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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-148
Date: December 2005

Enhanced Night Visibility Series, Volume XVII: Phases II and III—Characterization of Experimental Vision Enhancement Systems

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U.S. Department of Transportation

Federal Highway Administration

Research, Development, and Technology

Turner–Fairbank Highway Research Center

6300 Georgetown Pike

McLean, VA 22101–2296


FOREWORD

The overall goal of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Visibility Research Program is to enhance the safety of road users through near-term improvements of the visibility on and along the roadway. The program also promotes the advancement of new practices and technologies to improve visibility on a cost-effective basis.

The following document provides a characterization of vision enhancement systems used in the evaluation of the performance of drivers during nighttime driving in the Enhanced Night Visibility (ENV) project. These systems include halogen and high-intensity discharge headlamps, UV–A emitters used to augment the headlamps, and in-vehicle sensors for near-infrared emitters and far-infrared detectors. The ENV project provides a comprehensive evaluation of evolving and proposed headlamp technologies. The individual studies within the overall project are documented in an 18-volume series of FHWA reports, of which this is Volume XVII. It is anticipated that the reader will select those volumes that provide information of specific interest.

This report will be of interest to headlamp designers, automobile manufacturers and consumers, third-party headlamp manufacturers, human factors engineers, and people involved in headlamp and roadway specifications.

 

Michael F. Trentacoste
Director, Office of Safety
    Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.
FHWA-HRT-04-148

2. Government Accession No.

3. Recipient's Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle
Enhanced Night Visibility Series, Volume XVII: Phases II and III—Characterization of Experimental Vision Enhancement Systems

5. Report Date
December 2005

6. Performing Organization Code

7. Author(s)
Ronald B. Gibbons, Clay Moulton

8. Performing Organization Report No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute
3500 Transportation Research Plaza
Blacksburg, VA 24061

10. Work Unit No.

11. Contract or Grant No.
DTFH61-98-C-00049

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Office of Safety Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13.Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report

14. Sponsoring Agency Code
HRDS-05

15. Supplementary Notes
Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR): Carl Andersen, HRDS-05

16. Abstract
This report is a summary of the photometric characterization of the headlamps that were included in the vision enhancement systems used for the Enhanced Night Visibility (ENV) project. Each of the visible light and ultraviolet sources used for the visibility studies have been photometrically characterized and documented in this report. The report also contains a discussion of the headlamp aiming method.

17. Key Words
Halogen, Headlamp, HID, Photometry, Ultraviolet

18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)
Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)
Unclassified

21. No. of Pages
75

22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)          Reproduction of completed page authorized


SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors


ENHANCED NIGHT VISIBILITY PROJECT REPORT SERIES

This volume is the 17th of 18 volumes in this research report series. Each volume is a different study or summary, and any reference to a report volume in this series will be referenced in the text as “ENV Volume I,” “ENV Volume II,” and so forth. A list of the report volumes follows:

Volume Title Report Number
  I           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Executive Summary FHWA-HRT-04-132
  II           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Overview of Phase I and
Development of Phase II Experimental Plan
FHWA-HRT-04-133
  III           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 1: Visual
Performance During Nighttime Driving in Clear Weather
FHWA-HRT-04-134
  IV           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 2: Visual
Performance During Nighttime Driving in Rain
FHWA-HRT-04-135
  V           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 3: Visual
Performance During Nighttime Driving in Snow
FHWA-HRT-04-136
  VI           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 4: Visual
Performance During Nighttime Driving in Fog
FHWA-HRT-04-137
  VII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 5: Evaluation of
Discomfort Glare During Nighttime Driving in Clear Weather
FHWA-HRT-04-138
  VIII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Study 6: Detection of
Pavement Markings During Nighttime Driving in Clear Weather
FHWA-HRT-04-139
  IX           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Characterization of
Experimental Objects
FHWA-HRT-04-140
  X           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Visual Performance
Simulation Software for Objects and Traffic Control Devices
FHWA-HRT-04-141
  XI           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase II—Cost-Benefit Analysis FHWA-HRT-04-142
  XII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Overview of Phase II and
Development of Phase III Experimental Plan
FHWA-HRT-04-143
  XIII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase III—Study 1: Comparison
of Near Infrared, Far Infrared, High Intensity Discharge, and Halogen Headlamps on Object Detection in Nighttime Clear Weather
FHWA-HRT-04-144
  XIV           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase III—Study 2: Comparison
of Near Infrared, Far Infrared, and Halogen Headlamps on Object Detection in Nighttime Rain
FHWA-HRT-04-145
  XV           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase III—Study 3: Influence of
Beam Characteristics on Discomfort and Disability Glare
FHWA-HRT-04-146
  XVI           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phase III—Characterization of
Experimental Objects
FHWA-HRT-04-147
  XVII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Phases II and III—
Characterization of Experimental Vision Enhancement Systems
FHWA-HRT-04-148
  XVIII           Enhanced Night Visibility Series: Overview of Phase III FHWA-HRT-04-149

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 2—METHODS CHAPTER 3—HEADLAMP AIMING PROCEDURES CHAPTER 4—CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS CHAPTER 5—HEADLAMP CHARACTERIZATION

APPENDIX A—PHASES II AND III HEADLAMP ALIGNMENT PROTOCOL

REFERENCES



LIST OF FIGURES

  1. Equation. Radiant flux.
  2. Equation. Luminous flux.
  3. Equation. Radiant or luminous intensity.
  4. Equation. Irradiance or illuminance.
  5. Equation. Radiance and luminance.
  6. Diagram. Comparison of vertical reference point for 25-ft and 35-ft headlamp alignment distances.
  7. Diagram. VOL aiming.
  8. Diagram. VOR aiming.
  9. Diagram. Hotspot aiming for mechanically aimed lamps.
  10. Graph. Misaim from the Copenhaver and Jones data.
  11. Diagram. Hotspot aiming for UV–A lamps.
  12. Line graph. Visible light spectral power distribution of halogen lamp ranging from 380 nm to 730 nm.
  13. Line graph. Spectral power distribution of HID lamp ranging from 380 nm to 740 nm.
  14. Photo. Example of an OEM mount.
  15. Photo. Rack mount.
  16. Photo. Glare rack mount.
  17. Photo. Halogen low beam front view.
  18. Graph. Halogen low beam isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  19. Photo. Halogen low beam low profile front view.
  20. Graph. Halogen low beam low profile isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  21. Graph. Halogen high beam isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  22. Graph. High output halogen low beam isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  23. Photo. High intensity discharge front view.
  24. Photo. High intensity discharge side view.
  25. Photo. High intensity discharge plan view.
  26. Photo. High intensity discharge rear view.
  27. Graph. High intensity discharge low beam isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  28. Graph. Companion headlamp to NIR 2 and FIR isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  29. Graph. Companion headlamp to NIR 1 isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  30. Photo. High intensity discharge 1 front view.
  31. Photo. High intensity discharge 1 side view.
  32. Photo. High intensity discharge 1 plan view.
  33. Photo. High intensity discharge 1 rear view.
  34. Graph. High intensity discharge low beam 1 isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  35. Photo. High intensity discharge 2 front view.
  36. Photo. High intensity discharge 2 side view.
  37. Photo. High intensity discharge 2 plan view.
  38. Photo. High intensity discharge 2 rear view.
  39. Graph. High intensity discharge low beam 2 isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  40. Photo. High intensity discharge 3 front view.
  41. Photo. High intensity discharge 3 side view.
  42. Photo. High intensity discharge 3 plan view.
  43. Photo. High intensity discharge 3 rear view.
  44. Graph. High intensity discharge low beam 3 isocandela plot (right headlamp).
  45. Line graph. Spectral power distribution of the UV–A source.
  46. Line graph. Spectral power distribution of the hybrid UV–A source.
  47. Photo. Hybrid UV–A front view.
  48. Photo. Hybrid UV–A side view.
  49. Photo. Hybrid UV–A plan view.
  50. Photo. Hybrid UV–A rear view.
  51. Graph. Hybrid UV–A radiant intensity.
  52. Graph. Hybrid UV–A isoWatt plot of radiant intensity.
  53. Photo. UV–A lamps on the rack mount.
  54. Photo. UV–A front view.
  55. Photo. UV–A side view.
  56. Photo. UV–A top view.
  57. Graph. UV–A radiant intensity.
  58. Graph. UV–A isoWatt plot of radiant intensity.


LIST OF TABLES

  1. Halogen low beam description
  2. Halogen low beam optical center position.
  3. Halogen low beam low profile description.
  4. Halogen low beam low profile optical center position.
  5. Halogen high beam description.
  6. Halogen high beam optical center position.
  7. High output halogen low beam description.
  8. High output halogen low beam optical center position.
  9. High intensity discharge low beam description.
  10. High intensity discharge low beam optical center position.
  11. Companion headlamp to NIR 2 and FIR description.
  12. Companion headlamp to NIR 2 and FIR optical center position.
  13. Companion headlamp to NIR 1 description.
  14. Companion headlamp to NIR 1 optical center position.
  15. High intensity discharge low beam 1 description.
  16. High intensity discharge low beam 1 optical center position.
  17. High intensity discharge low beam 2 description.
  18. High intensity discharge low beam 2 optical center position.
  19. High intensity discharge low beam 3 description.
  20. High intensity discharge low beam 3 optical center position.
  21. Hybrid UV–A description.
  22. Hybrid UV–A optical center position.
  23. UV–A description.
  24. UV–A optical center position.
  25. Headlamp characterization data.
  26. Headlamp characterization matrix.

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

 

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