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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-034
Date: July 2006

Human Factors Literature Reviews on Intersections, Speed Management, Pedestrians and Bicyclists, and Visibility

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APPENDIX A. MASTER REFERENCE LIST

This Master Reference List was created to keep track of all of the documents associated with this project. This list was used primarily by the project team to keep track of which documents had initially been identified for inclusion in the review, been ordered, been received, required copyright permission, received copyright permission, and been reviewed. In addition, it served as a way to keep track of the reports that were on the list, but were changed to "Not Reviewed" based on draft reviews, an internal review of the list, or suggestions from FHWA. As seen in the actual list, each document, whether it was given a final review or not, was assigned a unique identifier number as part of the tracking process.

Tables 2 through 5 in this appendix are comprised of references to the body of work that was considered for inclusion in the compendium. The documents referenced here were either reviewed and included in the compendium or were considered for review, but rejected. The tables are organized into categories representing the topic areas of interest. Tables 2 through 5 reference the documents that were included in the compendium and are organized as follows:

Table 2 Intersections
Table 3 Speed Management
Table 4 Pedestrians and Bicyclists
Table 5 Visibility

The reference tables include the following fields:

Reference The document.
Reference Number An internal tracking number for each document.
Web Site The number corresponds to the list of Web sites on page 268 and indicates the Web address for the document. "N/A" indicates that no Web site w as found for the document.
Received Indicates whether the document has been received by the Battelle project team.
Copyright Permission Indicates if permission is required to reprint figures or tables.
Permission Received Indicates if permission has been received to reprint figures or tables.
Review Status Indicates if the document has been reviewed.

Table comprises a summary of the total number of references in each category. This status summary table includes the following fields:

Category Indicates one of the four categories.
Total References Total number of references found for each category.
Total to Review The number of documents selected for review at this time in each of the four categories.
Received Indicates the number of documents received by the Battelle team.
Reviewed Indicates the total number of documents reviewed for each category.

A list of references to the Web sites at which the reports may be found follow the tables.

Table 2. References for Intersections section.
INTERSECTIONS
Reference Reference Number Web Site Received? Copyright Permission? Permission Received Review
Status

Anonymous. (1995). Traffic Operations Control for Older Drivers: A Summary Report (FHWA-RD-94-199). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_001         Not Reviewed

Anonymous. (2001). National Agenda for Intersection Safety (FHWA-SA-02-007). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_002 2       Not Reviewed

Antonucci, N.D., Hardy, K.K., Slack, K.L., Pfefer, R., and Neuman, T.R. (2004). Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volume 12: A Guide for Reducing Collisions at Signalized Intersections (NCHRP Report 500). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

INT_003 8 Yes Yes Yes Yes

Bauer, K.M, and Harwood, D.W. (2000). Statistical Models of At-Grade Intersection Accidents, Addendum (FHWA-RD-99-094). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_004 3 Yes     Yes

Bauer, K.M., and Harwood, D.W. (1996).Statistical Models of At-Grade Intersection Accidents (FHWA-RD-96-125). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_005   Yes     Yes

Bellomo-McGee, Inc. (2003). Intersection Collision Avoidance Study, Final Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_006   Yes     Yes

Bonneson, J.A., and McCoy, P.T. (1994). "Driver Understanding of Protected and Permitted Left-Turn Signal Displays." Transportation Research Record 1464, pp. 42-50. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

INT_007   Yes Yes Yes Yes

Bonneson, J.A., and McCoy, P.T. (1997). Capacity and Operational Effects of Midblock Left-Turn Lanes (Report No. 395). Washington, DC: National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board.

INT_008         Not Reviewed

Bonneson, J., Brewer, M., and Zimmerman, K. (2001). Review and Evaluation of Factors That Affect the Frequency of Red-Light Running (FHWA/TX-02/4027-1). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_009   Yes     Yes

Bonneson, J., Zimmerman, K., and Brewer, M. (August 2002). Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red-Light Running (FHWA/TX-03/4027-2). Texas Department of Transportation.

INT_010   Yes     Yes

*Chovan, J.D., Tijerina, L., Everson, J.H., Pierowicz, D.L., and Hendricks, D.L. (1994). Examination of Intersection, Left Turn Across Path Crashes and Potential IVHS Countermeasures (DOT-HS-808-154). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_011 23 Yes     Yes

*Chovan, J.D., Tijerina, L., Pierowicz, D.L., and Hendricks, D.L. (1994). Examination of Unsignalized Intersection, Straight Crossing-Path Crashes and Potential IVHS Countermeasures (DOT-HS-808-152). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_012 23 Yes     Yes

Compton, R.P., and Milton, E.V. (1994). Safety Impact of Permitting Right-Turn-On-Red (DOT-HS-808-200). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_013   Yes     Yes

Datta, T.K. (1994). Assessment of the Benefits of Two-Way Center Left-Turn Lanes (FHWA-MI-RD-94-06). Michigan Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_014         Not Reviewed

Datta, T.K., Schattler, K., and Datta, S. (2000). "Red Light Violations and Crashes at Urban Intersections." Transportation Research Record 1734. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

INT_015   Yes Yes Yes Yes

Anonymous. (1995). Accident Analysis of Older Drivers at Intersections (FHWA-RD-94-021). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_016 32 Yes     Yes

Gattis, J.L., and Low, S.T. (1998). Intersection Angles and the Driver’s Field of View (MBTC-FR-1073). Little Rock, AR: Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department.

INT_017   Yes     Yes

Harwood, D.W., Bauer, K.M., Potts, I.B., Torbic, D.J., Richard, K.R., Kohlman Rabbani, E.R., Hauer, E., and Elefteriadou, L. (July 2002). Safety Effectiveness of Intersection Left- and Right-Turn Lanes (FHWA-RD-02-089). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_018 3 Yes     Yes

Harwood, D.W., Council, F.M., Hauer, E., Hughes, W.E., and Vogt, A. (2000).Prediction of the Expected Safety Performance of Rural Two-Lane Highways(FHWA-RD-99-207). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_019 3 Yes     Yes

Harwood, D.W., Pietrucha, M.T., Wooldridge, M.D., Brydia, R.E., and Fitzpatrick, K. (1995). Median Intersection Design (NCHRP Report 375). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

INT_020         Not Reviewed

Hasson, P., and Stollof, E. (2002). Intersection Safety Briefing Sheets: An Introduction. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_021 2 Yes     Yes

Institute of Transportation Engineers. (2003). Making Intersections Safer: A Toolbox of Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red-Light Running, An Informational Report (Publication No. IR-115). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_022 2 Yes     Yes

Lee, S.E., Knipling, R.R., DeHart, M.C., Perez, M.A., Holbrook, G.T., Brown, S.B., Stone, S.R., and Olson, R.L. (March 2004). Vehicle-Based Countermeasures for Signal and Stop Sign Violations, Task 1: Intersection Control Violation Crash Analyses, Task 2: Top-Level System and Human Factors Requirements (DOT-HS-809-716). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_023 19 Yes     Yes

Lerner, N.D., Huey, R.W., McGee, H.W., and Sullivan, A. (1995). Older Driver Perception-Reaction Time for Intersection Sight Distance and ObjectDetection, Volume 1: Final Report (FHWA-RD-93-168). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_024   Yes     Yes

Mohamedshah, Y.M., Chen, L.W., and Council, F.M. (May 2000). Association of Selected Intersection Factors With Red-Light Running Crashes (FHWA-RD-00-112). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_025 5 Yes     Yes

Najm, W.G., Smith, J.D., and Smith, D.L. (2001). Analysis of Crossing-Path Crashes (DOT-HS-809-423). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic SafetyAdministration.

INT_026 3 Yes     Yes

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Federal Highway Administration. (2003). Guidance for Using Red-Light Cameras. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_027 2 Yes     Yea

Neuman, T.R., Pfefer, R., Slack, K.L., Hardy, K.K., Harwood, D.W., Potts, I.B., Torbic, D.J., and Kohlman Rabbani, E.R. (2003). Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volume 5: A Guide for Addressing Unsignalized Intersection Collisions (NCHRP Report 500). Transportation Research Board.

INT_028   Yes     Yes

*Pierowicz, J., Jocoy, E., Lloyd, M., Bittner, A., and Pirson, B. (2000). Intersection Collision Avoidance Using ITS Countermeasures, Task 9: Intersection Collision Avoidance System Performance Guidelines, Final Report (DOTHS-809-171). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_029   Yes     Yes

Polus, A., and Cohen, R. (1997). "Operational Impact of Split Intersections." Transportation Research Record 1579 . Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

INT_030         Not Reviewed

Retting, R.A., and Greene, M.A. (1997). "Influence of Traffic Signal Timing on Red-Light Running and Potential Vehicle Conflicts at Urban Intersections." Transportation Research Record 1595, pp. 1-7. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

INT_031   Yes Yes No Yes

Robinson, B.W., Rodegerdts, L., Scarborough, W., Kittelson, W., Troutbeck, R., Brilon, W., Bondzio, L., Courage, K., Kyte, M., Mason, J., Flannery, A., Myers, E., Bunker, J., and Jacquemart, G. (2000). Roundabouts: An Informational Guide (FHWA-PL-00-067). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_032   Yes     Yes

Rodegerdts, L.A., Nevers, B., Robinson, B. Ringert, J., Koonce, P., Bansen, J., Nguyen, T., McGill, J., Stewart, D., Suggett, J., Neuman, T., Antonucci, N., Hardy, K., and Courage, K. (August 2004). Signalized Intersections: Informational Guide (FHWA-HRT-04-091). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_033   Yes     Yes

Stamatiadis, N., Kala, T., Clayton, A., and Agent, K. (June 2004). U-Turns at Signalized Intersections (KTC-04-12/SPR258-03-3F). Frankfort, KY: Kentucky Transportation Cabinet.

INT_035   Yes     Yes

Staplin, L., Gish, K.W., Decina, L.E., Lococo, K.H., and McKnight, A.S. (1998). Intersection Negotiation Problems of Older Drivers, Volume I: Final Technical Report. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_036 35 Yes     Yes

Staplin, L., Harkey, D.L., Lococo, K.H., and Tarawneh, M.S. (1997). Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume 3: Guidelines (FHWA-RD-96-137). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_037   Yes     Yes

Staplin, L., Harkey, D.L., Lococo, K.H., and Tarawneh, M.S. (1997). Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume 2: Executive Summary (FHWA-RD-96-138). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_038   Yes     Not Reviewed

Staplin, L., Harkey, D.L., Lococo, K.H., and Tarawneh, M.S. (1997). Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume 1: Final Report (FHWA-RD-96-132). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_039   Yes     Yes

Stokes, R.W. (2004). Effectiveness of Two-Way Stop Control at Low-Volume Rural Intersections. Kansas Department of Transportation.

INT_040         Not Reviewed

Stokes, R.W., Rys, M.J., Russel, E.R., Robinson, R.K., and Budke, B. (2000). Analysis of Rural Intersection Accidents Caused by Stop Sign Violation and Failure to Yield the Right-of-Way. Kansas Department of Transportation

INT_041         Not Reviewed

*Tijerina, L., Chovan, J.D., Pierowicz, D.L., and Hendricks, D.L. (1994). Examination of Signalized Intersection, Straight Crossing-Path Crashes and Potential IVHS Countermeasures (DOT-HS-808-143). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_042   Yes     Yes

Vogt, A. (1999). Crash Models for Rural Intersections: Four-Lane by Two-Lane Stop-Controlled and Two-Lane by Two-Lane Signalized (FHWA-RD-99-128). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_043 3 Yes     Yes

Vogt, A., and Bared, J.G. (1998). Accident Models for Two-Lane Rural Roads: Segments and Intersections (FHWA-RD-98-133). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

INT_044 3 Yes     Yes

*Wang, J., and Knipling, R.R. (1994). Intersection Crossing-Path Crashes: Problem Size Assessment and Statistical Description (DOT-HS-808-190). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_045   Yes     Yes

Campbell, B.N., Smith, J.D., and Najm, W.G. (September 2004). Analysis of Fatal Crashes Due to Signal and Stop Sign Violations (DOT-HS-809-779). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

INT_046   Yes     Yes

Council, F.M., Persaud, B., Eccles, K., Lyon, C., and Griffith, M.S. (April 2005).Safety Evaluation of Red-Light Cameras, Executive Summary (FHWA-HRT-05-048). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA.

INT_047 4 Yes     Yes

*Indicates reviews from the Technical Compendium and Summary of IVI-Related Human Factors Research.

 

Table 3. References for Speed Management section.
SPEED MANAGEMENT
Reference Reference Number Web Site Received Copyright Permission? Permission Received Review
Status

Clark, A., and Dornfeld, M.J. (1994). Traffic Calming, Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management Techniques: Their Effects on Bicycling and Pedestrians (FHWA-PD-93-028). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

SPD_001 22 Yes     Yes

Coleman, J.A, Cotton, R.D., Parker, M.R., Covey, R., Pena, H.E., Jr., Graham, D., Robinson, M.L., McCauley, J., Taylor, W.C., and Morford, G. (December 1995). FHWA International Technology Scanning Program: Summary Report of the FHWA Study Tour for Speed Management and Enforcement Technology (FHWA-PL-96-006). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

SPD_002 31 Yes     Yes

Bloch, S.A. (1998). A Comparative Study of the Speed Reduction Effects of Photo-Radar and Speed Display Boards. Transportation Research Board 77th Annual Meeting, January 11-15, Washington, DC.

SPD_003         Not Reviewed

Ewing, R. (1999). Traffic Calming: State of the Practice (FHWA-RD-99-135). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

SPD_004 14 Yes     Yes

Federal Highway Association. (1996). Effects of Raising and Lowering Speed Limits on Selected Roadway Sections (FHWA-RD-92-084). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

SPD_005 15 Yes     Yes

Feng, C. (2001). "Synthesis of Studies on Speed and Safety." Transportation Research Record 1779. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

SPD_006   Yes     Yes

Fitzpatrick, K., Carlson, P.J., Wooldridge, M.D., and Brewer, M.A. (2000). Design Factors That Affect Driver Speed on Suburban Arterials (FHWA/TX-00/1769-3). Austin, TX: Texas Department of Transportation.

SPD_007   Yes     Yes

Fitzpatrick, K., Elefteriadou, L., Harwood, D.W., Collins, J.M., McFadden, F., Anderson, I.B., Krammes, R.A., Irizarry, N., Parma, K.D., Bauer, K.M., and Passetti, K. (1999). Speed Prediction for Two-Lane Rural Highways (FHWARD-99-171). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

SPD_008 3 Yes     Yes

Garber, N.J., and Patel, S.T. (1994). Effectiveness of Changeable Message Signs in Controlling Vehicle Speeds in Work Zones (FHWA/VA-95-R4). Virginia Transportation Research Council; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

SPD_009 16 Yes     Yes

Garder, P., Ivan, J.N., and Du, J. (June 2002). Traffic Calming of State Highways: Application New England (Grant No. DTRS99-G-0001). New EnglandUniversity Transportation Center.

SPD_010         Not Reviewed

Knoblauch, R.L., and Raymond, P.D. (2000). The Effects of Crosswalk Markings on Vehicle Speeds in Maryland, Virginia, and Arizona (FHWA-RD-00-101). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

SPD_011 1 Yes     Yes

Maze, T., Kamyab, A., and Schrock, S. (April 2000). Evaluation of Work Zone Speed Reduction Measures (Report No. 99-44). Iowa Department of Transportation.

SPD_012   Yes     Yes

Parham, A.H., and Fitzpatrick, K. (1998). Handbook of Speed Management Techniques (FHWA-TX-99-1770-2). Texas Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

SPD_013   Yes     Yes

Stuster, J., Coffman, Z., and Warren, D. (July 1998). Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Speed and Speed Management (FHWA-RD-98-154). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

SPD_014 17 Yes     Yes

Zein, S.R., Geddes, E., Hemsing, S., and Johnson, M. (1997). "Safety Benefits of Traffic Calming." Transportation Research Record 1578, Pedestrian and Bicycle Research, pp. 3-10. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

SPD_015         Not Reviewed

Anonymous. (2000). "Restoring Credibility to Speed Setting: Engineering, Enforcement, and Educational Issues," Speed Management Workshops. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

SPD_016 30 Yes     Yes

 

Table 4. References for Pedestrians and Bicyclists section.
PEDESTRIANS AND BICYCLISTS
Reference Reference Number Web Site Received? Copyright Permission? Permission Received Review
Status

Anonymous. (2002). National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes and Behaviors, Highlights Report. Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

P&B_001 20 Yes     Yes

Anonymous. The Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept, Implementation Manual (FHWA-RD-98-095). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_002         Not Reviewed

Beckwith, D.M., and Hunter-Zaworski, K.M. (1998). "Passive Pedestrian Detection at Unsignalized Crossings." Transportation Research Record 1636, pp. 96-103. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

P&B_004   Yes     Yes

Cairney, P. (1999). Pedestrian Safety in Australia (FHWA-PL-99-093). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_005 10 Yes     Yes

Campbell, B.J., Zegeer, C.V., Huang, H.H., and Cynecki, M.J. (January 2004). A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the United States and Abroad (FHWA-RD-03-042). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_006 13 Yes     Yes

Carsten, O.M.J., Sheryborne, D.J., and Rothengatter, R.A. (1998). "Intelligent Traffic Signals for Pedestrians: Evaluation of Trials in Three Countries." Transportation Research Record, Part C, 6, pp. 213-220. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

P&B_007   Yes     Yes

Clark, A., and Tracy, L. (1995). Bicycle Safety-Related Research Synthesis (FHWARD-94-062). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, FederalHighway Administration.

P&B_009   Yes     Yes

daSilva, M.P., Campbell, B.N., Smith, J.D., and Najm, W.G. (2002). Analysis of Pedalcyclist Crashes (DOT-HS-809-572). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

P&B_010 19 Yes     Yes

daSilva, M.P., Smith, J.D., and Najm, W.G. (2002). Analysis of Pedestrian Crashes(DOT-HS-809-585). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

P&B_011 19 Yes     Yes

Davis, D.G. (1999). Research, Development, and Implementation of Pedestrian Safety Facilities in the United Kingdom (FHWA-PL-99-089). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_012 2 Yes     Yes

Ekman, L., and Hyden, C. (1999). Pedestrian Safety in Sweden (FHWA-RD-99-091). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_013 10 Yes     Yes

Ferrara, T.C., and Gibby, A.R. (September 2001). Statewide Study of Bicycles and Pedestrians on Freeways, Expressways, Toll Bridges, and Tunnels (FHWA/CA/OR-01/20). Caltrans; U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration.

P&B_014         Not Reviewed

FHWA Study Tour for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in England, Germany, and the Netherlands (FHWA-PL-95-006). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_015         Not Reviewed

Hakkert, A.S., Gitelman, V., and Ben-Shabat, E. (2002). An Evaluation of Crosswalk Warning Systems: Effects on Pedestrian and Vehicle Behavior. Transportation Research Part F, 5, pp. 233-250.

P&B_016   Yes     Yes

Harkey, D.L., Reinfurt, D.W., Knuiman, M., Stewart, J.R., and Sorton, A. (1998).Development of the Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept, Final Report (FHWA-RD-98-072). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_017         Not Reviewed

Huang, H.F., and Cynecki, M.J. (2001). The Effects of Traffic Calming Measures on Pedestrian and Motorist Behavior (FHWA-RD-00-104). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_018 1 Yes     Yes

Huang, H., and Zegeer, C.V. (1999). An Evaluation of Illuminated Pedestrian Push Buttons in Windsor, Ontario (FHWA-RD-00-102). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration

P&B_019 1 Yes     Yes

Huang, H., Zegeer, C., Nassi, R., and Fairfax, B. (2000). The Effects of Innovative Pedestrian Signs at Unsignalized Locations: A Tale of Three Treatments (FHWA-RD-00-098). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_020 1 Yes     Yes

Hughes, R., Huang, H., Zegeer, C., and Cynecki, M. (2001). Evaluation of Automated Pedestrian Detection at Signalized Intersections (FHWA-RD-00-097).Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal HighwayAdministration.

P&B_021 1 Yes     Yes

Hummel, T. (1999). Dutch Pedestrian Safety Research Review (FHWA-PL-99-092). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_022 10 Yes     Yes

Hunter, W.W., Stewart, J.R., Stutts, J.C., Huang, H.H., and Pein, W.E. (1998). Bicycle Lanes vs. Wide Curb Lanes, Final Report (FHWA-RD-99-034). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration

P&B_023 33 Yes     Yes

Hunter, W.W., Stewart, J.R., Stutts, J.C., Huang, H.H., and Pein, W.E. (1998). Bicycle Lanes vs. Wide Curb Lanes: Operational and Safety Findings and Countermeasure Recommendations (FHWA-RD-99-035). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_024 1 Yes     Yes

Hunter, W.W., Stutts, J.C., Pein, W.E., and Cox, C.L. (1996). Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s (FHWA-RD-95-163). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_025         Not Reviewed

Knoblauch, R.L., Nitzburg, M., and Seifert, R.F. (2001). Pedestrian Crosswalk Case Studies: Sacramento, California; Richmond, Virginia; Buffalo, New York; Stillwater, Minnesota(FHWA-RD-00-103). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_026 1 Yes     Yes

Leaf, W.A., and Preusser, D.F. (1999). Literature Review on Vehicle Travel Speeds and Pedestrian Injuries (DOT-HS-809-012). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

P&B_028 34 Yes     Yes

Lord, D. (1997). "Analysis of Pedestrian Conflicts With Left-Turning Traffic."Transportation Research Record 1538. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

P&B_029   Yes Yes Yes Yes

McMahon, P.J., Zegeer, C.V., Duncan, C., Knoblauch, R.L., Stewart, J.R., and Khattak, A.J. (2001). An Analysis of Factors Contributing to "Walking Along Roadway" Crashes: Research Study and Guidelines for Sidewalks and Walkways (FHWA-RD-01-101). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_030 7 Yes     Yes

Nitzburg, M., and Knoblauch, R.L. (2001). An Evaluation of High-Visibility Crosswalk Treatments: Clearwater, Florida (FHWA-RD-00-105). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_031 1 Yes     Yes

North Carolina University, Highway Safety Research Center. (1996). Florida Pedestrian Planning and Design Guidelines. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State Department of Transportation.

P&B_032         Not Reviewed

Hall, J.W., Brogan, J.D., and Kondreddi, M. (September 2004). Pedestrian Safety on Rural Highways (FHWA-SA-04-008). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_033 13 Yes     Yes

La Valley, J., Crandall, C.S., Sklar, P., and Banks, L. (September 2004). Pedestrian Safety in Native America (FHWA-SA-04-007). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_034 18 Yes     Yes

Schwartz, W.L., Porter, C.D., Payne, G.C., Suhrbier, J.H., Moe, P.C., and Wilkinson, W.L., III. (1999). Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Non-Motorized Travel: Supporting Documentation (FHWA-RD-98-166). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_035 2 Yes     Not Reviewed

Schwartz, W.L., Porter, C.D., Payne, G.C., Suhrbier, J.H., Moe, P.C., and Wilkinson, W.L., III. (July 1999). Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Non-Motorized Travel: Overview of Methods (FHWA-RD-98-165). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_036 2 Yes     Yes

Staplin, L., Lococo, K., Byington, S., and Harkey, D. (2001). Guidelines and Recommendation to Accommodate Older Driver and Pedestrians (FHWARD-01-051). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_037 1 Yes     Yes

Stutts, J.C., and Hunter, W.W. (1997). Injuries to Pedestrians and Bicyclists: An Analysis Based on Hospital Emergency Department Data (FHWA-RD-99-078). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_038 1 Yes     Yes

U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (2000). Bicycle and Pedestrian Data: Sources, Needs, and Gaps (BTS00-02).Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

P&B_039         Not Reviewed

Van Houten, R., and Malenfant, J.E.L. (1999). Canadian Research on Pedestrian Safety (FHWA-PL-99-090). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_040 10 Yes     Yes

Wilkinson, W.C., Clarke, A., Epperson, B., and Knoblauch, R. (1994). Selecting Roadway Design Treatments to Accommodate Bicycles (FHWA-RD-92-073). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_041 22 Yes     Yes

Zeeger, C.V., Cynecki, M., Fegan, J., Gilleran, B., Lagerwey, P., Tan, C., and Works, B. FHWA Study Tour for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in England, Germany, and the Netherlands (FHWA-PL-95-006). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_042         Not Reviewed

Zegeer, C.V., Seiderman, C., Lagerwey, P., Cynecki, M., Ronkin, M., and Schneider, R. (March 2002). Pedestrian Facilities Users Guide: Providing Safety and Mobility (FHWA-RD-01-102). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_043 1 Yes     Yes

Zegeer, C.V., Stewart, J.R., Huang, H.H., and Lagerwey, P.A. (2001). Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations, Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines (FHWA-RD-01-075). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_044 7 Yes     Yes

Harkley, D.L., and Zegeer, C.V. (September 2004). PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System (FHWA-SA-04-003). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_045   Yes     Yes

Knoblauch, R.L., Furst Seifert, R., and Barreva Murphy, N. (December 2004). The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem as It Relates to the Hispanic Population in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_046 29 Yes     Yes

Vernez Moudon, A. and Hess, P.M. (January 2003). Pedestrian Safety and Transit Corridors (WA-RD-556.1). Washington State Department of Transportation.

P&B_047   Yes     Yes

Landis, B.W., Petritsch, T.A., Huang, H.F., and Do., A. (September 2004). Characteristics of Emerging Road and Trail Users and Their Safety (FHWAHRT-04-104). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

P&B_048 4 Yes     Yes

Ernst, M. (November 2004) Mean Streets 2004: How Far Have We Come? Pedestrian Safety, 1994-2003. Surface Transportation Policy Project.

P&B_049   Yes     Not Reviewed

 

Table 5. References for Visibility section.
VISIBILITY
Reference Reference Number Web Site Received? Copyright Permission? Permission Received Review
Status

Barker, J.A., Neale, V.L., and Dingus, T.A. (1998). Improving the Conspicuity of Trailblazing Signs for Incident Management (VTRC-98-CR36). Virginia Transportation Research Council.

VIS_002   Yes     Yes

Bible, R.C., and Johnson, N. (2002). "Retroreflective Material Specifications and On- Road Sign Performance." Transportation Research Record 1801, p. 61.Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

VIS_003   Yes Yes No Yes

Bullough, J.D., Boyce, P.R., Bierman, A., Hunter, C.M., Conway, K.M., Nakata, A., and Figueriro, M.G. (2001). "Traffic Signal Luminance and Visual Discomfort at Night."Transportation Research Record 1754, pp. 42-47.Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

VIS_004 24 Yes     Yes

Carlson, P.J., and Hawkins, H.G., Jr. (December 2003). Minimum Retroreflectivity Levels for Overhead Guide Signs and Street-Name Signs (FHWA-RD-03-082). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_005 5 Yes     Yes

Carlson, P.J., and Hawkins, H.G., Jr. (July 2003). Updated Minimum Retroreflectivity Levels for Traffic Signs (FHWA-RD-03-081). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_006 5 Yes     Yes

Chrysler, S.T., Carlson, P.J., and Hawkins, H.G. (2002). Nighttime Legibility of Ground-Mounted Traffic Signs as a Function of Font, Color, and Retroreflective Sheeting Type (FHWA/TX-03/1796-2). Texas Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_007   Yes     Yes

Dhar, S., and Woodin, D.C. (1995). Fluorescent Strong Yellow-Green Signs for Pedestrian/School/Bicycle Crossings: Results of a New York State Study(FHWA/NY/SR-95/121). Albany, NY: New York State Department of Transportation.

VIS_008 25 Yes     Yes

Finley, M.D., Carlson, P.J., Trout, N.D., and Jasek, D.L. (2002). Sign and Pavement Marking Visibility From the Perspective of Commercial Vehicle Drivers(FHWA/TX-03/4269-1). Texas Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_009 26 Yes     Yes

Freedman, M., Flicker, L., Janoff, M.S., Schwab, R.N., and Staplin, L.K. (1997). Visibility Performance Requirements for Vehicular Traffic Signals, Interim Report (NCHRP Project No. 5-15). Rockville, MD: Westat, Inc.

VIS_010   Yes     Yes

Garvey, P.M., and Mace, D.J., (1996). Changeable Message Sign Visibility (FHWARD-94-077). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_011   Yes     Yes

Garvey, P.M., Ramaswamy, C., Ghebrial, R., and De La Riva. (2004). Relative Visibility of Internally and Externally Illuminated On-Premise Signs (Report No. PTI 2004-11). Pennsylvania Transportation Institute.

VIS_012         Not Reviewed

Gates, T.J., Hawkins, H.G., Chrysler, S.T., Carlson, P.J., and Holick, A.J. (2003). Traffic Operational Impacts of Higher Conspicuity Sign (FHWA-TX-04/4271-1). Austin, TX: Texas Department of Transportation.

VIS_013 27 Yes     Yes

Graham, J.R., King, L.E., and Harrold, J. (1994). Determination of a Minimum Highway Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity Value for Older Drivers (FHWA/NC/94-008). North Carolina Department of Transportation.

VIS_014   Yes     Yes

Grant, A.R., and Bloomfield, J.R. (September 1998). Guidelines for the Use of Raised Pavement Markers (FHWA-RD-97-152). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_015 11 Yes     Yes

Hawkins, H.G., Carlson, P.J., Schertz, G.F., and Opiela, K.S. (2003). Workshops on Nighttime Visibility of Traffic Signs: Summary of Workshop Findings(FHWA-SA-03-002). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_016 6 Yes     Yes

Hawkins, H.G., Wooldridge, M.D., Kelly, A.B., Picha, D.L, and Greene, F.K. (1999).Legibility Comparisons of Three Freeway Guide Sign Alphabets (FHWA/TX-99/1276-1F). Texas Department of Transportation.

VIS_017   Yes     Yes

Holick, A.J., and Carlson, P.J. (2003). Nighttime Guide Sign Legibility for Microprismatic Clearview Legend on High-Intensity Background(FHWA/TX-04/0-1796-4). Texas Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_018         Not Reviewed

Jacobs, G.F., Hedblom, T., Bradshaw, T., Hodson, N., and Austin, R. (1995). "Detectability of Pavement Markings Under Stationary and Dynamic Conditions as a Function of Retroreflective Brightness." Transportation Research Record 1495, pp. 68-76. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

VIS_019   Yes Yes No Yes

Jacobs, G., and Johnson, N. (1995). "Yellow Pavement Markings With Yellow Nighttime Color." Transportation Research Record 1495, pp. 147-155.Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

VIS_020         Not Reviewed

Kirk, A.R., Hunt, E.A., and Brooks, E.W. (2001). Factors Affecting Sign Retroreflectivity (OR-RD-01-09). Oregon Department of Transportation Research Group.

VIS_021 12 Yes     Yes

Lewin, I., Box, P., and Stark, R.E. (May 2003). Roadway Lighting: An Investigation and Evaluation of Three Different Light Sources (FHWA-AZ-03-522).Arizona Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_022 28 Yes     Yes

Lindly, J.K., and Wijesundera, R.K. (2003). Evaluation of Profiled Pavement Markings. University of Alabama, Alabama Department of Transportation.

VIS_023         Not Reviewed

Mace, D.J., Garvey, P.M., and Heckard, R.F. (1994). Relative Visibility of Increased Legend Size vs. Brighter Materials for Traffic Signs (FHWA-RD-94-035).Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_024   Yes     Yes

McGee, H.W., and Paniati, J.F. (1998). An Implementation Guide for Minimum Retroreflectivity Requirements for Traffic Signs (FHWA-RD-97-052).Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_025   Yes     Yes

Migletz, J., Graham, J., Bauer, K., and Harwood, D. (1999). "Field Surveys of Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity." Transportation Research Record 1657, pp. 71-78. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

VIS_027   Yes Yes Yes Yes

Molino, J.A., Opielia, K.S., Anderson, C.K., and Moyer, M.J. (2003). "Relative Luminance of Retroreflective Raised Pavement Markers and Pavement Marking Stripes on Simulated Rural Two-Lane Roads." Transportation Research Record 1844, p. 45. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

VIS_028   Yes Yes Yes Yes

Neale, V.L., Anders, R.L., Schreiner, C.S., and Brich, S.C. (2001). Improvement of Conspicuity of Trailblazing Signs, Phase 3: Evaluation of Fluorescent Colors(FHWA/VTRC-01-CR4). Virginia Transportation Research Council.

VIS_029   Yes     Yes

Pennak, S., Mace, D.J., Finkle, M. (1997).Visibility and Comprehension of Pedestrian Traffic Signals (FHWA-RD-96-1870). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_030   Yes     Yes

Pietrucha, M., Hostetter, R., Staplin, L., and Obermeyer, M. (1996). Pavement Markings and Delineation for Older Drivers (FHWA-RD-94-145). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

VIS_031   Yes     Yes

Zwahlen, H.T., and Schnell, T. (1996). "Visibility of New, Dashed Yellow and White Center Stripes as a Function of Material Retroreflectivity." Transportation Research Record 1553, pp. 73-80. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

VIS_032   Yes Yes Yes Yes

Zwahlen, H.T., and Schnell, T. (1996Evaluation of Temporary Pavement Marking ). Systems for Resurfacing Zones (FHWA/OH-96/015). Ohio State Department of Transportation.

VIS_033         Not Reviewed

Zwahlen, H., and Schnell, T. (1995). "Effects of Lateral Separation Between Double Center-Stripe Pavement Markings on Visibility Under Nighttime Driving Conditions." Transportation Research Record 1495, pp. 87-98. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

VIS_034   Yes Yes Yes Yes

Zwahlen, H., and Schnell, T. (1995). "Visibility of New Pavement Markings at Night Under Low-Beam Illumination." Transportation Research Record 1495, pp. 117-127. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

VIS_035         Not Reviewed

 

Table 6. Status summary table.
Category Total References Total to Review Received Permission Needed Permission Received Reviewed
Intersections 46 37 37 4 3 37
Speed Management 16 13 13 0 0 13
Pedestrian and Bicyclists 46 36 36 1 1 36
Visibility 33 27 27 6 4 27
Total 141 113 113 11 8 113

 

Web Sites:

  1. http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pedbike/pedbike.htm
  2. http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/intersect.htm
  3. http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/ihsdm/libweb.htm
  4. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/research/publications/technical/index.cfm
  5. http://www.trb.org/publications/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_500v12.pdf
  6. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bikeped/pedbiketrb2005.htm
  7. http://www.walkinginfo.org/rd/international.htm
  8. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/97152/ch03/ch03.html
  9. http://www.odot.state.or.us/taddresearch/retroreflectivity.pdf
  10. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bikeped/pedbiketrb2005.htm
  11. http://www.ite.org/traffic/tcstate.htm
  12. http://www.ibiblio.org/rdu/sl-irrel.html
  13. http://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/EC.html
  14. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/98154/index.cfm
  15. http://www.walkinginfo.org/pdf/FHWA/Ped_Safety_in_Native_America.pdf
  16. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/departments/nrd-12/pubs_rev.html
  17. http://www.walkinginfo.org/survey2002.htm
  18. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/departments/nrd-12/pubs_rev.html
  19. http://www.bikewalk.org/technical_assistance/case_studies.htm
  20. http://www.its.dot.gov/itsweb/EDL_webpages/webpages/SearchPages/Alpha_Search.cfm
  21. http://199.79.179.82/sundev/detail.cfm?ANNUMBER=00816453
  22. http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/scandoclinks/ocm34574385.htm
  23. http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/4269-1.pdf
  24. http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/4271-1.pdf
  25. http://www.dot.state.az.us/ABOUT/atrc/Publications/SPR/AZ522.pdf
  26. http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/ped/index.htm
  27. http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/speed_manage/docs/workshopreport.pdf
  28. http://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/speed06.html
  29. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/humanfac/94021.cfm
  30. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bikeped/web_pub.htm
  31. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/research/pub/HS809012.html
  32. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/olddrive/oldvoll/volltechdocumentation.html

 

FHWA-HRT-06-034

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