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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-98-166
Date: July 1999

Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Non-Motorized Travel: Supporting Documentation

3.0 Bibliography

 

Reference Description
1,000 Friends of Oregon. Making the Land Use Transportation Air Quality Connection: Volume 4A, The Pedestrian Environment. Portland, OR, 1993. Available at http://www.telepport.com/~friends/ Lutraq2/Docs.htm Evaluates relationships between the Pedestrian Environment Factor used in modeling and various travel behavior characteristics such as mode split and vehicle-trips per household. Includes basic correlations as well as regression modeling to account for effects of socioeconomic and accessibility characteristics.
Antonakos, Cathy L., Nonmotor Travel in the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Transportation Research Record 1502, 1995. Analysis of NPTS data to contrast the characteristics of travelers and of trip characteristics by non-motorized vs. motorized modes (i.e., distribution of trip purposes by mode; distribution of income categories by mode; etc.)
Ashley, Carol A. and Chris Banister. Cycling to Work from Wards in a Metropolitan Area. Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 30 Nos. 6-8, June - September 1989. This is a study using UK census data which (1) evaluates factors influencing cycling to work; (2) develops a model to predict the proportion of residents in a ward cycling to work; and (3) tests the model. A variety of factors are tested including personal characteristics, trip distance, availability of other modes, traffic levels, and local climate/topographical factors. The authors conclude that "while it is possible to isolate some factors in the form of a model for particular areas, when the model is applied elsewhere the fit is not so good" and that there are significant difficulties involved with developing a transferable model.
Aultman-Hall, Lisa, Fred L. Hall and Brian B. Baetz. Analysis of Bicycle Commuter Routes Using GIS - Implications for Bicycle Planning. Presented at the 1997 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #970168, January 1997. This analysis makes use of a GIS network data base to determine the characteristics of 397 routes used by commuter cyclists in Guelph, Ontario, and to compare them to the shortest path routes between each origin and destination. The analysis provides useful insight for understanding factors affecting travel behavior such as grades, intersections, etc. The study recommends different priorities for improving conditions for existing cyclists and for attracting new cyclists to the network.

 

Reference Description
Axhausen, K.W. Bicyclists Evaluate Their Environment: Some Results. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1984. Describes the development of discrete choice models, based on stated-preference surveys, to determine preferences of bicyclists for various route characteristics.
Axhausen, K.W. and Smith, R.L. Bicyclist Link Evaluation: A Stated-Preference Approach. In Transportation Research Record 1085, 1986. See Axhausen (1994).
Beck, M.J.H. and L.H. Immers. Bicycle Ownership and Use in Amsterdam. Transportation Research Record 1441, 1994. 3,000 inhabitants of Amsterdam were interviewed about their ownership and use of a bicycle. Questions included reasons for not owning a bicycle; reasons for using/not using a bicycle; and use by trip purpose and facilities/incentives provided.
Behnam, J. and B. Patel. A Method for Estimating Pedestrian Volume in a Central Business District. Transportation Research Record 629, 1977. Describes a study to model pedestrian volumes in the Milwaukee CBD as a function of land use characteristics. Regression models are developed to relate block-level land use data (square feet by type of use) to pedestrian volumes. These models can be used to estimate pedestrian volumes in areas where counts do not exist, and to forecast future volumes as a result of land use changes.
Beltz, Michael, and Bruce Burgess. Warwick Bicycle Transportation Plan: Trip Generation Draft Report. Prepared by the Bicycle Federation of America for the Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, 1997. This study estimated trip generation for traffic analysis zones adjacent to the alignment of potential bicycle routes, based on employment, school enrollment, and total population. Composite trip generation scores were then attributed to network segments within the areas of influence of trip generators. The results of this analysis were compared to the existing designated bicycle route network. Alternative route designations were suggested where undesignated roadway links' potential scored higher than a parallel or adjacent designated route. The results of this sketch planning effort served as the basis for final facility improvement recommendations.

 

Reference Description
Beltz, Mike, and Herman Huang. Bicycle/
Pedestrian Trip Generation Workshop
: Summary. Sponsored by: Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, April 1997.
Summarizes results of a workshop held to discuss data sources on bicycle and pedestrian trip-making and to summarize the state-of-the-practice in bicycle and pedestrian demand modeling.
Betz, Joe; Jim Dustrude; and Jill Walker. Intelligent Bicycle Routing in the United States. Transportation Research Record 1405, 1994. Discusses the use of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technology for bicycle routing.
Botma, Hein. Method to Determine Level of Service for Bicycle Paths and Pedestrian-Bicycle Paths. Transportation Research Record 1502, 1995. Describes Level of Service (LOS) measures for pedestrians and bicyclists on shared paths. LOS is based on the perceived hindrance to users, as a function of volumes of both types of users, path width, and speeds.
Botma, Hein; Hans Papendrecht. Operational Quality of Traffic on a Bicycle Path. Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) 1993 Compendium of Technical Papers, ITE; Delft University of Technology, pp. 81-85, 1993. See Botma (1995).
Bovy, Piet H.L. and Mark A. Bradley. Route Choice Analyzed with Stated-Preference Approaches. Transportation Research Record 1037, 1986. The authors use stated-preference surveys to develop a discrete route choice model. Route factors include facility type, surface quality, traffic level, and travel time (each described qualitatively at three levels).
Bowman, John L. and Moshe Ben-Akiva. Activity-Based Travel Forecasting. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA; unpublished paper for the Travel Model Improvement Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Environmental Protection Agency, 1996. Overview of activity-based travel forecasting. At least some of the models documented include non-motorized travel modes, but methods and implications of activity-based forecasting for non-motorized travel are not explicitly discussed.
Brog, Werner and ERL Erhard. Potential of the Bicycle as a Substitute for Other Modes of Transportation. Transportation Research Record 909, 1983. Discusses characteristics of trips and trip-makers to identify the extent to which trips could be taken by bicycle instead of other modes.

 

Reference Description
Burgess, Bruce; Bruce Landis, and Michael Beltz, NFTC Regional Bikeway Implementation Plan. Prepared by the Bicycle Federation of America for the Niagara Frontier Transportation Committee, Buffalo, NY, 1998. This study uses the Bicycle Level of Service (BLOS) to rate roadway conditions for 800 miles of roads in the Buffalo, NY area. Through public involvement and consultant recommendations, target levels of accommodation were designated: minimum LOS C for all links and LOS B for certain priority routes and where opportunities exist.
Caldwell, Erin. Modal Shift in the Boulder Valley: 1990 to 1996. City of Boulder, Center for Policy and Program Analysis, March 1997. Analysis of changes in travel patterns in the Boulder Valley area based on biennial household travel surveys conducted between 1990 and 1996. Purpose is to assess 1989 Transportation Master Plan's objectives of progressively decreasing SOV use. Data suggest that initial goals have been exceeded but that decrease in SOV use has leveled off. (Bicycle and pedestrian mode splits are analyzed but changes are not statistically significant.)
Cambridge Systematics and Barton Aschman Associates. Travel Survey Manual. Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1996. A guide to conducting household and other types of travel surveys that are used in the development of travel demand forecasting models.
Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Modeling Non-Motorized Travel (Work Plan). Cambridge, MA; unpublished draft prepared for Federal Highway Administration, 1996. Sets forth research and development priorities for incorporating non-motorized travel in travel demand modeling efforts.
Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Short-Term Travel Model Improvements, Travel Model Improvement Program. U.S. Department of Transportation; DOT-T-95-05, October 1994. (1994a) Recommends short-term improvements to travel models. Discussion of non-motorized travel includes an overview of non-motorized environment factors and mode choice in the Portland, OR, and Montgomery Co., MD, travel models, as well as issues associated with modeling non-motorized travel.
Cambridge Systematics. The Effects of Land Use and Travel Demand Management Strategies on Commuting Behavior. Prepared for the Travel Model Improvement Program, U.S. Department of Transportation; DOT-T-95-06, October 1994. (1994b) Using site surveys and statistical analysis, examines relationships between site design variables, Travel Demand Management measures, and commuter mode choice at a variety of workplaces in Southern California.

 

Reference Description
Center for Research and Contract Standardization in Civil Engineering - The Netherlands, Sign up for the Bike: Design Manual for a Cycle-friendly Infrastructure. Bicycle Master Plan, record 10, The Netherlands, ISBN 90-6628-158-8, September 1994. Sign up for the Bike is a thorough design manual for creating an infrastructure conducive to use of the bicycle. The report first presents the design requirements necessitated by cyclists and then explores various ways those needs can be met through traffic and urban infrastructure planning.
Cervero, Robert and Roger Gorham. Commuting in Transit Versus Automobile Neighborhoods. Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 61, No. 2, Spring 1995. This study compares travel behavior (including non-motorized mode split and trip generation rates) in "transit"-vs. "auto"-oriented neighborhoods in the San Francisco and Los Angeles areas. Transit and auto neighborhoods are selected in matched pairs to control for density, income, etc. Transit and non-motorized trip rates and mode shares are higher in the "transit"neighborhoods.
Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Environmental Defense Fund, et al. A Network of Livable Communities: Evaluating Travel Behavior Effects of Alternative Transportation and Community Designs for the National Capital Region. Washington, DC, May 1996. Describes how non-motorized travel and influencing factors are included in travel modeling to analyze alternative development scenarios. The PROMO (Proximity Mode Choice Model) is a pivot-point logit sketch model which interacts with the official Metro Washington model to evaluate the effects of pedestrian and bicycle friendliness strategies on travel behavior.
City of Portland, OR, Office of Transportation. Identifying Priorities for Pedestrian Transportation Improvements. Pedestrian Master Plan Project Development: Final Report, June 30, 1997. Describes the development of two indices to aid in prioritizing pedestrian projects: the Pedestrian Potential Index and Deficiency Index. The Pedestrian Potential Index highlights the locations where pedestrian activity is likely to be greatest, based on land use and pedestrian environment conditions. The Deficiency Index rates the quality of existing pedestrian infrastructure to identify areas which are most deficient.

 

Reference Description
Clark, David E. Estimating Future Bicycle and Pedestrian Trips From A Travel Demand Forecasting Model. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 67th Annual Meeting, 1997. Describes a process to adjust vehicle trip tables in a travel demand model to account for future increases in bicycle and pedestrian trips. Existing trips are stratified by length and purpose, and adjustment factors which represent a potential percent increase in bicycle and pedestrian trips as a result of future improvements to the bicycle and pedestrian network are applied to reduce the number of vehicle trips. The adjustment factors vary by trip purpose, length, and mode and are based on local judgment.
Clarke, Andy. Bicycle-Friendly Cities: Key Ingredients for Success. Transportation Research Record 1372, 1995. Describes key factors that lead to high levels of bicycling in certain cities.
Cynecki, M.J., G. Perry, and G. Frangos. Study of Bicyclist Characteristics in Phoenix, Arizona. Transportation Research Record 1405, 1993. Describes characteristics of bicyclists in the Phoenix area based on local surveys.
Davies, D.G., M.E. Halliday, M. Mayes, and R.L. Pocock. Attitudes to Cycling: A Qualitative Study and Conceptual Framework. TRL Report 266: Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, Berkshire (UK), 1997. Examines attitudes towards cycling and factors which would influence people to cycle, based on interviews, focus groups, and stated-preference surveys. Introduces a conceptual framework for promoting cycling based on concepts from the public health and social marketing fields, which focus on identifying and changing behavior in stages. Also includes a review of previous attitudinal studies in the UK.
Davis, Scott E., L. Ellis King and H. Douglas Robertson. Predicting Pedestrian Crosswalk Volumes. Transportation Research Record 1168, 1991. The authors describe a method to measure and predict pedestrian crosswalk volumes for the evaluation of traffic signal requests and for the compilation of hazard indices data. The method uses short-term counts of five to 10 minutes and is more cost effective than performing continuous counts.
Deakin, Elizabeth A. Utilitarian Cycling: A Case Study of the Bay Area and Assessment of the Market for Commute Cycling. University of California, Berkeley, ITS Research Report, 1985. The author defines a demographic target group for San Francisco Bay Area commuter cycling, based on data from the Bay Area Travel Survey, a review of the literature, and interviews with local and state officials. Her market is defined as: employed full-time; under 40 years old; travel less than 11.2 km one-way to work; drives alone during the peak-period; and owns a bike suitable for commuting. She then uses these criteria to estimate a reasonable upper bound on the size of the potential bicycle commuter market.

 

Reference Description
Demetsky, Michael J. and David Morris. Structuring an Analysis of Pedestrian Travel. Highway Research Record 467, 1973. Sets forth a framework for analyzing the demand for pedestrian travel. This demand is hypothesized as a function of four factors: functional class of the trip, trip characteristics, characteristics of the trip maker, and quality of the walking environment. Desired data include relative preferences for accommodations (by type of pedestrian) as determined by attitudinal surveys; existing data on walking behavior in different environments; and field evaluations of walking environments.
Department of Transport. Traffic Advisory Leaflet 8/95: Traffic Models for Cycling. London, UK, 1995. Overview of application of QUOVADIS-BICYCLE to Ipswich, UK.
DeRobertis, Michelle and Alan Wachtel. Traffic Calming: Do's and Don'ts to Encourage Bicycling. 1996 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers 66th Annual Meeting, pp. 498-502, 1996. Discusses the compatibility of various traffic calming measures with bicycling and recommends approaches to implementing traffic calming in a bicycle-friendly manner.
DHV Environment and Infrastructure. QUOVADIS-BICYCLE User's Manual. Amersfoort, Netherlands (no date). Documentation for the QUOVADIS-BICYCLE network model.
Dillman, D. Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1978. While somewhat dated, a generally excellent resource for anyone interested in designing and conducting an attitudinal survey of existing or potential bicyclists and pedestrians.
Dixon, Linda. Adopting Corridor-Specific Performance Measures for Bicycle and Pedestrian Level of Service. Transportation Planning, city of Gainesville, Fla. Traffic Engineering Department, pp. 5-7, summer 1995. Describes the development and application of bicycle and pedestrian level of service measures in Gainesville, FL.
Eddy, Nils. Developing a Level of Service for Bicycle Use, Pro Bike Pro Walk 96: Forecasting the Future, Bicycle Federation of America/Pedestrian Federation of America, pp. 310-314, September 1996. Describes the development of a bicycle level of service measure to rate the suitability of roadway facilities for bicycling.

 

Reference Description
Epperson, Bruce. Bicycle Transportation Planning: A Quantitative Approach, DRAFT, pp. 1-42, January 15, 1996. Includes, among other items, a discussion of the traditional travel demand forecasting process and its possibilities and limitations with respect to bicyclists; a literature review of existing quantitative approaches to bicycle travel; and potential future developments for modeling of bicycle travel.
Epperson, Bruce. Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Bicyclists Involved in Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Accidents. Transportation Research Record 1502, 1995. Examines demographic and economic characteristics of bicyclists involved in bicycle-motor vehicle accidents. Accidents are regressed against census tract characteristics to predict total and per-capita accidents and to identify factors associated with accident risk.
Epperson, Bruce. Evaluating Suitability of Roadways for Bicycle Use: Toward a Cycling Level-of-Service Standard. Transportation Research Record 1438, 1994. Reviews recent work to determine Level of Service indicators for bicyclists and discusses factors to be considered in future refinement of such indicators.
Epperson, Bruce. On the Development of a Roadway Level of Service Standard For Bicycles: A History and Discussion. Miami Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization, 1994. See Epperson (Transportation Research Record, 1994).
Epperson, Bruce, Sara J. Hendricks, and Mitchell York. Estimation of Bicycle Transportation Demand from Limited Data. University of South Florida (no date). Attempts to predict bicycle travel based on four types of available data: (1) accident rates; (2) census data - Category 1 Transportation Disabled population; (3) census data - bicycle work trip percentage; and (4) bicycle trip rates as a function of demographic data, based on the 1990 NPTS. Predictions from the four methods do not correlate well. However, bicycle counts and analysis in five neighborhoods suggest that simplified methods can be reasonably predictive if (1) they are combined with specific information about an area's geography and demographics, and (2) recreational and utilitarian trip-making are differentiated.
Ercolano, James M., Jeffrey S. Olson, and Douglas M. Spring. Sketch-Plan Method for Estimating Pedestrian Traffic for Central Business Districts and Suburban Growth Corridors. New York State Department of Transportation; in Transportation Research Record 1578, 1997. Presents a sketch-plan method for estimating pedestrian traffic at intersections and mid-block locations of commercial areas. The method applies access-egress mode trip generation and applies peak vehicle per hour turning movements, transit vehicle or passenger counts, and walk/bike counts or projections to produce peak pedestrian-per-hour trips.

 

Reference Description
Erickson, Michael. The Potential for Bicycle Transportation in Chicagoland. Proceeds of the Velo 1992 conference (Perspectives Mondiales Sur le Velo; The Bicycle: Global Perspectives,) 1992. Estimates the potential market for bicycle commuting in Chicago, based on demographic data and data on trip characteristics from travel surveys. Uses market potential analysis techniques based on Deakin (1985).
Evans, John E., IV, Vijay Perincherry, and G. Bruce Douglas, III. Transit Friendliness Factor: An Approach to Quantifying the Transit Access Environment in a Transportation Planning Model. Presented at the 1997 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #971435, January 1997. Describes the development of a "transit friendliness factor"to indicate the quality of the environment for pedestrian access to transit stations.
Federal Highway Administration (Stewart A. Goldsmith). Case Study No. 1: Reasons Why Bicycling and Walking Are Not Being Used More Extensively As Travel Modes. National Bicycling and Walking Study, U.S. Department of Transportation (FHWA), Publication No. FHWA-PD-92-041, 1992. Includes a literature review and interpretation of (1) factors influencing individual choices to bike or walk; (2) aggregate levels of bicycling and walking based on area characteristics; (3) non-motorized data collection efforts; and (4) analytic methods for determining non-motorized transportation demand.
Federal Highway Administration. A Compendium of Available Bicycle and Pedestrian Trip Generation Data in the United States, A Supplement to the National Bicycling and Walking Study. U.S. Department of Transportation (FHWA), October 1994. Reviews bicycle and pedestrian counts and mode choice studies in a number of communities and on a variety of facility types. Information was gathered by reviewing selected literature and contacting individuals in U.S. communities known to have active bicyclist and pedestrian programs.
Federal Highway Administration. Selecting Roadway Design Treatments to Accommodate Bicycles. U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center: McLean, VA, January 1994. Provides guidance to assist transportation planners and engineers in selecting roadway design treatments to accommodate bicycles.

 

Reference Description
Federal Highway Administration. Development of the Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept (Final Report). U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center: McLean, VA, Publication No. FHWA-RD-98-072, August 1998. This paper seeks to establish a methodology to determine how compatible a roadway is for allowing the efficient operation of both bicycles and motor vehicles. The authors develop a method for evaluating urban and suburban roadway segments via the use of their Bicycle Compatibility Index (BCI). The BCI seeks to assess those variables used by cyclists to determine the "bicycle friendliness"of a roadway by measuring the geometric and operational characteristics of a variety of roadways. Specifically, the BCI is determined based on an equation which includes various factors pertaining to the space available for the cyclist and the characteristics (volume, vehicle size, etc.) of the roadway. Ultimately, this index could be used to evaluate and design bicycle routes.
Frank, Lawrence D. An Analysis of Relationships Between Urban Form (Density, Mix, and Jobs: Housing Balance) and Travel Behavior (Mode Choice, Trip Generation, Trip Length, and Travel Time). Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA, 1994. See Frank et al (1997).
Frank, Lawrence D.; Brian Stone, Jr. and Eric Matthew Pihl. A Methodology to Measure Land Use Relationships With Travel Behavior and Vehicle Emissions. DRAFT, July 1997. For the Puget Sound area, trip generation by mode, travel time and distance, and modal choice (including non-motorized) per household are related using regression analysis of tract-level land use variables (density, mix, and pedestrian connectivity), transit level of service, and household demographic variables. Data are taken from a regional travel survey, a land use database, and the census.
Garder, Per. Rumble Strips or Not Along Wide Shoulders Designated for Bicycle Traffic? Transportation Research Record 1502, 1995. Discusses the use of rumble strips to alert inattentive drivers who stray from the traffic lane and onto wide shoulders used by bicyclists.
Goldsmith, Stuart. Estimating the Effect of Bicycle Facilities on VMT and Emissions. DRAFT, Seattle Engineering Department (no date). Describes the development and application of a sketch-plan method to estimate the number of users of a bicycle facility under development, and to estimate the impact of the facility on reducing motor-vehicle miles traveled and emissions.

 

Reference Description
Handy, Susan. Urban Form and Pedestrian Choices: Study of Austin Neighborhoods. Transportation Research Record 1552, 1996. Explores the relationships between urban form (traditional, early modern, or late modern neighborhood) and the choice to make pedestrian trips. Based on a study of six neighborhoods in Austin, TX, examines correlation between personal, attitudinal, and environment factors and the propensity to walk for recreation or for shopping. The data suggest that certain aspects of urban form can play an important role in encouraging walks to a destination but that the savings in travel from the substitution of walking for driving is likely to be small.
Harkey, David L., and J. Richard Stewart. Evaluation of Shared-Use Facilities for Bicycle and Motor Vehicles. Presented at the 1997 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #970840, January 1997. Evaluates the safety and utility of shared-use bicycle facilities based on observations of bicyclists and motorists interacting on different types of roadways.
Hass, R.C.G. and J.F. Morrall. Circulation Through a Tunnel Network. Traffic Quarterly, April 1967. Describes a survey of pedestrian tunnels between all major buildings and parking lots of Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. The objective was to develop a pedestrian demand model for future design criteria. Data were collected using an origin-destination questionnaire survey, and the model was calibrated using screen-line counts and walking time-distance surveys. Trips were assigned to a network system by a computer assignment program based on results of the survey. (Referenced in Behnam and Patel, 1977)
Hoekwater, J. Cycle Routes in the Hague and Tilburg. Published in Cycling as a Mode of Transport: Proceedings of a Symposium held at the Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, U.K. (TRRL Supplementary Report 540), October 1978. Documents a study comparing cycle traffic before and after the addition of cycle lanes in the Netherlands. Counts are also performed on parallel facilities to attempt to estimate diversion vs. new riders. In one location, cycle counts increased by 30 to 60 percent on the route with a slight increase on parallel routes. For a different location, cycle traffic on the route also increases but there is some decrease on parallel facilities; the authors conclude that roughly two-thirds of the increase in cycle traffic comes from parallel routes and one-third from new trips.

 

Reference Description
Hopkinson, P. and M. Wardman. Evaluating the Demand for New Cycle Facilities. Transport Policy Vol. 3, 1996. Stated-preference techniques are used to obtain valuations of improvements to cycle facilities, forecast the effects of such facilities on route choice, and provide a partial cost-benefit analysis of alternate cycle routes.
Horowitz, Mark. Overview of Three Roadway Condition Indexing Models for Bicycle Transportation. Pro Bike Pro Walk 96: Forecasting the Future, Bicycle Federation of America/Pedestrian Federation of America, pp. 303-309, September 1996. Describes and compares the pros and cons of three roadway compatibility measures for bicyclists: the Roadway Condition Index developed by Davis (1987), the Bicycle Stress Level developed by Sorton and Walsh (1994), and the Interaction Hazard Score developed by Landis (1996).
Hsaio, Shirley. Using GIS for Transit Pedestrian Access Analysis. Presented at the 1997 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #970157, January 1997. This study uses GIS techniques to analyze pedestrian accessibility to transit in Orange County, CA, using the actual street network and population information by Census Tract. Among other things, the technique can be used to estimate the impacts on catchment population (and potentially mode choice) of improvements to the pedestrian network.
Huang, Yuanlin. A Multimodal Simultaneous Equilibrium Travel Forecasting Model for Congested Urban Areas. Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission, Silver Spring, MD (no date). Describes the development of a travel model for Montgomery County, MD. The model includes zone-level indices of bicycle and pedestrian friendliness.
Huang, Yuanlin. Selecting Bicycle Commuting Routes Using GIS. Berkeley Planning Journal 10, U.C. Berkeley, pp. 75-90, 1995. Describes the application of GIS techniques to planning bicycle routes.
Hunt, J.D. and J.E. Abraham. Influences on Bicycle Use. Submitted for presentation at the 1998 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, July 1997. A discrete route choice model was developed based on a hypothetical-choice stated-preference survey of cyclists in Edmonton, Canada. Facility factors included time spent cycling on three different facility types and the availability of showers and secure bicycle parking. Socioeconomic data and indicators of experience and comfort level were also used in model development.

 

Reference Description
Hunt, J.D., A.T. Brownlee, and L.P. Doblanko. Design and Calibration of the Edmonton Transport Analysis Model. Presented at the 1998 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #981076, January 1998. Describes a travel model for the Edmonton, Canada region which includes bicycle and walk as mode choices. Bicycle mode choice uses a "bicycle equivalent travel time"which weights travel time by facility type (bike path, bike lane, or mixed traffic) based on results of a stated-preference survey (Hunt and Abraham, 1997). The model uses aggregate nested logit models at each step (generation, destination, time of day, and mode choice) and feeds composite utilities from each step to the previous step.
Hunter, William W. and Herman F. Huang. User Counts on Bicycle Lanes and Multi-Use Trails in the United States. Transportation Research Record 1502, 1995. Examines temporal patterns in the number of bicycle trips along bicycle lanes and trails, at various locations throughout the United States.
Hyodo, Tetsuro; Norikazu Suzuki and Yoji Takahashi. Modeling Bicycle Route Choice Behavior on Describing Bicycle Road Network in Urban Area. Presented at the 1998 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #980353, January 1998. Proposes a bicycle route choice model in which facility characteristics (e.g., road width or sidewalk) affect the impedance function in route choice. Development of the model is based on a survey of bicyclists in which they are asked to map their trip on a network. Parameters are estimated based on actual versus minimum-path routes, using the Genetic Algorithm method.
Jack, William. Using GIS to Address Pedestrian Issues. City of Seattle; Presented at the 1997 National Pedestrian Conference, Washington, DC, September 1997. The City of Seattle has created inventories of its pedestrian facilities using GIS. This information is being matched to locations of elementary schools, neighborhood service, and neighborhood business districts to prioritize pedestrian facility improvements.
Jager, Joke and Mark Gommers. Innovative Approaches to Regional Traffic Forecasting Models in the Netherlands. ITE 1993 Compendium of Technical Papers, ITE; Dutch Ministry of Transport, pp. 244-247, 1993. Provides an overview of the Dutch Regional traffic forecasting Model System (RMS). Walk/cycle mode choice is included in the model, but the method of incorporation is not described here.
Kagan, L.S., W.G. Scott, and U.P. Avin. A Pedestrian Planning Procedures Manual. Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration, Report Nos. FHWA-RD-79-45, FHWA-RD-79-46, and FHWA-RD-79-47 (3 Volumes), 1978. This manual outlines a formal Pedestrian Planning Process (PPP), including a demand modeling phase and a design and evaluation phase. The PPP includes a comprehensive evaluation of existing and forecast pedestrian travel patterns and movement requirements. Demand modeling procedures are similar to standard transportation modeling procedures and include trip generation, trip distribution, and traffic assignment.

 

Reference Description
Katz, Rod. Demand for Bicycle Use: A Behavioral Framework and Empirical Analysis for Urban NSW, Doctoral Thesis, The Graduate School of Business, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, December 1996. Demand for commuter bicycle use is modeled in two steps: (1) the choice to participate (bicycle) is modeled (through factor analysis and logit regression) based on attitudes and personal characteristics; and (2) mode choice is modeled through discrete choice (logit) models which include attitudes, personal characteristics, and structural factors (cost, distance, etc.). Bicycle facility measures include bicycle cost, trip distance, availability of showers and parking at the trip end, and percent of trip on a bike path. Elasticities for the bicycle mode are -0.88 for trip distance, +0.58 for percent of trip on bike path, and +0.26 for car cost. Inclusion of attitudinal factors is found to significantly improve model fit. Data are based on telephone and in-person surveys and choice experiments. An extensive discussion and literature review of the behavior modeling issues and techniques relevant to bicycle travel modeling is also included.
Katz, Rod. Modeling Bicycle Demand as a Mainstream Transportation Planning Function. Transportation Research Record 1502, 1995. Reviews current quantitative techniques for modeling bicycle travel; argues for greater consideration of bicycle travel in formal transportation planning models.
Khan A. M., and A. Bacchus. Bicycle Use of Highway Shoulders. Transportation Research Record 1502, 1995. Describes recent research on opportunities and issues in the use of highway shoulders for bicycle routes, including design factors and safety and economic benefits.
Kines, Chuck. Evaluating Community Livability Using a Core Set of Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities as Indicators, Draft Report, University of Maryland, August 1997. Advocates and establishes a framework for developing a set of bicycle and pedestrian facility indicators which can be used to evaluate community livability.
Kitamura, Ryuichi, Patricia L. Mokhtarian, and Laura Laidet. A Micro-Analysis of Land Use and Travel in Five Neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area. Transportation Vol. 24 No. 2, May 1997. The authors conduct stated-preference surveys to determine the relative influence of socioeconomic, attitudinal, and neighborhood characteristics on travel behavior. Discrete choice models are developed to predict mode choice and total number of trips by mode. Facility variables include presence of sidewalks and bike paths as well as perceptions of whether streets are pleasant for walking or cycling.
Klosterman, Richard, TIGER: A Primer for Planners. Planning Advisory Service Report Number 436, American Planning Association, Chicago, Illinois, 1991. Guidance on the use of Census TIGER files.

 

Reference Description
Kockelman, Kara Maria. Travel Behavior as a Function of Accessibility, Land Use Mixing, and Land Use Balance: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area. Master's Thesis, Department of City and Regional Planning, University of California at Berkeley, 1996. Relates vehicle miles of travel (VMT), auto ownership, and mode choice to various land use descriptors, accessibility measures, and socioeconomic characteristics at the census tract level, based on Bay Area data. Includes an aggregate walk/bike mode choice model (no facility descriptors). GIS is used extensively for data analysis.
Kocur, George; William Hyman and Bruce Aunet. Wisconsin Work Mode-Choice Models Based on Functional Measurement and Disaggregate Behavioral Data. Transportation Research Record 895, 1982. Work-trip logit mode choice models are developed for four sets of metropolitan areas in Wisconsin based on the results of stated and revealed-preference surveys. Bicycle and walk are included as separate mode choices. Bicycle facility variables include distance to work, lane (yes or no), street surface (smooth or rough), and traffic (busy or quiet). Pedestrian facility variables include distance to work, presence of sidewalks, and season (summer or winter).
Landis, Bruce W. Bicycle Interaction Hazard Score: A Theoretical Model. Transportation Research Record 1438, 1994. Describes a theoretical model to estimate bicyclists' perception of the hazards of sharing roadway segments with motor vehicles.
Landis, Bruce W. Bicycle System Performance Measures. ITE Journal, February 1996. Describes how the Interaction Hazard Score and Latent Demand Score developed by the author can be used to evaluate, test, and prioritize on-road bicycle projects.
Landis, Bruce W. NFTC Regional Bikeway Implementation Plan: Scoring Methodology Report, Sprinkle Consulting Engineers, Inc., Tampa, FL, March 1997. Describes the application of the Bicycle Level of Service to rate the quality for bicycling of existing streets in the Buffalo, NY, area.
Landis, Bruce W. and Venkat R. Vattikuti. Real-Time Human Perceptions: Toward a Bicycle Level of Service. Sprinkle Consulting Engineers, Inc., September 1996. Describes the development of a Bicycle Level of Service (BLOS) based on earlier work to develop an Interaction Hazard Score and new research.
Landis, Bruce, and Jennifer Toole. Using the Latent Demand Score Model to Estimate Use. Pro Bike Pro Walk 96: Forecasting the Future, Bicycle Federation of America/Pedestrian Federation of America, pp. 320-325, September 1996. Describes an application of the Latent Demand Score.

 

Reference Description
Lewis, Cathy Buckley and James E. Kirk, Central Massachusetts Rail Trail Feasibility Study, Central Transportation Planning Staff, Boston, MA, April 1997. An existing bicycle/pedestrian facility and its surrounding population are compared with a proposed facility and its surrounding population to estimate potential usage levels on the proposed facility.
Louisse, Cees J. Obstacles and Potentions (sic) for Replacing Car Trips by Bicycle Trips. Proceeds of the Velo 1992 conference (Perspectives Mondiales Sur le Velo; The Bicycle: Global Perspectives), 1992. Conducts a survey in the Netherlands asking people about obstacles to bicycling and willingness to change behavior. Respondents are asked to record all car trips for a week, and to note whether the trip could have been made by bicycle (impossible, only with much trouble, or possible). These estimates are used to develop a range of potential mode shift from car to bicycle. Different impediments are identified for trips of each degree of replaceability.
Loutzenheiser, David R. Pedestrian Access to Transit: A Model of Walk Trips and their Design and Urban Form Determinants Around BART Stations. Presented at the 1997 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #971424, January 1997. A discrete choice model of transit mode choice access is developed based on passenger surveys and station area characteristics for the Bay Area Rapid Transit system (BART) in San Francisco. Urban design and station area characteristics are found to be secondary to individual characteristics in determining the choice to walk. (Station area variables include nearby arterials and freeways; grid pattern; population density; and type and mix of land uses. Descriptors are developed using GIS techniques.)
Maptitude Overview (http://www.caliper.com), Caliper Corporation. Reviews the capabilities of Maptitude GIS software.
Matlick, Julie Mercer. If We Build it, Will They Come? (Forecasting Ped. Use and Flows). Pro Bike Pro Walk 96: Forecasting the Future, Bicycle Federation of America/Pedestrian Federation of America, pp. 315-319, September 1996. Potential pedestrian trips in a corridor are estimated using existing land use and mode split data and estimates of pedestrian trips from various types of trip generators (land uses, transit, etc.) The method is used for prioritizing corridors/locations for pedestrian improvements.

 

Reference Description
Mescher, Phillip J. and Reginald R. Souleyrette. Use of an Internet-Based Delphi Technique and Geographic Information System for Bicycle Facility Planning. Paper written for the 1996 Geographic Information Systems for Transportation Symposium, 1996. The authors use a GIS to assign bicycle condition index (BCI) values to the city street network of Ames, Iowa. The BCI was developed using the Delphi technique, using the internet to coordinate expert panelist responses. The authors then develop an optimal route-planning tool, using a shortest-path FORTRAN algorithm, that minimizes the sum of (negative) link scores between two identified nodes. The outputs of the optimal route calculations are then compared to existing bicycle routes.
Metropolitan Transportation Commission. San Francisco Bay Area 1990 Travel Model Development Project: Compilation of Technical Memoranda (Volumes II-VI). Oakland, CA, 1995-1997. Describes the development of the various trip generation, trip distribution, and mode choice models which are used in the San Francisco Bay Area travel models. The current status and history of Bay Area modeling efforts are also described, and Volume VI includes a description of current home-based work trip mode choice models developed by other MPOs which include non-motorized travel.
Meyer, Michael D. A Toolbox for Alleviating Traffic Congestion. Institute of Transportation Engineers; Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1997. Contains some basic information and references on bicycle trip characteristics, benefits and costs, and implementation guidelines for bicycling as a Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategy.
Milam, Ronald T. and Michael G. Jones. Engineering A Bikeway Master Plan. Fehr & Peers Associates, Inc., Prepared for the 1995 ITE District 6 Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, August 9, 1995. Methods and issues to consider in developing a bicycle master plan.
Montgomery County Planning Department. Travel/2: A Simultaneous Approach to Transportation Modeling (Draft). Montgomery County, MD, February 1993. Describes the development of a travel model for Montgomery County, MD. The model includes zone-level indices of bicycle and pedestrian friendliness.
Moritz, William E. A Survey of North American Bicycle Commuters - Design and Aggregate Results. University of Washington; Presented at the 1997 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #970979, January 1997. Documents a survey of 2,374 bicycle commuters in the United States and Canada. Includes socioeconomic and demographic information, commuting habits/trip characteristics, accidents, equipment and facilities used, "relative danger"by type of street, and motivation.

 

Reference Description
Moudon, Anne Vernez, Paul Hess, Mary-Catherine Snyder, and Kiril Stanilov. Effects of Site Design on Pedestrian Travel in Mixed-Use, Medium-Density Environments. Presented at the 1997 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #971360, January 1997. This paper tests the hypothesis that pedestrian network connectivity is an important factor in determining pedestrian activity levels. Selecting 12 sites in the Puget Sound area to control for population density, income, and land use mix, intensity, and distribution, the study finds that areas with direct pathways and a complete system of pedestrian facilities have significantly higher rates of pedestrian travel (as measured by counts).
Mozer, David. Calculating Multi-Mode Levels-of-Service, (abridged). International Bicycle Fund, http://www.halcyon.com/
fkroger/bike/los.htm, August 1997.
Describes the development of a level-of-service (LOS) measure referred to as "Pedestrian, Bicycle, Auto, Transit Level of Access" (P-BAT LOA). The purpose is to establish a multimodal level of service measure as an alternative to traditional LOS measures, which do not consider bicycle, pedestrian or transit modes.
MVA, Leicester Cycle Model Study, Final Report, prepared for Leicestershire County Council, Contract No. 02/C/1428, October 1995. Describes the development and application of a cycle network model for the Leicester, England area. The model distributes future cycle trips given a network of existing and proposed roads and cycle facilities. Cycle trip tables are developed based on existing trip tables for motorized travel in conjunction with cycle trip length distributions. The model does not forecast future levels of cycling, but rather uses an assumed level of future cycle traffic under ideal conditions and distributes it to a future-year network.
Nelson, Arthur C., and David Allen. If You Build Them, Commuters Will Use Them: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Commuters and Bicycle Facilities. City Planning Program, Georgia Institute of Technology; Presented at the 1997 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #970132, January 1997. Cross-sectional analysis of 18 U.S. cities to predict work trip bicycle mode split (census data) based on weather, terrain, number of college students, and per capita miles of bikeway facilities. A positive association is found.

 

Reference Description
Ness, M.P., J.F. Morrall, and B.G. Hutchinson. An Analysis of Central Business District Pedestrian Circulation Patterns. Highway Research Record 283, 1969. This study applies the gravity model technique to forecast pedestrian volumes in the Toronto area. The CBD is divided into office zones, linked by pedestrian facilities. Trip generation rates are measured for office zones and transportation terminals, and are used in conjunction with a set of friction factors and minimum-path walking trees as inputs to a gravity-type distribution model. The minimum path is calibrated on the basis of walking time, waiting time at intersections, street attractiveness, and a turn penalty. (Referenced in Behnam and Patel, 1977)
Niemeier, D.A. and G.S. Rutherford. Non-Motorized Transportation, 1990 NPTS Special Report. Report FHWA-PL-94-019, FHWA, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1994. Evaluates bicycle and pedestrian trip characteristics and demographic characteristics of travelers in the 1990 National Personal Transportation Survey.
Niemeier, Debbie. Longitudinal Analysis of Bicycle Count Variability: Results and Modeling Implications. ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, May/June 1996. Describes efforts to count bicycle traffic volumes; discusses issues which may affect counts, such as commuter vs. recreational bicycling patterns and the effects of weather.
Noland, Robert B. Perceived Risk and Modal Choice: Risk Compensation in Transportation Systems. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 27 No. 4, 1995. See Noland and Kunreuther, 1995 (same study, greater focus on safety aspects).
Noland, Robert B. and Howard Kunreuther. Short-Run and Long-Run Policies for Increasing Bicycle Transportation for Daily Commuter Trips. Transport Policy, Vol. 2 No. 1, 1995. Multinomial logit models are developed which relate use of a mode to perceptions of risk and convenience of that mode (perceptions of cost, comfort, and relevant personal variables are also included). Modes include auto, transit, bicycle, and walk. Risk and convenience perceptions are measured based on surveys of bicyclists and of the general population. The model is used to evaluate the general effect of policy variables on mode split. Elasticities are developed with respect to bicycle convenience, comfort, parking availability, competency, and lack of shoulders, as well as auto cost, convenience, and comfort. "Short-run"and "long-run"elasticities and mode splits are developed, which assume that many people do not have a choice of modes in the short run, but that in the long run different urban form policies and residential location decisions could allow everyone a choice of modes.
Reference Description
Northwestern University Traffic Institute. Pedestrian and Bicycle Considerations in Urban Areas - An Overview. Training course developed for the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, in cooperation with Barton-Aschman Associates. (no date; est. late 1970s). Outlines a sketch-planning approach to estimating potential bicycle trips based on population, employment, school trip activity, and other factors. Approach appears similar to that used by Ohrn (1976), who was also with Barton-Aschman at the time of his article.
Ohrn, Carl E. Predicting the Type and Volume of Purposeful Bicycle Trips. Transportation Research Record 570, 1976. Estimates the potential number of bicycle trips in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area, assuming that adequate facilities are provided, based on existing trip lengths and frequencies by purpose and on estimated maximum diversion by length and purpose, given ideal conditions.
Ortuzar, Juan de Dios, Andres Iacobelli and Claudio Valeze, Estimating Demand for A Cycleway Network, Department of Transport Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile (no date). A travel survey including stated choice experiments for potential bicyclists was conducted in Santiago, Chile. A logit model is constructed to predict "willingness to cycle"under the assumption of a dense network of segregated cycleways and parking facilities, and a mode choice model is subsequently developed. Based on total trips and travel attributes for each origin-destination (O-D) pair of the regional travel model, the number of potential bicycle trips is estimated for each O-D pair and overall.
Pioneer Valley Planning Commission, Survey of Users on the Norwottuck Rail Trail, Federal Highway Administration, July 19, 1996. Documents a survey of users of the Norwottuck Rail Trail in central MA, including trip, access, and user characteristics.
Public Opinion Research, Inc., Report on a Telephone Survey Conducted in the Route One Corridor of New Jersey, February 5, 1997. This report provides the processed data from a phone survey of 500 households along the Route One Corridor in New Jersey. The survey explored the respondents'use of the corridor and their opinions towards infrastructure improvements to make the corridor more bike and pedestrian friendly. Almost three-quarters of respondents replied that they strongly support policies that encourage development supportive of walking and bicycling. This survey was commissioned by the Bicycle Federation of America.

 

Reference Description
Pushkarev, Boris and Jeffrey M. Zupan. Pedestrian Travel Demand. Highway Research Record 355, 1971. The authors of this article study the nature of pedestrian flow in the central business district of midtown Manhattan. Their survey analyzed the number and kinds of pedestrians and the nature of their trips, including trip times and distances. Regression analysis is used to relate pedestrian volumes to adjacent land uses. The study provides several methodologies ranging from aerial photography to street-side surveys to collect data.
Replogle, Michael. Inside the Black Box: An Insider's Guide to Transportation Models. Pro Bike Pro Walk 96, Bicycle Federation of America/Pedestrian Federation of America, pp. 276-280, September 1996. Overview of travel modeling for laypersons, including how non-motorized travel can be incorporated.
Replogle, Michael. Integrating Pedestrian and Bicycle Factors into Regional Transportation Planning Models: Summary of the State-of-the-Art and Suggested Steps Forward. Environmental Defense Fund, July 20, 1995. Summarizes and critiques current non-motorized modeling practices, and suggests future directions.
Ridgway, Matthew D. Generating Fine Levels of Detail from a Regional Modeling Package. ITE 1994 Compendium of Technical Papers, ITE; Fehr & Peers Associates, pp. 425-429, 1994. Discusses how large area traffic network models can be used to generate fine-level details such as intersection turning movements, link-specific zonal contribution estimates, and parcel-level trip allocations.
Ridgway, Matthew D. Projecting Bicycle Demand: An Application of Travel Demand Modeling Techniques to Bicycles. 1995 Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers 65th Annual Meeting, pp. 755-785, 1995. Describes the theoretical development of a bicycle-specific travel model, based on traditional travel modeling principles, and its application to the city of Berkeley, California. Bicycle trips are currently assigned based on travel distances; link attributes could potentially be included. Problems were encountered in predicting bicycle mode split at a Census Tract level based on available data.
Ronkin, Michael. Surveying Actual Roadway User Characteristics. Pro Bike Pro Walk 96: Forecasting the Future, Bicycle Federation of America; Pedestrian Federation of America, pp. 307-309, September 1996. This article argues for the importance of conducting user surveys to accurately assess pedestrian and bicycling conditions and demands. The author shows various ways that traditional methods of counting users may be inexpensively yet productively enhanced. Hard data, Ronkin argues, is essential to making good policy.

 

Reference Description
Rossi, Thomas, T. Keith Lawton and Kyung Hwa Kim. Revision of Travel Demand Models to Enable Analysis of Atypical Land Use Patterns. Cambridge Systematics, Inc. and Metropolitan Service District, May 1993. Describes revision of travel models in the Portland, OR, area to include (among other things) non-motorized mode choice as a function of local land use and environment variables.
Shafizadeh, Kevan and Debbie Niemeier. Bicycle Journey-to-Work: Travel Behavior Characteristics and Spatial Attributes. Transportation Research Record 1578, 1997. Analyzes characteristics of commuter cyclists, including travel time by income, age, gender, and proximity to bicycle trail, based on surveys of commuters on CBD bike lanes and on the Burke-Gilman trail in Seattle.
Sharples, Rosemary. "Think Bike! - TRIPS Goes Cycling,"The MVA Consultancy, Manchester, TRIPS Software News, August 1996. See MVA (1995).
Sorton, Alex; Thomas Walsh. Bicycle Stress Level as a Tool to Evaluate Urban and Suburban Bicycle Compatibility. Northwestern University Traffic Institute; Transportation Research Record 1438, 1994. Describes the development of a bicycle stress level measure to evaluate the suitability of roadway facilities for bicycling.
Stein, William R. Pedestrian and Bicycle Modeling in North America's Urban Areas: A Survey of Emerging Methodologies and MPO Practices. Thesis: Master of City Planning and Master of Science, Georgia Institute of Technology, March 1996. Overview of the state of non-motorized modeling at major U.S. MPOs. Also includes a literature review of non-motorized user characteristics and preferences and level-of-service measures.
Stein, William R. Summary of Bicycle Modeling Efforts at Portland Metro. Metro Travel Forecasting Section, Portland, OR, November 22, 1996. One-page description of current non-motorized modeling efforts and future plans.
Stutts, Jane C. Development of a Model Survey for Assessing Levels of Bicycling and Walking. University of North Carolina, Highway Safety Research Center, November 1994. The purpose of this study is to develop a model survey for states and local communities to use to assess current levels of bicycling and walking. Includes a review and assessment of a variety of existing surveys which either focus on or include non-motorized travel.

 

Reference Description
Taylor, Dean and Hani Mahmassani. Analysis of Stated-Preferences for Intermodal Bicycle-Transit Facilities. Transportation Research Record 1556, 1996. A discrete choice model is developed based on a hypothetical-choice stated-preference survey to assess preferences for work-trip mode choice (auto, park-and-ride, or bike-and-ride). Facility factors include on-street bicycle facility type, bicycle parking facility type, and access distance to transit. Only relative utilities are reported -- the model is not used to predict changes in total mode use as a result of facility changes.
Teichgraber, W. and Ph. Ambrosius. Potential Demand for Bicycle Traffic in Relation to Existing Bikeway Networks. In Research for Transport Policies in a Changing World: Proceedings of the World Conference on Transport Research, Hamburg, Germany, April 1983. The authors develop a measure of quality of bicycle network access to a destination and relate it to the likelihood of using a bicycle to access the destination. The authors find an "S-shaped"relationship, where there is a minimum level of bicycle use even with a poor network and a maximum level which relates to a good network. A slight improvement to a poor network has little effect until a certain minimum standard is achieved. The authors also look at reasons for not bicycling based on survey data, including the influence of route characteristics.
Walsh, Tom. Bicycle Case Studies: A Review of Planning Guidelines and Design Standards for Bicycle Facilities. Institute of Transportation Engineers 66th Annual Meeting, pp. 504, 1996. Provides a review of planning guidelines and design standards for bicycle facilities.
Weiner, Edward. Urban Transportation Planning in the United States: An Historical Overview (Fifth Edition). Publication DOT-T-97-24, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1997. Reviews the evolution of transportation planning methods in the United States, including the four-step regional travel model approach known as the "Urban Transportation Planning Process."
Weisbrod, Glen and Phil Madsen. Perception and Preference Models for Motorized and Non-Motorized Travel, Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc., pp. 1-69, August 1979. The objective of this work was to develop mode perception and preference models based on attitudinal data as obtained from surveys. Modes included auto, transit, walk, and bike. Sophisticated statistical and modeling techniques are used, but the applicability of methods and results to other areas is unclear. Follow-up studies were performed to carry the techniques further into predicting mode choice.

 

Reference Description
Wellar, Barry, Design and Pre-Testing of a Survey Instrument to Measure Pedestrian Levels of Safety and Comfort: A Case Study of the Channelized Cut-Off from Laurier Avenue East to Nicholas Street South, Ottawa, Ontario, Submitted to the Mobility Services Division, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton (RMOC), Department of Geography, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, July 1995. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the study was to gauge the effectiveness of pedestrian improvements to a specific Ottawa intersection. Second, the study was commissioned to create and pre-test a survey instrument for evaluating the concerns of pedestrians in relation to traffic intersections in general. The methodology used was to send researchers to the intersection to conduct tape-recorded surveys of pedestrians. The tape-recorded data was then transcribed to a written survey form. The study concluded that there were concerns about vehicles not yielding to pedestrians. The researchers were very pleased with the effectiveness of this survey method.
Wigan, Marcus, Anthony Richardson and Paris Brunton. Simplified Estimation of Demand for Non-motorized Trails Using GIS. Presented at the 1998 Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #981203, January 1998. Describes the application of GIS techniques to compare usage on two non-motorized trails in Australia.
Wilbur Smith Associates. Non-Motorized Access to Transit: Final Report. Prepared for Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL, July 1996. This study estimates the effects on transit mode choice access of various improvements to bicycle and pedestrian facilities in station areas. Methodology is based on estimation of a discrete mode choice model from both revealed-preference and stated-preference survey data.

 

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