrate and implement the UV–A technology. It also includes a literature review that was conducted before the Phase II studies. As is often the case in large projects, some of the planned work eventually changed or was replaced to address more pressing issues. The later volumes of this report series detail what research occurred and why.


17. Key Words
Age, Detection, Halogen, Headlamp, High Intensity Discharge (HID), Infrared, Pedestrian, Night Vision, Nighttime, Recognition, Stakeholder, Ultraviolet, Visibility, Vision Enhancement System

18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)
Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)
Unclassified

21. No. of Pages
95

22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)          Reproduction of completed page authorized


SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors


ENHANCED NIGHT VISIBILITY PROJECT REPORT SERIES

This volume is the second of 18 volumes in this research report series. Each volume is a different study or summary, and any reference to a report volume in this series will be referenced in the text as “ENV Volume I,” “ENV Volume II,” and so forth. A list of the report volumes follows:

Volume Title Report Number
  I           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Executive Summary FHWA-HRT-04-132
  II           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Overview of Phase I and
Development of Phase II Experimental Plan
FHWA-HRT-04-133
  III           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 1: Visual
Performance During Nighttime Driving in Clear Weather
FHWA-HRT-04-134
  IV           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 2: Visual
Performance During Nighttime Driving in Rain
FHWA-HRT-04-135
  V           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 3: Visual
Performance During Nighttime Driving in Snow
FHWA-HRT-04-136
  VI           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 4: Visual
Performance During Nighttime Driving in Fog
FHWA-HRT-04-137
  VII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 5: Evaluation of
Discomfort Glare During Nighttime Driving in Clear Weather
FHWA-HRT-04-138
  VIII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 6: Detection of
Pavement Markings During Nighttime Driving in Clear Weather
FHWA-HRT-04-139
  IX           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Characterization of
Experimental Objects
FHWA-HRT-04-140
  X           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Visual Performance
Simulation Software for Objects and Traffic Control Devices
FHWA-HRT-04-141
  XI           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Cost-Benefit Analysis FHWA-HRT-04-142
  XII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Overview of Phase II and
Development of Phase III Experimental Plan
FHWA-HRT-04-143
  XIII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase III—Study 1: Comparison
of Near Infrared, Far Infrared, High Intensity Discharge, and Halogen Headlamps on Object Detection in Nighttime Clear Weather
FHWA-HRT-04-144
  XIV           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase III—Study 2: Comparison
of Near Infrared, Far Infrared, and Halogen Headlamps on Object Detection in Nighttime Rain
FHWA-HRT-04-145
  XV           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase III—Study 3: Influence of
Beam Characteristics on Discomfort and Disability Glare
FHWA-HRT-04-146
  XVI           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase III—Characterization of
Experimental Objects
FHWA-HRT-04-147
  XVII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phases II and III—
Characterization of Experimental Vision Enhancement Systems
FHWA-HRT-04-148
  XVIII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Overview of Phase III FHWA-HRT-04-149

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1—PURPOSE CHAPTER 2—ACTIVITY 1. DEVELOP UV–A HEADLAMP SPECIFICATION CHAPTER 3—ACTIVITY 2. EVALUATION OF FLUORESCENT INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS CHAPTER 4—ACTIVITY 3. QUANTIFICATION OF GLARE AND PHOTOBIOLOGICAL RISK CHAPTER 5—ACTIVITY 4. EXPANDED COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS CHAPTER 6—ACTIVITY 5. DEMONSTRATION/IMPLEMENTATION CHAPTER 7—LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 8—CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A —SMART ROAD


LIST OF FIGURES

  1. Diagram. TCD evaluation intervals.
  2. Equation. Luminance contrast.
  3. Diagram. Smart Road pavement marking plan.
  4. Equation. Modulation contrast.
  5. Equation. Luminous contrast.
  6. Equation. Luminance ratio.
  7. Diagram. Electromagnetic spectrum.
  8. Line graph. Characteristics of available and prototype vision enhancement systems.
  9. Photo. Smart Road testing facility.


LIST OF TABLES

  1. Issues to be addressed by the Enhanced Night Visibility workplan.
  2. Pavement marking and headlamp combinations for testing.
  3. Diagnostic typology for stakeholders.
  4. Factors affecting stakeholders’ potentials for threat and cooperation.
  5. Properties of photopic (cone) and scotopic (rod) vision of humans.(9)

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

 

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