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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-125
Date: November 2006

Pedestrian and Bicyclist Intersection Safety Indices

Final Report

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APPENDIX A: DATA COLLECTION INSTRUCTIONS AND FORMS

Instructions for Videotaping Pedestrian Sites

General

I will give you a list of intersections and indicate which crosswalk is of interest (e.g., Market Street at 5th Street, N leg). Assume that Market Street is an east-west street. Then the east and west legs of the intersection are Market Street, and the north and south legs are 5th Street. The crosswalk of interest crosses the north leg of Market Street (see Figure 17). There are separate instructions for signalized and unsignalized intersections.

Panning the Intersection

When you first arrive at an intersection, use the camera on your shoulder to pan around the area. First videotape in front of you, then to the left for a cross-street view, then behind you, and then to the right for the other cross-street view. This gives data coders a sense of the total "look" at this location. Describe in words what you are videotaping (i.e., the street names, what is on each corner, the direction you are looking at, etc.).

Signalized Intersections

You will be videotaping at four places for each intersection: (1) crosswalk of interest, (2) opposite direction, (3) upstream from crosswalk, and (4) downstream from crosswalk. These are explained below.

Crosswalk of Interest

  1. The camera needs to be set up so that it can see the entire crosswalk, the queuing areas on either side of the crosswalk, including the push button locations, the pedestrian signal heads, the traffic signal head for parallel traffic, and vehicles in the rightmost travel lane. The preferred camera position is shown as Position #1 in Figure 18. Note that the camera is facing the same direction as traffic in the lane closest to you. If this position is not feasible, then Position #2 shown in Figure 19 can be used. Here the camera is facing the opposite direction as traffic in the lane closest to you. The camera should be approximately 7 to 8 feet above the ground. The camera should be set up about 75 to 100 feet from the intersection. Zoom in to get the desired view.

  2. Videotape for 1 hour-40 minutes at each site. Be careful to avoid fatigue (take breaks if necessary). Use S-VHS mode. An "S" will appear in the upper left-hand corner of the view screen when this is the case. There is a switch on top of the camera that should be in the "on-auto" position to make sure the camera is in the S-VHS mode.

  3. Be sure to describe in words what you are videotaping ("I’m at Market and 34th streets, and I’m looking south across Market, filming the west crosswalk.").

  4. The camera may not be able to see whether a pedestrian pushed a button to activate the WALK signal. Sometimes the traffic signal head or the ped head is not visible. Please narrate as you are filming ("ped pushed button," "WALK," "flashing," "DON’T WALK," "green light," "yellow," "red"). Set microphone on the "wide" setting. Speak loudly so you can be heard over the noise of traffic. Feel free to comment on anything noteworthy.

    Opposite Direction

  5. If you videotaped from Position #1, now move the ladder and camera to Position #2. Set up about 75 to 100 feet back from the intersection. Zoom in to get a closeup view and then zoom out again. About 4 minutes of footage should be sufficient. Describe in words what you are videotaping ("This is a view along 34th Street, looking north across Market Street"). When you are done, go to Step 7.

  6. If you videotaped from Position #2, now move the ladder and camera to Position #1. Set up about 75 to 100 feet back from the intersection. Zoom in to get a closeup view and then zoom out again. About 4 minutes of footage should be sufficient. Describe in words what you are videotaping ("This is a view along 34th Street, looking north across Market Street.").

    Upstream From Crosswalk

  7. Move the ladder and camera to Position #3 as shown in Figure 20. The camera needs to be set up so that it can see the entire crosswalk, the queuing areas on either side of the crosswalk, and the vehicles in the travel lanes. Set up about 150 to 200 feet back from the intersection. Zoom in to get a closeup view and then zoom back out again. About 4 minutes of footage should be sufficient. Describe in words what you are videotaping ("This is a view along Market Street, looking east across 34th Street.").

    Downstream From Crosswalk

  8. Move the ladder and camera to Position #4 as shown in Figure 21. The camera needs to be set up so that it can see the entire crosswalk, the queuing areas on either side of the crosswalk, and the vehicles in the travel lanes. Set up about 150 to 200 feet back from the intersection. Zoom in to get a closeup view and then zoom back out again. About 4 minutes of footage should be sufficient. Describe in words what you are videotaping ("This is a view along Market Street, looking west across 34th Street.").

Unsignalized Intersections

You will be videotaping at four places for each intersection: (1) crosswalk of interest,( 2) opposite direction, (3) across crosswalk—same direction, and (4) across crosswalk—opposite direction. These are explained below.

Crosswalk of Interest

  1. The camera needs to be set up so that it can see the entire crosswalk, the queuing areas on either side of the crosswalk, and the vehicles in the travel lanes. Use Position #3 as shown in Figure 20. The camera should be approximately 7 to 8 feet above the ground. The camera should be set up about 150 to 200 feet from the intersection. Zoom in to get the desired view.

  2. Videotape for 1 hour-40 minutes at each site. Be careful to avoid fatigue (take breaks if necessary). Use S-VHS mode. An "S" will appear in the upper left-hand corner of the view screen when this is the case. There is a switch on top of the camera that should be in the "on-auto" position to make sure the camera is in the S—VHS mode.

  3. Be sure to describe in words what you are videotaping ("I’m at Filbert and 10th Streets, and I’m looking east along Filbert, filming the west crosswalk."). Feel free to narrate anything noteworthy that you see.

    Opposite Crosswalk

  4. Move the ladder and camera to Position #4 as shown in Figure 21. Set up about 150 to 200 feet back from the intersection. Zoom in to get a closeup view and then zoom out again. About 4 minutes of footage should be sufficient. Describe in words what you are videotaping ("This is a view along Filbert Street, looking west.").

    Across Crosswalk—Same Direction

  5. Move the ladder and camera to Position #1 as shown in Figure 18. Note that the camera is facing the same direction as traffic in the lane closest to you. The camera needs to be set up so that it can see the entire crosswalk, the queuing areas on either side of the crosswalk, and the vehicles in the rightmost travel lane. Set up about 75 to 100 feet back from the intersection. Zoom in to get a closeup view and then zoom back out again. About 4 minutes of footage should be sufficient. Describe in words what you are videotaping ("This is a view along 10th Street, looking south across Filbert.").

    Across Crosswalk—Opposite Direction

  6. Move the ladder and camera to Position #2 as shown in Figure 19. Note that the camera is facing the opposite direction as traffic in the lane closest to you. The camera needs to be set up so that it can see the entire crosswalk, the queuing areas on either side of the crosswalk, and the vehicles in the rightmost travel lane. Set up about 75 to 100 feet back from the intersection. Zoom in to get a closeup view and then zoom back out again. About 4 minutes of footage should be sufficient. Describe in words what you are videotaping ("This is a view along 10th Street, looking north across Filbert.").

Other Tips

  1. Please fill out the data collection form at each intersection.
  2. You will use a stepladder to be able to see over traffic. Always wear your vest.

  3. Videotape during daylight hours under dry conditions (not raining). Do not videotape on days where traffic is disrupted because of a crash, a parade, or anything else out of the ordinary—we are trying to videotape normal traffic flow for the chosen intersection for the time of day selected.

  4. Take into consideration the sun angle. Choose filming times and camera positions to minimize glare.

  5. A fresh battery pack should be good for about 1.5 to 2 hours, so make sure that you have spares. You will need to keep two or three battery packs ready for each time you go out. When filming, keep track of battery "freshness." You will see four marks in the viewfinder when the battery is fully charged. These decrease as the battery becomes weaker. When only two marks are showing, the battery will discharge fairly quickly.

  6. Proceed to all intersections in the same manner. Use a separate tape for each location and label city, site, date, and time of filming (e.g., PHILADELPHIA —MARKET & 34th, W LEG—7/07/02—3:30-5:30 p.m.). Use FedEx® labels to send the videotapes to me.

  7. While you are videotaping, passersby may ask what you are doing. You should always be courteous in your response and simply state that you are doing a traffic study. This answer will usually suffice.

 

Figure 17. Intersection Leg Labels

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Figure 18. Camera Position #1

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Figure 19. Camera Position #2

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Figure 20. Camera Position #3

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Figure 21. Camera Position #4

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Data Collection Form for Pedestrian Sites

LOCATION

City: ___________________________________
Main Street: ___________________________________
Side Street: ___________________________________

Note: Indicate if streets change names.

DATES AND TIMES OF DATA COLLECTION (List all that apply)

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

DATA COLLECTOR(S)

__________________________________________________

VEHICLE TRAFFIC CONTROL

check box  Signals
     
check box  STOP sign, all legs
     
check box  STOP sign, side street only
     
check box  Flasher
     
check boxOther ___________________________________

INTERSECTION TYPE

check box  Four-way check box  T-intersection

ONE-WAY OR TWO-WAY

Main Street, ___ leg: check box  One-way check box  Two-way
     
Main Street, ___ leg: check box  One-way check box  Two-way
     
Side Street, ___ leg:: check box  One-way check box  Two-way
     
Side Street, ___ leg: check box One-way check box Two-way

NUMBER OF LANES

Main Street, ___ leg:      _____ Thru lanes _____ RT only lanes _____ LT only lanes
     
check box   Two-way center turn lane present    
     
Main Street, ___ leg:      _____ Thru lanes _____ RT only lanes _____ LT only lanes
     
check box   Two-way center turn lane present    
     
Side Street, ___ leg:      _____ Thru lanes _____ RT only lanes _____ LT only lanes
     
check box Two-way center turn lane present    
     
Side Street, ___ leg:      _____ Thru lanes _____ RT only lanes _____ LT only lanes
     
check box Two-way center turn lane present    

Note: Thru lanes include combined thru/RT and thru/LT lanes.

CROSSING WIDTH

Main Street, ___ leg: _____ ft
   
Main Street, ___ leg: _____ ft
   
Side Street, ___ leg: _____ ft
   
Side Street, ___ leg: _____ ft

Note: If there is a marked crosswalk, measure the crossing width from curb-to-curb along the middle of the crosswalk.

MARKED CROSSWALKS

Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Parallel lines   check box  Continentalcheck box  Ladder
   
check box  Zebracheck box  Other __________________ check box  None
   
Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Parallel lines  check box  Continentalcheck box  Ladder
   
check box  Zebracheck box  Other __________________check box  None
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Parallel lines  check box  Continentalcheck box  Ladder
   
check box  Zebracheck box  Other __________________check box   None
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Parallel lines   check box  Continentalcheck box  Ladder
   
check boxZebracheck boxOther __________________check box None

CROSSING ISLANDS

Main Street, __ leg: check box  Yes, _____ ft wide check box  No
     
Main Street, __ leg: check box  Yes, _____ ft wide check box  No
     
Side Street, __ leg: check box  Yes, _____ ft wide check box  No
     
Side Street, __ leg: check box  Yes, _____ ft wide check box  No

PEDESTRIAN SIGNALS

Main Street, ___ leg:  
   
check box  WALK/DON’T WALKcheck box  Hand/walking mancheck box  None
   
Is it push button activated?check box  Yescheck box  No
   
Main Street, ___ leg:  
   
check box  WALK/DON’T WALKcheck box  Hand/walking mancheck box  None
   
Is it push button activated?check box  Yescheck box  No
   
Side Street, ___ leg:  
   
check box  WALK/DON’T WALKcheck box  Hand/walking mancheck box  None
   
Is it push button activated?check box  Yescheck box  No
   
Side Street, ___ leg:  
   
check box  WALK/DON’T WALKcheck box  Hand/walking mancheck box  None
   
Is it push button activated?check box  Yescheck box  No

PEDESTRIAN-RELATED SIGNS (for motorists)

Main Street, ___ leg: Main Street, ___ leg:
  
check box  Advance Pedestrian Crossing check box  Advance Pedestrian Crossing
  
check box  Pedestrian Crossing check box  Pedestrian Crossing
  
     check box  Overhead      check box  Overhead
  
check box  NO TURN ON RED check box  NO TURN ON RED
  
check box  Overhead flasher check box  Overhead flasher
  
check box  Other ____________________ check box  Other ____________________
  
check box  Other ____________________ check box  Other ____________________
  
  
Side Street, ___ leg: Side Street, ___ leg:
  
check box  Advance Pedestrian Crossing check box  Advance Pedestrian Crossing
  
check box  Pedestrian Crossing check box  Pedestrian Crossing
  
     check box  Overhead      check box  Overhead
  
check box  NO TURN ON RED check box  NO TURN ON RED
  
check box  Overhead flasher check box  Overhead flasher
  
check box  Other ____________________ check box  Other ____________________
  
check box  Other ____________________ check box  Other ____________________

RIGHT-TURN CURB RADII

Main Street, ___ leg: check box  Large/wide check box  Small/tight check box  Not applicable
    
Main Street, ___ leg: check box  Large/wide check box  Small/tight check box  Not applicable
    
Side Street, ___ leg: check box  Large/wide check box  Small/tight check box  Not applicable
    
Side Street, ___ leg: check box  Large/wide check box  Small/tight check box  Not applicable

ON-STREET PARKING

Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Allowed, cars presentcheck box  Allowed, but no cars present
   
check box  Not allowed
   
Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Allowed, cars presentcheck box  Allowed, but no cars present
   
check box  Not allowed
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Allowed, cars presentcheck box  Allowed, but no cars present
   
check box  Not allowed
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Allowed, cars presentcheck box  Allowed, but no cars present
   
check box  Not allowed

STREET LIGHTING

Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Yescheck box  No
   
Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Yescheck box  No
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Yescheck box  No
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Yescheck box  No

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT AT INTERSECTION

(For example, shops, restaurant, gas station, school, church, houses, apartments, offices.)

Northeast Corner ___________________________________________________________
  
Northwest Corner ___________________________________________________________
  
Southeast Corner ___________________________________________________________
  
Southwest Corner ___________________________________________________________

 

INTERSECTION SKETCH

Instructions for Videotaping Bicycle Sites

General

Refer to any maps, site lists, and diagrams for detailed location information. You will be videotaping at three places for each intersection: (1) oncoming bicycles and motor vehicles, (2) view of cross-street traffic, and (3) view from rear of traffic. These will be explained individually. Also see attached diagrams. You will use a stepladder to be able to see over traffic in all three cases. Always wear your vest. Do not videotape on days where traffic is disrupted because of a crash or something out of the ordinary—we are trying to videotape normal traffic flow for the chosen intersection for the time of day selected.

When you first arrive at the location, use camera on your shoulder to pan around the area. First videotape in the direction for oncoming bikes, then to the left for a side street view, then back to the leg with oncoming bikes, then to the right for the other side street direction, and then behind. This gives data coders a sense of the total "look" at this location. Describe in words what you are videotaping (i.e., site, date, time of day, etc.).

Oncoming Bicycles and Motor Vehicles

  1. Set up stepladder so you can videotape bicyclist’s path approaching and riding through the intersection. We are interested in knowing if they stayed on the road or moved to a sidewalk or other location, so try to follow their path.
  2. We will try to provide a recommendation of when is the best time to videotape for maximum number of bicyclists, but it may require some scouting on your part.

  3. Videotape bicyclists approaching the camera location at the intersection (i.e., coming toward the camera). Try to set up far enough back from the intersection (about 150 to 200 feet) so you can see bicyclists come through the intersection proper and whether they go straight, turn right, or turn left. Line-of-sight limitations may force a different setup position. We need to be able to see their intersection maneuver (e.g., came straight through and then switched to a sidewalk, turned right and stayed in the street, etc.). Then follow the cyclists for a short distance as they move away from the intersection.

  4. Videotape oncoming traffic for 1 hour-45 minutes at each site. Be careful to avoid fatigue (take a break every 15 to 20 minutes if necessary). Make sure date and time switch on camera is turned on. Use S-VHS mode. An "S" will appear in the upper left-hand corner of the view screen when this is the case. There is a switch on top of the camera that should be in the "on-auto" position to make sure the camera is in the S-VHS mode. Try to zoom in on cyclist to have clear view of conflicts with motor vehicles unless multiple bikes in view. If multiple bikes, try for "best of both worlds." Videotape as many of the cyclists coming toward the camera as possible. Use the special form to keep a tally of cyclists by location (in street, on sidewalk). Fill in count on log when complete.

  5. We will rarely be able to see the traffic signal indication at an intersection, so person filming needs to indicate if cyclist "runs" the signal. Likewise for stop sign, flashing red signal, or other control. Set microphone on the "wide" setting. Speak loudly so you can be heard over the noise of traffic. Feel free to comment on anything noteworthy.

  6. Be careful of sun angle. Choose time and location at intersection to minimize problem.

  7. Fresh battery pack should be good for about 1.5 to 2 hours, so make sure you have spares. You will need to keep two or three battery packs ready for each time you go out. See separate instructions related to camera. When filming, keep track of battery "freshness." There are four marks present when the battery is fully charged. These decrease as battery becomes weaker. When only two marks are showing, the battery will become discharged fairly quickly.

  8. Proceed to all sites in the same manner. Use separate tapes for each location and label city, site, date, and time of filming (e.g., PHILADELPHIA—WALNUT & 34th— 4/07/02—3:30-5:30 p.m.). Use FedEx labels to send videotapes to me. Fill in logs as filming and exposure data are collected and fax periodically, or send to me in the FedEx packages.

View of Cross-Street Traffic

  1. Move ladder and camera to the cross street position shown in the diagram. If this location is on a steep downgrade, or there are other physical characteristics that make it difficult to get a good view, then move to the opposite side of the intersection. Set up about 150 to 200 feet back from intersection. Zoom in to give a closeup view and then zoom back out again. It is preferable to show normal movement of traffic into the intersection. About 3 to 4 minutes of footage should be sufficient. Describe in words what you are videotaping ("This is a view of the traffic approaching on _____ Street, the cross street.")

View From Rear of Traffic

  1. Move ladder and camera to the rear-of-traffic position. Again set up about 150 to 200 feet back from intersection. Zoom in to give a closeup view. Try for a view with little traffic as you zoom in so that lane lines and other markings might be seen. Then zoom back out again. Videotape from this position until the rest of the videotape is completed (should be about 10 minutes or so).

Establish time to do weekly phone call.

Data Collection Form for Bicycle Sites

LOCATION

City: ___________________________________
  
Main Street: ___________________________________
  
Side Street: ___________________________________

Note: Indicate if streets change names.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

DATES AND TIMES OF DATA COLLECTION (List all that apply)

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

DATA COLLECTOR(S)

________________________________________________

VEHICLE TRAFFIC CONTROL

MAIN STREET

check box  Signals
 
check box  STOP sign, all legs
 
check box  STOP sign, side street only
 
check box  Flasher
 
check box  Other ________________________
 
check box  Flasher

SIDE STREET

check box  Signals
 
check box  STOP sign, all legs
 
check box  STOP sign, side street only
 
check box  Flasher
 
check box  Other ________________________
 
check box  Flasher

INTERSECTION TYPE

check box  Four-waycheck box  T-intersectioncheck box  Other

ONE-WAY OR TWO-WAY

Main Street, ___ leg:check box  One-waycheck box  Two-way
   
Main Street, ___ leg:check box  One-waycheck box  Two-way
   
Side Street, ___ leg::check box  One-waycheck box  Two-way
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  One-waycheck box  Two-way

Note: For this and other items, where appropriate, label legs as N, S, E, or W. North is the leg on the North side of the street.

NUMBER OF LANES

Main Street, ___ leg:      _____ Thru lanes _____ RT only lanes _____ LT only lanes
   
check box   Two-way center turn lane present  
   
Main Street, ___ leg:      _____ Thru lanes _____ RT only lanes _____ LT only lanes
   
check box   Two-way center turn lane present  
   
Side Street, ___ leg:      _____ Thru lanes _____ RT only lanes _____ LT only lanes
   
check box Two-way center turn lane present  
   
Side Street, ___ leg:      _____ Thru lanes _____ RT only lanes _____ LT only lanes
   
check box Two-way center turn lane present  

Note: Thru lanes include combined thru/RT and thru/LT lanes.

CROSSING WIDTH (expressed in terms of number of lanes crossed)

Main Street, ___ leg: _____ number of side street lanes crossed

MARKED CROSSWALKS (See attached diagram)

Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Parallel lines   check box  Continentalcheck box  Ladder
   
check box  Zebracheck box  Other __________________ check box  None
   
Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Parallel lines  check box  Continentalcheck box  Ladder
   
check box  Zebracheck box  Other __________________check box  None
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Parallel lines  check box   Continentalcheck box  Ladder
   
check box  Zebracheck box  Other __________________check box   None
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Parallel lines   check box  Continentalcheck box  Ladder
   
check box  Zebracheck box  Other __________________check box   None

CROSSING ISLANDS

Along the main leg on which the bicycle travels:

Is there a right-turn lane crossing island? check box  yes check box  no check box  Not applicable
    
Is it big enough to allow refuge for a bicyclist? check box  yes check box  no check box  Not applicable
    
Is there a median island? check box  yes check box  no check box  Not applicable
    
Is it big enough to allow refuge for a bicyclist? check box  yes check box  no check box  Not applicable

RIGHT-TURN CURB RADII

Main Street, ___ leg: check box  Large/wide check box  Small/tight check box  Not applicable
    
Main Street, ___ leg: check box  Large/wide check box  Small/tight check box  Not applicable
    
Side Street, ___ leg: check box  Large/wide check box  Small/tight check box  Not applicable
    
Side Street, ___ leg: check box  Large/wide check box  Small/tight check box  Not applicable

ON-STREET PARKING

Is on-street parking allowed within 4 to 5 car lengths of intersection?

Main Street, ___ leg: check box  Allowed, cars present check box  Allowed, but no cars present
   
  check box  Not allowed, cars present check box  Not allowed, cars not present
   
Main Street, ___ leg: check box  Allowed, cars present check box  Allowed, but no cars present
   
  check box  Not allowed, cars present check box  Not allowed, cars not present
   
Side Street, ___ leg: check box  Allowed, cars present check box  Allowed, but no cars present
   
  check box  Not allowed, cars present check box  Not allowed, cars not present
   
Side Street, ___ leg: check box  Allowed, cars present check box  Allowed, but no cars present
   
  check box  Not allowed, cars present check box  Not allowed, cars not present

STREET LIGHTING

Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Presentcheck box  Not present
   
Main Street, ___ leg:check box  Presentcheck box  Not present
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Presentcheck box  Not present
   
Side Street, ___ leg:check box  Presentcheck box  Not present

TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT AT INTERSECTION

(For example, shops, restaurant, gas station, school, church, houses, apartments, offices, etc.)

Northeast Corner ___________________________________________________________

Northwest Corner ___________________________________________________________

Southeast Corner ___________________________________________________________

Southwest Corner ___________________________________________________________

RIGHT TURN ON RED (Main Leg)

check box  Allowedcheck box  Not allowedcheck box  Not applicable

SIGHT DISTANCE (Main Leg)

Describe bicyclist sight distance approaching the cross street intersection:

check box  Goodcheck box  Faircheck box  Poor

NUMBER OF DRIVEWAYS (Main Street)

Approach leg: # driveways within 300 ft of intersection, both sides of street ______
 
Departing leg: # driveways within 300 ft of intersection, both sides of street ______

INTERSECTION SKETCH

Draw a sketch of the intersection that shows the lanes on main and side streets; other intersection features such as crossing islands, driveways, and parking; and location of camera for the 1 hour-45 minutes of videotaping. Show a North arrow and label each leg as N, S, E, W.

 

FHWA-HRT-06-125

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