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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-11-035
Date: May 2011

Pedestrian and Bicyclist Traffic Control Device Evaluation Methods

REFERENCES

  1. Federal Highway Administration. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Washington, DC. Obtained from: http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/kno_2009.htm. Site last accessed February 11, 2010.

  2. National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. (2011). Purpose, Washington, DC. Obtained from: http://www.ncutcd.org/purpose.shtml. Site last accessed February 11, 2010.

  3. U.S. Department of Transportation. (2003). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC. Obtained from: http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/kno_2003r1r2.htm. Site last accessed April 25, 2011.

  4. Pline, J.L. (2001) Traffic Control Devices Handbook, ITE Publication IR-112, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC.

  5. Emo, A.K. and Do, A.H. (2008). "Evaluating and Validating a New Pedestrian Exposure to Risk Metric," Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings, 52(23), 1845–1849, Santa Monica, CA.

  6. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (2003). Guide to Good Statistical Practice in the Transportation Field, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC. Obtained from: http://www.bts.gov/publications/guide_to_good_statistical_practice_in_the_transportation_field/pdf/entire.pdf. Site last accessed March 16, 2010.

  7. Knoblauch, R.L. and Crigler, K.L. (1987). Model Pedestrian Safety Program: User's Guide, Report No. FHWA-RD-87-039, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

  8. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (2010). Highway Safety Manual 1st Edition, AASHTO, Washington, DC.

  9. Council, F., Zaloshnja, E., Miller, T., and Persaud, B. (2005). Crash Cost Estimates by Maximum Police-Reported Injury Severity Within Selected Crash Geometries, Report No. FHWA-HRT-05-051, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

  10. Schrank, D. and Lomax, T. (2009). Annual Urban Mobility Report, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX. Obtained from: http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/mobility_report_2009_wappx.pdf. Site last accessed July 26, 2010.

  11. Zegeer, C.V., Steward, J.R., Huang, H.H., and Lagerwey, P.A. (2002). Safety Effects of Marked Versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines, Report No. FHWA-RD-01-075, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC. Obtained from: http://drusilla.hsrc.unc.edu/cms/downloads/Effects_Un_MarkedCrosswalks_Summary.pdf. Site last accessed March 24, 2010.

  12. Fitzpatrick, K., Turner, S., Brewer, M., Carlson, P., Lalani, N., Ullman, B., Trout, N., Park, E.S., Lord, D., and Whitacre, J. (2006). Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings, TCRP Report No. 112, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report No. 562, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Obtained from: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_562.pdf. Site last accessed March 24, 2010.

  13. Hauer, E. (1997). Observational Before-After Studies in Road Safety, Pergamon Press, Oxford, England.

  14. American Association of State Highway Officials. SafetyAnalyst software tool, AASHTO, Washington, DC. Obtained from: http://www.safetyanalyst.org/. Site last accessed April 25, 2011.

  15. Hauer, E. (2005). Cause and Effect in Observational Cross-Sectional Studies on Road Safety, Draft HSIS Report, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

  16. Chrysler, S.T., Wright, J., and Williams, A. (2004). 3D Visualization as a Tool to Evaluate Sign Comprehension, Report No. 167721-1, Southwest Region University Transportation Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. Obtained from: http://swutc.tamu.edu/publications/technicalreports/473700-00021-1. Site last accessed March 24, 2010.

  17. ITE. (1994). Manual of Transportation Engineering Studies, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC.

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