Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home
Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-125
Date: November 2006

Pedestrian and Bicyclist Intersection Safety Indices

Final Report

PDF Version (2.25 MB)

PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader®

 

REFERENCES

Axelson, Peter W., Denise A. Chesney, Dorothy V. Galvan, Julie B. Kirschbaum, Patricia E. Longmuir, Camille Lyons, and Kathleen M. Wong. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access—Part I of II: Review of Existing Guidelines and Practices. Report No. FHWA-HEP-99-006. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, July 1999.

Baltes, Michael R. “Descriptive Analysis of Crashes Involving Pedestrians in Florida, 1990-1994.” Transportation Research Record 1636, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1998.

Baltes, Michael R., and Xuehao Chu. “Pedestrian Level of Service for Midblock Street Crossings.” Transportation Research Record 1818, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2002.

Botma, Hein. “Method to Determine Level of Service for Bicycle Paths and Pedestrian-Bicycle Paths.” Transportation Research Record 1502, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1995.

Chu, Xuehao and Michael R. Baltes. Pedestrian Mid-Block Crossing Difficulty, Final Report. National Center for Transit Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2001.

City of Portland. “Chapter 4: Identifying Priorities for Pedestrian Improvements.” Portland Pedestrian Master Plan. City of Portland, Office of Transportation, Portland, OR, June 1998. Available online at www.trans.ci.portland.or.us/Plans/PedestrianmasterPlan/Chapter4.pdf. Accessed September 29, 2004.

Davis, J. Bicycle Safety Evaluation. Auburn University, City of Chattanooga, and Chattanooga-Hamilton County Regional Planning Commission, Chattanooga, TN, June 1987.

Davis, S., D. Robertson, E. King, R. Mingo, and J. Washington. Measuring Pedestrian Volumes and Conflicts, Volume II: Accident Prediction Model. Report No. FHWA-RD-88-307, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, December 1987.

Dixon, Linda. “Adopting Corridor-Specific Performance Measures for Bicycle and Pedestrian Level of Service.” Transportation Planning, Vol. 22, No. 2, Summer 1995.

Epperson, B. “Evaluating the Suitability of Roadways for Bicycle Use: Towards a Cycling Level of Service.” Transportation Research Record 1438. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1994.

Gallin, Nicole. “Quantifying Pedestrian Friendliness.” Road & Transport Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, March 2001.

Glauz, William D., and Donald James Migletz. Application of Traffic Conflict Analysis at Intersections. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 219. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1980.

Harkey, David L., Jim Mekemson, Min-Ching Chen, and Kimberly A. Krull. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT): Users Manual. Report No. FHWA-RD-99-192. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, December 1999.

Harkey, David L., Donald W. Reinfurt, Matthew Knuiman, J. Richard Stewart, and Alex Sorton. Development of the Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept. Report No. FHWA-RD-98-072. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, December 1998.

Harkey, David L., and Charles V. Zegeer. PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System. Report No. FHWA-SA-04-003. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, September 2004. Available online at www.walkinginfo.org/pedsafe. Accessed October 13, 2004.

Hunter, William W., Wayne E. Pein, and Jane C. Stutts. “Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Crash Types: The Early 1990s.” Transportation Research Record 1502. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1995.

Hunter, William W., J. Richard Stewart, and Jane C. Stutts. “Study of Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes.” Transportation Research Record 1674. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1999.

Hunter, William W., Jane C. Stutts, Wayne E. Pein, and Chante L. Cox. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990’s. Report No. FHWA-RD-95-163. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, June 1996.

Hunter, William W., Libby Thomas, and Jane C. Stutts. BIKESAFE: Bicycle Countermeasure Selection System. Report No. FHWA-SA-05-006. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, currently under review. Available online at www.bicyclinginfo.org/bikesafe. Accessed July 2005.

Jaskiewicz, F. “Pedestrian Level of Service Based on Trip Quality.” Urban Street Symposium Conference Proceedings, Dallas, TX, 1999, pp. G-1/1 – G-1/14.

Khisty, C.J. “Evaluation of Pedestrian Facilities: Beyond the Level-of-Service Concept.” Transportation Research Record 1438. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1994.

King, Michael R., Jon A. Carnegie, and Reid Ewing. “Pedestrian Safety Through a Raised Median and Redesigned Intersections.” Transportation Research Record 1828, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2003.

Kirschbaum, Julie B., Peter W. Axelson, Patricia E. Longmuir, Kathleen M. Mispagel, Julie A. Stein, and Denise A. Yamada. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II: Best Practices Design Guide. Report No. FHWA-EP-01-027. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, September 2001.

Landis, Bruce W. “Bicycle Interaction Hazard Score: A Theoretical Model.” Transportation Research Record 1438, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1994.

Landis, Bruce W, Venkat R. Vattikuti, and Michael T. Brannick. “Real-Time Human Perceptions: Toward a Bicycle Level of Service.” Transportation Research Record 1578. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1997.

Landis, Bruce W., Venkat R. Vattikuti, Russell M. Ottenberg, Douglas S. McLeod, and Martin Guttenplan. “Modeling the Roadside Walking Environment: A Pedestrian Level of Service.” Transportation Research Record 1773. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2001.

Landis, Bruce W., Venkat R. Vattikuti, Russell M. Ottenberg, Theodore A. Petritsch, Martin Guttenplan, and Linda B. Crider. “Intersection Level of Service for the Bicycle Through Movement.” Transportation Research Record 1828. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2003.

Migletz, D.J., W.D. Glauz, and K.M. Bauer. Relationships Between Traffic Conflicts and Accidents, Volume 2: Final Technical Report. Report No. FHWA/RD-84/042. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, July 1985.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts: 2004 Data. DOT HS 809 897. Available at www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/RNotes/2005/809897.pdf.

Noël, Nathalie, Carole Leclerc, and Martin Lee-Gosselin. “CRC Index: Compatibility of Roads for Cyclists in Rural and Urban Fringe Areas.” Presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 2003.

1,000 Friends of Oregon. Making the Land Use—Transportation—Air Quality Connection: Volume 4A, The Pedestrian Environment. Portland, OR, 1993.

Petritsch, T., B. Landis, P. McLeod, H. Huang, and S. Challa. “Level of Service Model for Signalized Intersections for Pedestrians.” Presented at the 84nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 2005.

Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee. Building a True Community, Final Report. Recommendations made to the U.S. Access Board, January 2001. Available online at www.access-board.gov/prowac/commrept/index.htm. Accessed September 29, 2004.

Sarkar, Sheila. “Determination of Service Levels for Pedestrians, With European Examples.” Transportation Research Record 1405. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1993.

Sorton, Alex, and Thomas Walsh. “Bicycle Stress Level as a Tool to Evaluate Urban and Suburban Bicycle Compatibility.” Transportation Research Record 1438. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1994.

Transportation Research Board. Highway Capacity Manual, Chapters 18 (Pedestrians) and 19 (Bicycles). Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2000.

U.K. Department of Transportation, Killing Speed and Saving Lives, London, 1987.

U.S. Access Board. Accessible Rights-of-Way: A Design Guide. November 1999. Available online at www.access-board.gov/prowac/commrept/index.htm. Accessed September 29, 2004.

Wang, Yinhai, and Nancy L. Nihan. “Estimating the Risk of Collisions Between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, 2004, pp. 313-321.

Warren, Davey, and Gabriel Rousseau. “Acceptable Speeds From the Pedestrian’s Perspective.” Presented at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, Philadelphia, PA, August 2002.

Zegeer, Charles V., Kenneth S. Opiela, and Michael J. Cynecki. Pedestrian Signalization Alternatives. Report No. FHWA/RD-83/102. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, July 1985.

Zegeer, Charles V., Cara Seiderman, Peter Lagerwey, Michael Cynecki, Michael Ronkin, and Bob Schneider. Pedestrian Facilities Users Guide: Providing Safety and Mobility. Report No. FHWA-RD-01-102. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, March 2002.

Zegeer, Charles V., J. Richard Stewart, Herman F. Huang, and Peter Lagerwey. Safety Effects of Marked versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations, Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines Report No. FHWA-RD-01-075. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, April 2001.

 

FHWA-HRT-06-125

Previous | Table of Contents

ResearchFHWA
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration