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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-142
Date: December 2005

Enhanced Night Visibility Series, Volume XI: Phase II—Cost-Benefit Analysis

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Figure 1. Equation. Stopping distance model. Uppercase S equals 1.47 times lowercase u times lowercase t, that product minus the following quotient: lowercase u squared divided by the product of 30 times sum of lowercase f plus or minus uppercase G. Back to Figure 1.

Figure 2. Equation. Crash modification factor. The quotient of a numerator of 1 minus uppercase CR subscript 2 and a denominator of uppercase CR subscript 1. Back to Figure 2.

Figure 3. Equation. Cost computation. Lowercase y equals lowercase m raised to the power of lowercase x, that value multiplied by lowercase b. Back to Figure 3.

Figure 4. Line graph. Motor vehicle registrations 1990 through 1998. The Y-axis is labeled “Number of M.V. Registrations,” and it ranges from 170 million to 215 million, bottom-to-top. The X-axis is labeled “Year,” and ranges from 1990 to 1998, left-to-right. There are two types of data points, “Actual M.V. Registrations” and “Estimated M.V. Registrations.” The line for Estimated M.V. Registrations is straight, starting at about 186 million in 1990 and rising evenly to about 211 million in 1998. The line for Actual M.V. Registrations follows the Estimated M.V. Registration line closely, deviating by only a few million above it in 1990, a few million below it from 1991 to 1993, and a few million above it again in 1996. Back to Figure 4.

Figure 5. Line graph. Centerline miles for highways from 1990 through 1998. The Y-axis is labeled “Number of Centerline Miles,” and it ranges from 3,020,000 to 3,140,000, bottom-to-top. The X-axis is labeled “Year” and ranges from 1990 to 1998, left-to-right. There are two types of data points, “Actual Centerline Miles” and “Estimated Centerline Miles.” The line for Estimated Centerline Miles is straight, starting at about 3,127,000 in 1990 and falling evenly to about 3,078,000 in 1998. The line for Actual Center Line Miles follows the line for Estimated Centerline Miles fairly closely, deviating by about 14,000 above it in 1991, several thousand below it from 1993 to 1995, about 24,000 above it in 1997, and about 14,000 below it in 1998. Back to Figure 5.

Figure 6. Line graph. Lane miles of rural highway 1990 through 1998. The Y-axis is labeled “Number of Lane Miles” and ranges from 6,200,000 to 6,450,000, bottom-to-top. The X-axis is labeled “Year,” and it ranges from 1990 to 1998, left-to-right. There are two types of data points, “Actual Lane Miles” and “Estimated Lane Miles.” The line for Estimated Lane Miles is straight, starting at about 6,385,000 in 1990 and falling evenly to about 6,295,000 in 1998. The line for Actual Lane Miles generally follows the line for Estimated Lane Miles, deviating by about 30,000 above it in 1991, 23,000 to 10,000 below it from 1993 to 1995, about 52,000 above it in 1997, and about 25,000 below it in 1998. Back to Figure 6.

Figure 7. Bar graph. Number of crashes, 1992 through 2001, by light condition. The Y-axis is labeled “Number of Crashes.” The X-axis is labeled “Year,” and it ranges from 1992 to 2001, left-to-right. The number of crashes starts at 6 million in 1992, rises to about 6.8 million in 1996, and falls back to about 6.3 million in 2001. Each year’s bar is divided into segments showing the relative proportion of accidents for three lighting conditions: Day or Lighted, Dark, and Dawn or Dusk. The proportions are roughly the same for every year: about 84 percent of accidents occurred during Day or Lighted conditions, about 12 percent during Dark conditions, and about 4 percent during Dawn or Dusk conditions. Back to Figure 7.

Figure 8. Equation. Number of crashes. Lowercase y equals lowercase m raised to the power of lowercase x, that value multiplied by lowercase b. Back to Figure 8.

Figure 9. Line graph. GES estimates versus regression estimates of crashes, 1992 through 2001. The Y-axis is labeled “Number of Crashes.” The X-axis is labeled “Year,” and it ranges from 1992 to 2001, left-to-right. There are two types of data points, “GES Estimates” and “Regression Estimates.” The line for Regression Estimates is straight, starting at about 6.31 million in 1992 and rising evenly to about 6.47 million in 2001. The line for GES Estimates varies widely from the line for Regression Estimates. GES Estimates start at about 6 million in 1992, rise to 6.76 million in 1996, fall to 6.27 million in 1999, rise slightly in 2000, and finish at 6.3 million in 2001. Back to Figure 9.

Figure 10. Bar graph. Estimated number of people involved in crashes, 1999 through 2001, by critical event and severity of injury. The Y-axis is labeled “Average Number of Persons per Year.” The X-axis is labeled “Critical Event,” and it has five categories. Other Event is the largest, with about 12.6 million people involved in crashes. Roadway Departure has about 2.4 million people. Pedestrian and Cyclist are both relatively low, with about 150,000 people. Finally, Animal or Object has about 600,000 people. Each bar is divided into segments showing the relative proportion of seven severities of injury: None, Possible, Non-incapacitating, Incapacitating, Fatal, Injury of Unknown Severity, and Died Prior to Crash. “None” accounts for about 80 percent of the injury severities for Other Event, Roadway Departure, and Animal or Object, and it accounts for about 60 percent of Pedestrian and Cyclist. “Possible” accounts for about 10 percent of Other Event and Roadway Departure, and “Non-incapacitating” accounts for 5 percent for the same critical events. For Pedestrian, Cyclist, and Animal or Object, the remaining injury severities are too small to distinguish. Back to Figure 10.

Figure 11. Bar graph. Estimated number of people injured in crashes, 1999 through 2001, by critical event and severity of injury. The Y-axis is labeled “Average Number of Injuries per Year.” The X-axis is labeled “Critical Event,” and it has five categories. Other Event is the largest, with about 2.4 million injuries. Roadway Departure has over 460,000 people. Pedestrian, Cyclist, and Animal or Object are all relatively low, with about 5,000 people. Each bar is divided into segments showing the relative proportion of five severities of injury: Possible Injury, Non-incapacitating, Incapacitating, Fatal, and Injury of Unknown Severity. “Possible Injury” accounts for about half of the injury severities for all critical events (about 60 percent for Other Event). “Non-incapacitating” makes up about 23 percent of the injury severities for Other Event, about 35 percent for Roadway Departure, and about 50 percent for Pedestrian, Cyclist, and Animal or Object. “Incapacitating” accounts for about 10 to 23 percent of injury severities for Other Event, Roadway Departure, and Pedestrian. “Fatal” accounts for about 3 percent of injury severities for Roadway Departure. All other injury severities are too small to distinguish. Back to Figure 11.

Figure 12. Bar graph. Estimated number of vehicles involved in crashes, 1999 through 2001, by critical event and severity of damage. The Y-axis is labeled “Average Number of Vehicles per Year.” The X-axis is labeled “Critical Event,” and it has five categories. Other Event is the largest category, with about 9 million vehicles. Roadway Departure has more than 1.7 million vehicles. Pedestrian and Cyclist are both relatively low, with about 50,000 to 75,000 vehicles. Animal or Object has about 440,000 vehicles. Each bar is divided into segments showing the relative proportion of five severities of damage: None, Minor, Functional/Moderate, Disabling/Severe, and Unknown. Proportions for all critical events are divided about equally between Minor, Functional/Moderate, Disabling/Severe, and Unknown. “None” accounts for about 3 percent of the severities of damage for Other Event and Roadway Departure. The bars for Pedestrian and Cyclist are too small to distinguish severities of damage. Back to Figure 12.

Figure 13. Bar graph. Estimated annual crash costs, 1999 through 2001, by critical event. The Y-axis is labeled “Average Dollar Value (millions).” The X-axis is labeled “Critical Event” and has five categories: Other Event, Roadway Departure, Pedestrian, Cyclist, and Animal or Object. Each bar is divided into segments showing the relative proportion of two types of cost: Personal Injury Costs and Vehicle Damage Costs. Other Event is the largest category, costing about 150,779 million dollars in personal injury costs with an additional 17,413 million dollars in vehicle damage costs. Roadway Departure cost about 67,321 million dollars in personal injury costs with an additional 3,479 million dollars in vehicle damage costs. Pedestrian costs about 13,807 million dollars in personal injury costs with an additional 59 million dollars in vehicle damage costs. Cyclist costs about 4,205 million dollars in personal injury costs with an additional 47 million dollars in vehicle damage costs. Animal or Object costs about 5,351 million dollars in personal injury costs with an additional 809 million dollars in vehicle damage costs. Back to Figure 13.

 

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