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Glossary

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30% Rule
30% of gross household income is the standard used when calculating replacement housing rental assistance payments for displaced persons classified as "low-income" in accordance with the Uniform Act Regulation 49 CFR 24.402.
30-day notice
This is a notice that may be given to a person who will be required to move a residence, business, farm, non-profit organization or personal property. It informs the person that they must move the residence, business, farm, non-profit or personal property 30 days from the date of the notice. This notice can only be given after the 90-Day Notice.
90-day notice
No lawful occupant can be required to move unless he or she receives at least 90 advance written notice of the earliest date by which the Agency may require the move. The 90-Day Notice can either state a specific vacate date or indicate that the occupant will receive another notice indicating, at least 30 days in advance, the specific date by which he or she must move. [See 49 CFR 24.203(c)]

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access control management
Access control management is the process of administering the connections between public highways and adjoining land. Transportation officials must balance the need for community and business development with the need for safe and efficient travel.
acquisition
The process of securing the necessary property interests to adequately construct, operate, and maintain the transportation project's physical, aesthetic, and safety features. Property interests can be obtained by purchase, donation, condemnation or transfer of administrative jurisdiction.
actual direct loss of tangible personal property
Businesses and farms which move as a result of having their real estate acquired sometimes elect not to move some of their personal property. They may be eligible to receive a payment which is the lesser of the fair market value of the item, as is for continued use, less proceeds for its sale; or the estimated cost of moving the item as is, but not including any allowance for storage; or for reconnecting a piece of equipment if the equipment is in storage or not being used at the acquired site. [See 49 CFR 24.303(g)(14)]
actual moving expenses
The costs that are paid to disconnect, move, and reinstall personal property. These costs are usually associated with the move of a business. A complete list of costs eligible for federal reimbursements can be found at 49 CFR 24.303.
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is legislation which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. The ADA applies to facilities, both public (title II) and private (title III), which are not Federally funded. Newly constructed and altered facilities covered by titles II and III of the ADA must be readily accessible to and usable by people with disabilities.
advisory services
Services and assistance that are non-monetary in nature that assist a displaced person in relocating to residential housing or a replacement business site. Advisory services can consist of conducting interviews, delivering notices, providing information about comparable housing and suitable replacement business site and providing referrals to other appropriate agencies.
airspace
Airspace describes that area above or below the plane of the transportation facility and located within the right-of-way boundaries.
airspace leases
Airspace describes that area above or below the plane of the transportation facility and located within the right-of-way boundaries. Public entities often allow private parties to use airspace for interim non-highway uses, as long as such uses will not interfere with the construction, operation or maintenance of the facility or anticipated future transportation needs.
airspace security
Policies, procedures and methodologies developed and implemented for the protection of property owned by a public entity and utilized for, or incorporated within, a transportation facility. The intent of these policies, procedures and methodologies is to reduce the risk to the airspace, including any facilities located thereon, from natural causes and malicious or accidental human actions.
alternative uses of ROW
Permitting activities or functions within the right of way that are not related to the construction, operation or maintenance of the roadway.
appraisal
The act or process of developing an opinion of value; an opinion of value. The term "appraisal" means a written statement independently and impartially prepared by a qualified appraiser setting forth an opinion of defined value of an adequately described property as of a specific date, supported by the presentation and analysis of relevant market information.
appraisal practice
(1) The performance of activities necessary to developing an opinion of value. Such activities may include, but are not limited to, data collection, data analysis, records research, property inspections, validation of comparable sales data, and related activities. Some of these activities might be carried out by non-appraisers acting at the direction of an appraiser. (2) Valuation services performed by an individual acting as an appraiser, including but not limited to appraisal, appraisal review, or appraisal consulting.
appraisal review
Appraisal review is the responsibility of the acquiring agency to review all appraisal and specialty reports of real property to be acquired in connection with Federal-aid programs or projects and to establish an amount which it believes to be just compensation for such acquisition before the initiation of negotiations.
appraisal standards
Current standards of the appraisal profession, developed for appraisers and the users of appraisal services by the Appraisal Standards Board of The Appraisal Foundation. The Uniform Standards set forth the procedures to be followed in developing an appraisal, analysis, or opinion and the manner in which an appraisal, analysis, or opinion is communicated. They are endorsed by the Appraisal Institute and by other professional appraisal organizations.
assessor
An assessor is an official who has the responsibility of determining the value of a property.
asset
An asset is an item of value owned by an individual. Assets that can be quickly converted into cash are considered "liquid assets." These include bank accounts, stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and so on. Other assets include real estate, personal property, and debts owed to an individual by others.

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base closures (BRAC)
"BRAC" is an acronym which stands for base realignment and closure. It is the process that the Department of Defense has used to reorganize its installation infrastructure to more efficiently and effectively support its forces, increase operational readiness and facilitate new ways of doing business.
bid
A firm, fixed price used when quantity, time and points of origin and destination are known.
billboards
A sign in which the commercial visual information on the sign consists of brand name(s) or trade name(s) advertising a product or service or providing any visual information which is only incidental to the principal activity of the parcel or property on which the sign is located.
Bonus Act
The Bonus Act provided an incentive to states to control outdoor advertising within 660 feet of the Interstate highway system. States would receive a bonus of 0.5% of the Federal highway construction costs on segments of Interstate highways.
brownfields
Abandoned or underused portions of land occupied by vacant businesses or closed military structures, located in formerly industrial or urban areas. Redevelopment may be complicated by real or perceived contamination of the site.
business valuation
The business valuation method determines the business value as the difference between the current value of all business assets and the current value of all its liabilities.

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carbon sequestration
Carbon sequestration is the process through which agricultural and forestry practices remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Sequestration activities can help prevent global climate change by enhancing carbon storage in trees and soils, preserving existing tree and soil carbon, and by reducing emissions of CO2, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).
civil rights
A civil right is an enforceable right or privilege, which if interfered with by another gives rise to an action for injury. Examples of civil rights are freedom of speech, press, and assembly; the right to vote; freedom from involuntary servitude; and the right to equality in public places. Discrimination occurs when the civil rights of an individual are denied or interfered with because of their membership in a particular group or class. Statutes have been enacted to prevent discrimination based on a person's race, sex, religion, age, previous condition of servitude, physical limitation, national origin, and in some instances sexuality.
Clean Water Act (Section 401/404)
Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the State Water Quality Certification program, requires that states certify compliance of Federal permits or licenses with state water quality requirements and other applicable state laws. Under Section 401, states have authority to review any Federal permit of license that may result in a discharge to wetlands and other waters under state jurisdiction, to ensure that the actions would be consistent with the state's water quality requirements. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act of 1970 requires functional assessments on wetlands potentially affected by right-of-way development and the potential for mitigation of wetland impacts.
comparable replacement dwelling
When a residential occupant is displaced the Agency must offer at least one comparable replacement dwelling. See 49 CFR 24.2(a)(6) for the definition of a comparable replacement dwelling.
condemnation
The act or process of enforcing the right of eminent domain.
context sensitive solutions
CSS is a collaborative, interdisciplinary approach that involves all stakeholders in developing a transportation project that fits into its physical setting and preserves scenic, aesthetic, historic, and environmental resources, while maintaining safety and mobility.
contract administration
The management of all actions after the award of a contract that must be taken to assure compliance with the contract; such as timely delivery, acceptance, payment, and closing the contract.
corridor preservation
Techniques that state and local governments use to protect existing transportation corridors or planned corridors from inconsistent development, in an effort to minimize negative environmental, social, or economic impacts.
cost approach
The cost approach estimates the value of a property by adding the value of the land plus estimated cost to construct/replace the improvement and then subtracting the estimated amount of depreciation from the current structure.

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decent, safe, and sanitary (DS&S)
The term decent, safe and sanitary means a dwelling which meets local housing and occupancy codes. There are also standards identified in 49 CFR 24.2(a)(8) which, if not met by the local code, shall apply unless waived for good cause by the Federal Agency funding the project.
design/build
The design/build approach allows a single procurement for the design and construction of projects. The design/build concept allows the contractor maximum flexibility for innovation in the selection of design, materials and construction methods.
disaster
A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
disconnect/reconnect costs
When a business or farm owner has to move his or her personal property as a result of a project he or she may be eligible to receive reimbursement for the cost to disconnect, dismantle and reconnect the personal property. See 49 CFR 24.303(g)(3) for a list of Federally reimbursable disconnect/reconnect costs.
disposals
(1) The discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking, or placing of any solid waste or hazardous waste into the environment (land, surface water, ground water, and air). (2) An aspect of property management whereby excess property no longer needed for the transportation project is sold or transferred to another owner.
downpayment assistance payment
An eligible displaced person who purchases a replacement dwelling may receive a downpayment assistance payment in the amount of the computed rental assistance payment. At the Agency's discretion, a downpayment assistance payment that is less than $5,250 may be increased to an amount not to exceed $5,250 as described in 49 CFR 24.402(c)(1).

