Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home
Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-138
Date: December 2005

Enhanced Night Visibility Series, Volume VII: Phase II—Study 5: Evaluation of Discomfort Glare During Nighttime Driving in Clear Weather

PDF Version (574 KB)

PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader®

REFERENCES

  1. National Safety Council. (2003). Injury Facts. Itasca, IL: Author.

  2. Mortimer, R.G. (1988). “Headlamp Performance Factors Affecting the Visibility of Older Drivers in Night Driving.” Transportation in an Aging Society: Improving Mobility and Safety for Older Persons, Transportation Research Board Special Report 218(2), 379–403.

  3. Mace, D., Garvey, P., Porter, R.J., Schwab, R., & Adrian, W. (2001). Countermeasures for Reducing the Effects of Headlight Glare. Washington, DC: American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety.

  4. Kaufman, J.E. (Ed.). (1984). IES Lighting Handbook: Reference Volume. New York, NY: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

  5. Fry, G.A., & King, V.M. (1975). “The Pupillary Response and Discomfort Glare.” Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, July 1975, 307–324.

  6. deBoer, J.B., & Schreuder, D.A. (1967). “Glare as a Criterion for Quality in Street Lighting.” Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 32, 117–135.

  7. Schmidt-Clausen, H.J., & Bindels, J.T.H. (1974). “Assessment of Discomfort Glare in Motor Vehicle Lighting.” Lighting Research and Technology, 6(2), 79–88.

  8. Lulla, A.B., & Bennett, C.A. (1981). “Discomfort Glare: Range Effects.” Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 10(2), 74–80.

  9. Olson, P.L., & Sivak, M. (1984). “Discomfort Glare from Automobile Headlights.” Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 13(3), 296–303.

  10. Sivak, M., Flannagan, M.J., Traube, E.C., & Kojima, S. (1999). “The Influence of Stimulus Duration on Discomfort Glare for Persons with and without Visual Correction.”Transportation Human Factors, 1(2), 147–158.

  11. Nitzburg, M., Seifert, R., Knoblauch, R., & Turner, D. (1998). A Safety Evaluation of UVA Vehicle Headlights (FHWA-RD-99-079). McLean, VA: Federal Highway Administration.

  12. Mortimer, R.G. (1989). “Older Drivers’ Visibility and Comfort in Night Driving: Vehicle Design Factors.” Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting, 154–158.

  13. Richards, O.W. (1966). “Vision at Levels of Night Road Illumination: XII Changes of Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity with Age.” American Journal of Optometry and Archives of American Academy of Optometry, 43(5), 313–319.

  14. Richards, O.W. (1972). “Some Seeing Problems: Spectacles, Color Driving and Decline from Age and Poor Lighting.” American Journal of Optometry and Archives of American Academy of Optometry, 49(7), 539-546.

  15. Weale, R. (1961). “Retinal Illumination and Age.” Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 26, 95–100.

  16. Weymouth, F.W. (1960). “Effects of Age on Visual Acuity.” In M.I. Hirsch & R.E. Wick (Eds.), Vision of the Aging Patient (pp. 37–62). Philadelphia, PA: Chilton.

  17. Sivak, M., & Olson, P.L. (1988). “Toward the Development of a Field Methodology for Evaluating Discomfort Glare from Automobile Headlamps.” Journal of Safety Research, 19, 135–143.

  18. Calderas, J., personal communication, August 22, 2000.

  19. Erion, J., personal communication, June 5, 2000.

  20. Dutke, F.F., personal communication, June 20, 2000.

  21. Schnell, T., personal communication, August 24, 2000.

  22. Society of Automotive Engineers. (1997). Lighting Inspection Code (Surface Vehicle Standard J599). Warrendale, PA: Author.

  23. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. (2000). American National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting: RP–8–00. New York, NY: Author.

  24. Flannagan, M.J. (1999). Subjective and Objective Aspects of Headlamp Glare: Effects of Size and Power Distribution (Report No. UMTRI–99–36). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Transportation Institute.

 

Previous       Table of Contents
ResearchFHWA
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration