Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home
Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-11-039
Date: April 2011

Evaluation of Pedestrian and Bicycle Engineering Countermeasures: Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons, HAWKs, Sharrows, Crosswalk Markings, and the Development of an Evaluation Methods Report

508 Captions

Figure 1. Graph. Total pedestrian fatalities. This bar graph shows total pedestrian fatalities per year. The y-axis shows the number of pedestrian fatalities and ranges from zero to 6,000 in increments of 1,000. The x-axis shows the year and ranges from 1998 to 2008 in 1-year increments. Pedestrian fatalities were as follows: 5,228 in 1998; 4,939 in 1999; 4,763 in 2000; 4,901 in 2001; 4,851 in 2002; 4,774 in 2003; 4,675 in 2004; 4,892 in 2005; 4,785 in 2006; 4,699 in 2007; and 4,378 in 2008.

Figure 2. Graph. Total bicyclist fatalities. This bar graph shows total bicyclist fatalities per year. The y-axis shows the number of bicyclist fatalities and ranges from zero to 900 in increments of 100. The x-axis shows the year and ranges from 1998 to 2008 in 1-year increments. Bicyclist fatalities were as follows: 760 in 1998, 754 in 1999, 693 in 2000, 732 in 2001, 665 in 2002, 629 in 2003, 727 in 2004, 786 in 2005, 772 in 2006, 701 in 2007, and 716 in 2008.

Figure 3. Photo. RRFB with two forward-facing LED flashers and a side-mounted LED flasher. This photo shows a pole mounted at the right side of a roadway near a crosswalk that bears the W11-2 pedestrian warning sign, which shows a silhouette of a person walking to the left. The sign is a yellow diamond with a black border, and the silhouette is black. Below the sign, there is a rectangular rapid-flashing beacon (RRFB) with two yellow light-emitting diode (LED) flashers, and the light on the right is activated. Below the sign, there is a rectangular yellow sign with a black border and a black arrow pointing diagonally downward to the left toward the crosswalk. Above the W11-2 sign, there is a photovoltaic panel.

Figure 4. Photo. Example of a HAWK treatment in Tucson, AZ. This photo shows a pedestrian walking to the left across the street below a High-intensity Activated crossWalK (HAWK) at an intersection on an urban six-lane divided highway. A post at the right side of the road has a three-lens beacon head with one yellow lens centered beneath the two top red lenses. Both red lenses are illuminated. There is a sign below the beacon head that reads "CROSSWALK, STOP ON RED." The sign is rectangular and white, with "CROSSWALK" on a yellow background. A mast arm mounted on the post shows a similar beacon head with both red lenses illuminated and a similar sign along with a hanging sign that reads "PEDESTRIAN CROSSING." The pavement markings are high-visibility ladder-style crosswalk markings.

Figure 5. Photo. R10-23 sign from the 2009 MUTCD. This photo shows a R10-23 sign which is a white rectangle with a black border. The sign reads "CROSSWALK," with a black line below it, followed by "STOP ON RED." Below that, there is a red circle.

Figure 6. Illustration. Generic version of a sharrow. This illustration shows an image of a generic sharrow. The entire sharrow is 112 inches tall and 40 inches wide. The sharrow is white on a gray background. It consists of a bicycle facing left with two upward-facing chevrons above it. The bicycle portion of the sharrow is 72 inches tall.

Figure 7. Photo. Massachusetts Avenue condition in the before period. This photo shows Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge, MA, in the before sharrow condition. There are two travel lanes in each direction, motor vehicle parking on both sides of the street, and a narrow raised median in the center. There are stores lining both sides of the street, and motor vehicles are parked on both sides.

Figure 8. Illustration. Cross section view of Massachusetts Avenue before and after sharrow installation. This figure has two parts. The top drawing shows the cross section of Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge, MA, in the before sharrow condition, including, from left to right, a 21-ft spacing from the curb to the travel lane line, an 11-ft spacing from the travel lane line to the raised concrete median, a 5-ft-wide concrete median, an 11-ft spacing from the concrete median to the travel lane line on the other side of the street, and a 21-ft spacing to the curb on the other side of the street. There are areas designated for parked motor vehicles on both sides of the street. The bottom drawing shows the same cross section but in the after sharrow condition. The street has the same dimensions; however, there is one sharrow 10 ft from the curb on both sides of the street. The sharrows appear next to the parked motor vehicles.

Figure 9. Photo. MLK in the before period. This photo shows Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard (MLK) in Chapel Hill, NC, in the before sharrow condition. The roadway has four travel lanes and a center two-way left turn lane and a 3-4 percent grade. The photo also shows a seam on the left side of the road, indicating that the old gutter area was paved over with asphalt. The outside lanes are nominally 15-ft-wide lanes. There are motor vehicles traveling on both directions, and the street is lined with grass and buildings.

Figure 10. Illustration. Cross section of MLK before and after sharrow installation. This figure has two parts. The top diagram shows a drawing of the cross section of Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard (MLK) in Chapel Hill, NC, in the before sharrow condition, including, from left to right, a 15-ft spacing from the curb to the outside travel lane line, an 11-ft spacing from the outside travel lane line to a two-way, left-turn lane line, a 12-ft center two-way left-turn lane, an 11-ft spacing from the center two-way left-turn lane line to the outside travel lane line on the other side of the street, and a 15-ft spacing to the curb on the other side of the street. The 15-ft sections include a 2-ft gutter pan. The bottom drawing shows the same cross section in the after sharrow condition. The street has the same dimensions; however, there is one sharrow 43.5 inches from the curb on each side of the street.

Figure 11. Photo. Fremont Street in the before period. This photo shows Fremont Street in Seattle, WA, in the before sharrow condition. The street has two travel lanes in each direction and parking on both sides of the street.

Figure 12. Illustration. Cross section view of Fremont Street before and after sharrow installation. This figure has three parts. The top drawing shows the cross section of Fremont Street in Seattle, WA, in the before sharrow condition which includes a 20-ft spacing from the curb to the center line on both sides of the street. There are two parked motor vehicles on the left side of the street and one on the right. The second drawing shows the same street in the after period 1 condition which includes, from left to right, a 17.5-ft spacing from the curb to the center line in the downhill direction, a 10.5-ft spacing from the center line to the edge of the bicycle lane in the uphill direction, a 5-ft bicycle lane with an image of a bicycle, and a 7-ft spacing from the edge of the bicycle lane to the curb on the other side of the street with a parked motor vehicle in the space. The third drawing shows the same street in the after period 2 condition, which includes the same dimensions as in the after period 1 condition but with a sharrow placed on the street in the downhill direction. The sharrow is 12.25 ft from the curb.

Figure 13. Photo. Example of bar pair markings. This photo shows an example of bar pair markings installed at one of the study sites. Each bar pair consists of two 8-inch strips of parallel, white longitudinal markings separated by 8-inch spacing. The strips are 10 ft long. The bar pairs are located on the edge and in the middle of the travel lanes.

Figure 14. Photo. Example of continental markings. This photo shows an example of the continental markings installed at one of the study sites. Each strip is a white longitudinal marking that is 24 inches wide and 10 ft long. The strips are located on the edge and in the middle of the travel lanes.

Figure 15. Photo. Example of transverse markings. This photo shows an example of the transverse markings installed at one of the study sites. The markings consist of two parallel white transverse lines that are each 12 inches wide. There is 8 ft between the two strips. The transverse markings are painted across the travel lanes.

Figure 16. Graph. Least square mean detection distance by marking type and light level for study sites. This graph shows a plot of the least square mean detection distance by marking type at the study sites for daytime and nighttime conditions. Least square mean adjusted detection distance is on the y-axis with a range of zero to 600 ft in increments of 200 ft. Crosswalk type is on the x-axis (continental, bar pairs, and transverse), with daytime on the left and nighttime on the right. The graph shows three lines, representing the three crosswalk types. Each line starts high and slopes down. Continental is on top in blue, followed by bar pairs in red and transverse in green.

Figure 17. Graph. Least square mean daytime adjusted detection distance by marking type and traffic presence at study sites. This graph shows the least square mean for daytime adjusted detection distance by marking type and traffic presence. Least square mean daytime adjusted detection distance is on the y-axis from zero to 600 ft in increments of 200 ft. Traffic is shown on the x-axis in two categories (traffic not present and traffic present). Three lines represent continental, bar pairs, and transverse crosswalks. The lines for continental (blue) and bar pairs (red) start near 500 ft for traffic not present and slope down to about 400 ft for traffic present. The line for transverse (green) starts near 250 ft for traffic not present and slopes up to about 350 ft for traffic present.

Figure 18. Graph. Least square mean daytime adjusted detection distance by marking type and location at existing sites. This graph shows the least square mean for daytime adjusted detection distance by marking type and location. Least square mean daytime adjusted detection distance is on the y-axis from zero to 800 ft in increments of 200 ft. Location is on the x axis with two categories (intersection and midblock). Two lines represent continental (blue) and transverse (green). Both lines start near 200 ft for intersection. The continental line slopes up to just below 800 ft and the transverse line slopes up to just below 400 ft for midblock.

Figure 19. Graph. Rating by marking type for study sites. This graph shows the rating by marking type (transverse, continental, and bar pairs) for the study sites. Proportion of participants is listed as a percent on the y-axis from zero to 70 percent in increments of 10 percent. The crosswalk rating from A to F is on the x-axis. In order from A to F, the ratings for transverse are 13, 30, 40, 13, and 4 percent. For continental, the ratings are 67, 29, 4, zero, and zero percent. For bar pairs, the ratings are 55, 35, 10, zero, and zero percent.

ResearchFHWA
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration