Skip to content U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway AdministrationU.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration

Office of Planning, Environment, & Realty (HEP)
PlanningEnvironmentReal Estate

HEP Events Guidance Publications Awards Contacts

CEVMS and Driver Visual Behavior Study - Peer reviewed report

References

1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Policy Statement. [Available online at http://www.nhtsa.gov/Driving+Safety/Distracted+Driving+at+Distraction.gov/Policy+Statement+and+Compiled+FAQs+on+Distracted+Driving.] Accessed 1/2/2014.

2. Shepherd, G. M., 2007: Guidance on Off-Premise Changeable Message Signs. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/real_estate/practitioners/oac/policy_and_guidance/offprmsgsnguid.cfm.

3. Scenic America. Position Paper Regarding the Propriety of Permitting Digital Billboards on Interstate and Federal-Aid Highways under the Highway Beautification Act. 2010.

4. Molino, J. A., J. Wachtel, J. E. Farbry, M. B. Hermosillo, and T. M. Granda. . The Effects of Commercial Electronic Variable Message Signs (Cevms) on Driver Attention and Distraction: An Update., FHWA-HRT-09-018. Federal Highway Administration, 2009.

5. Farbry, J., Wochinger, K., Shafer, T., Owens, N, & Nedzesky, A. Research Review of Potential Safety Effects of Electronic Billboards on Driver Attention and Distraction. Federal Highway Administration. Washington, DC, 2001.

6. Tantala, M. W., and A. M. Tantala. A Study of the Relationship between Digital Billboards and Traffic Safety in Henrico County and Richmond, Virginia. The Foundation for Outdoor Advertising Research and Education (FOARE), 2010.

7. Tantala, M. W., and A. M. Tantala. An Examination of the Relationship between Digital Billboards and Traffic Safety in Reading, Pennsylvania Using Empirical Bayes Analyses. Moving Toward Zero 2100. ITE Technical Conference and Exhibit, Buena Vista, FL, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2011.

8. Elvik, R. The Predictive Validity of Empirical Bayes Estimates of Road Safety. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40, 2008, 1964-1969.

9. Lee, S. E., McElheny, M.J., & Gibbons, R. . Driving Performance and Digital Billboards. Report prepared for Foundation for Outdoor Advertising Research and Education. Virginia Tech Transportation Institute., 2007.

10. Society of Automotive Engineers. Definitions and Experimental Measures Related to the Specification of Driver Visual Behavior Using Video Based Techniques. 2000.

11. Beijer, D., A. Smiley, and M. Eizenman. Observed Driver Glance Behavior at Roadside Advertising Signs. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board,, No. 1899, 2004, 96-103.

12. Smiley, A., T. Smahel, and M. Eizenman. Impact of Video Advertising on Driver Fixation Patters. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board,, No. 1899, 2004, 76-83.

13. Kettwich, C., K. Klinger, and U. Lemmer. Do Advertisements at the Roadside Distract the Driver? Optical Sensors 2008, San Diego, CA, SPIE, 2008.

14. Klauer, S. G., Dingus, T. A., Neale, V. L., Sudweeks, J.D., & Ramsey, D.J. The Impact of Driver Inattention on near-Crash/Crash Risk: An Analysis Using the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study Data, DOT HS 810 594. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2006.

15. Chattington, M., N. Reed, D. Basacik, A. Flint, and A. Parkes. Investigating Driver Distraction: The Effects of Video and Static Advertising, PPR409. Transport Research Laboratory, 2009.

16. Kettwich, C., K. Klinger, and U. Lemmer, 2008: Do Advertisements at the Roadside Distract the Driver? Optical Sensors 2008, F. Berghmans, A. G. Mignani, A. Cutolo, P. P. Moyrueis, and T. P. Pearsall, Eds., SPIE.

17. Cole, B. L., and P. K. Hughes. A Field Trial of Attention and Search Conspicuity. Human Factors, 26, 1984, 299-313.

18. Ruz, M., and J. Lupiáñez. A Review of Attentional Capture: On Its Automaticity and Sensitivity to Endogenous Control. Psicológica, 23, 2002, 283-309.

19. Wachtel, J. Safety Impacts of the Emerging Digital Display Technology for Outdoor Advertising Signs. The Veridian Group, Inc, 2009.

20. Theeuwes, J., and R. Burger. Attentional Control During Visual Search: The Effect of Irrelevant Singletons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1998, 1342-1353.

21. Tatler, B. W., M. M. Hayhoe, M. F. Land, and D. H. Ballard. Eye Guidance in Natural Vision: Reinterpreting Salience. Journal of Vision, 11, 2011, 1-23.

22. Land, M. F. Vision, Eye Movements, and Natural Behavior. Visual Neuroscience, 26, 2009, 51-62.

23. Eckstein, M. P. Visual Search: A Retrospective. Journal of Vision, 11, 2011, 1-36.

24. Henderson, J., G. Malcolm, and C. Schandl. Searching in the Dark: Cognitive Relevance Drives Attention in Real-World Scenes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 2009, 850-856.

25. Henderson, J. M., J. R. Brockmole, M. S. Castelhano, and M. Mack, 2007: Visual Saliency Does Not Account for Eye Movements During Visual Search in Real-World Scenes. Eye Movements: A Window on Mind and Brain, R. P. G. v. Gompel, M. H. Fischer, W. S. Murray, and R. L. Hill, Eds., Elsevier, 537-562.

26. Land, M. F. Eye Movements and the Control of Actions in Everyday Life. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 25, 2006, 296-324.

27. Hayhoe, M., and D. Ballard. Eye Movements in Natural Behavior. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 2005, 188-194.

28. Jovancevic-Misic, J., and M. Hayhoe. Adaptive Gaze Control in Natural Environments. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 2009, 6234-6238.

29. Shinoda, H., M. M. Hayhoe, and A. Shrivastava. What Controls Attention in Natural Environments? Vision Research, 41, 2001, 3535-3545.

30. SmartEye. Smarteye. [Available online at http://www.smarteye.se/.] Accessed June 22, 2012.

31. Whittle, P., Ed., 1994: The Psychophysics of Contrast Brightness. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

32. Regan, M. A., K. L. Young, J. D. Lee, and C. P. Gordon, 2009: Sources of Driver Distraction. Driver Distraction: Theory, Effects, and Mitigation., M. A. Regan, J. D. Lee, and K. L. Young, Eds., CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

33. Horberry, T., & Edquist, J., 2009: Distractions Outside the Vehicle. Driver Distraction: Theory, Effects, and Mitigation., M. A. Regan, Lee, J.D., & Young, K.L., Ed., CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

34. Rosenholtz, R., Y. Li, and L. Nakano. Measuring Visual Clutter. J Vis, 7, 2007, 17 11-22.

35. Bravo, M. J., and H. Farid. A Scale Invariant Measure of Clutter. Journal of Vision, 8, 2008, 1-9.

36. EyesDx. Multiple-Analysis of Psychophysical and Performance Signals (Mapps) [Available online at http://www.eyesdx.com/.] Accessed June 22, 2012.

37. Recarte, M. A., and L. M. Nunes. Effects of Verbal and Spatial-Imagery Tasks on Eye Fixations While Driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6, 2000, 31-43.

38. Manor, B. R., and E. Gordon. Defining the Temporal Threshold for Ocular Fixation in Free-Viewing Visuocognitive Tasks. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 128, 2003, 85-93.

39. Ahlstrom, C., K. Kircher, and A. Kircher. Considerations When Calculating Percent Road Centre from Eye Movement Data in Driver Distraction Monitoring. Proceedings of the Fifth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, 2009, 132-139.

40. Agresti, A., 2002: Analyzing Repeated Categorical Response Data. Categorical Data Analysis, 2nd Edition, D. J. Balding, Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

41. Stokes, M. E., C. S. Davis, and G. G. Koch. Categorical Data Analysis Using the Sas System (2nd Ed.). SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, 2000.

42. Molenbergs, G., and G. Verbeke. Likelihood Ratio, Score, and Wald Tests in a Constrained Parameter Space. The American Statistican, 61, 2007, 22-27.

43. ISO, 2002: Road Vehicles - Measurement of Driver Visual Behaviour with Respect to Transport Information and Control Systems -Part 1: Definitions and Parameters. ISO.

44. ISO, 2001: Road Vehicles - Measurement of Driver Visual Behaviour with Respect to Transport Information and Control Systems - Part 2: Equipment and Procedures. ISO.

45. Highway Capacity Manual. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2000.

46. Itti, L., and C. Koch. A Saliency-Based Search Mechanism for Overt and Covert Shifts of Visual Attention. Vision Research, 40, 2000, 1489-1506.

47. Walther, D., and C. Koch. Modeling Attention to Salient Proto-Objects. Neural Networks, 19, 2006, 1395-1407.

48. Itti, L., C. Koch, and E. Niebur. A Model of Saliency-Based Visual Attention for Rapid Scene Analysis. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on, 20, 1998, 1254-1259.

49. Walther, D. B. Saliency Toolbox. [Available online at http://www.saliencytoolbox.net/index.html.] Accessed 6/27/2012.

50. Land, M. F. Predictable Eye-Head Coordination During Driving. Nature, 359, 1992, 318-320.

51. Balas, B., L. Nakano, and R. Rosenholtz. A Summary-Statistic Representation in Peripheral Vision Explains Visual Crowding. Journal of Vision, 9, 2009, 1-18.

52. Levi, D. M. Crowding--an Essential Bottleneck for Object Recognition: A Mini-Review. Vision Research, 48, 2008, 635-654.

53. Horrey, W. J., and C. D. Wickens. In-Vehicle Glance Duration: Distributions,Tails, and Model of Crash Risk. Transportation Research Record, 2018, 2007, 22-28.

54. Wierwille, W. W., 1993: Visual and Manual Demands of in-Car Controls and Displays. Automotive Ergonomics, B. Peacock, and W. Karwowsk, Eds., Taylor and Francis, 299-320.

55. Strasburger, H., I. Rentschler, and M. Jüttner. Peripheral Vision and Pattern Recognition: A Review. Journal of Vision, 11, 2011, 1-82.

56. Reimer, B. Impact of Cognitive Task Complexity on Drivers' Visual Tunneling. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2138, 2009, 13-19.

57. Rayner, K., A. W. Inhoff, R. E. Morrison, M. L. Slowiaczek, and J. H. Bertera. Masking of Foveal and Parafoveal Vision During Eye Fixations in Reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 1981, 167-179.

58. Larson, A. M., and L. C. Loschky. The Contributions of Central Versus Peripheral Vision to Scene Gist Recognition. Journal of Vision, 9, 2009, 1-16.

Updated: 01/02/2014
HEP Home Planning Environment Real Estate
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000