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easement
An interest in real property that conveys use, but not ownership, of a portion of an owner's property. Access or right-of-way easements may be acquired by private parties or public utilities. Governments dedicate conservation, open space, and preservation easements.
economic development
Economic development refers to the impacts a highway project may have on the national, regional, and local economies. Highways improve the movement of goods and people (national impact); connect States and regions, create access to undeveloped land, and reduce congestion (regional); and create construction and maintenance jobs (local).
eminent domain
The right of government to take private property for public use upon the payment of just compensation. The Fifth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, also known as the takings clause, guarantees payment of just compensation upon appropriation of private property.
encroachment
Revocable permission, or license, granted by the property or easement owner, for a non transportation related improvement, or use, to occupy right-of-way.
encumbrance
A burden, obstruction, or impediment on property that lessens its value or makes it less marketable. An encumbrance is any right or interest that exists in someone other than the owner of an estate and that restricts or impairs the transfer of the estate or lowers its value. This might include an easement, a lien, a mortgage, a mechanic's lien, or accrued and unpaid taxes.
endangered species (Section 7)
Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act directs all Federal agencies to use their existing authorities to conserve threatened and endangered species and, in consultation with the Service, to ensure that their actions do not jeopardize listed species or destroy or adversely modify critical habitat. Section 7 applies to management of Federal lands as well as other Federal actions that may affect listed species, such as Federal approval of private activities through the issuance of Federal permits, licenses, or other actions.
engineering
The art and science involved with the design, construction, and maintenance of roads, bridges and other structures associated with a transportation project.
engineering drawings
Technical drawings that depict the design and construction requirements for the highway, bridge, transportation, or utility, related structure. Right of way plans or plats are then developed based upon the engineering drawings to encompass the design, construction and operational requirements of the transportation project.
environmental justice
Environmental justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, culture, education, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
estimate
An approximation of the price of a stated service, an estimate is when distance, timing or quantities are not set.
excess/surplus property
Property in excess of the needs of an organization and not required for its foreseeable use. Surplus may be used or new, but it possesses some usefulness for the purpose it was intended or for some other purpose.

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fair market value (FMV)
The price which a willing buyer will pay a willing seller for a piece of real estate. The above definition is only a general definition. The exact definition of fair market value depends on where (jurisdiction) the property being bought or sold is located, on state/local case law and on other state/local legal issues.
Federal land acquisition
Federal land acquisition is the process by which the federal government acquires non-federal property for federal ownership.
Federal land transfers
In a Federal Land Transfer, a property interest is transferred from the U.S. government to a state highway agency, or other subdivision of government, to use for materials or right-of-way for road construction.
Federal Lands
Lands owned by the U.S. Federal government.
Federal Lands Highway Program
The primary purpose of the Federal Lands Highway Program (FLHP) is to provide financial resources and technical assistance for a coordinated program of public roads that service the transportation needs of Federal and Indian lands.
Federal-Aid Program
Federal-Aid highway funds are authorized by Congress to assist the States in providing for construction, reconstruction, and improvement of highways and bridges on eligible Federal-Aid highway routes and for other special purpose programs and projects.
federally assisted projects
A Federally assisted project is one which receives Federal reimbursement or payment of some project expenses such as planning, construction, right-of-way acquisition and property management.
fee simple interest
The act of acquiring all rights and interests in a property. This is in contrast to acquiring a partial interest, for example, an easement for highway purposes. Many highway departments acquired only an easement for highway purposes in the past. Today, most agencies try to acquire fee simple interest where possible.
FIRREA
FIRREA (the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989) became law after the Savings and Loan crisis of the 1980s led to more federal oversight in the financial system. Title XI of FIRREA established a body to monitor the certification and licensing programs for real estate appraisers in each state and enforce the state's compliance with the requirements of Title XI. This statute also requires the maintenance of a national registry of state licensed and certified appraisers, and ensures that each state licensing agency maintains a roster of state certified and licensed appraisers who are eligible to perform appraisals in federally related transactions.
fixed payment in lieu of moving expenses
The fixed payment is intended to provide a payment to a business, farm or non-profit organization, instead of a payment for actual moving expenses and reestablishment expenses. The method of calculation for the fixed payment can be found at 49 CFR 24.305(e). There is a minimum payment of $1,000 and a maximum payment of $20,000.

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GIS
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computerized data management system designed to capture, store, retrieve, analyze, and display geographically referenced information.

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highest and best use
The reasonably probable and legal use of vacant land or an improved property, which is physically possible, appropriately supported, financially feasible, and that results in the highest value. The four criteria the highest and best use must meet are legal permissibility, physical possibility, financial feasible, and maximum productivity.
Highway Beautification Act
The Highway Beautification Act (HBA) of 1965 controls outdoor advertising along Federal-Aid Primary, Interstate and National Highway System roads. It allows the location of billboards in commercial and industrial areas, mandates a state compliance program, requires the development of state standards, promotes the expeditious removal of illegal signs, and requires just compensation for takings.
historic preservation (Section 106)
Historic preservation is the protection of historic and prehistoric remains and structures. Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act require Federal agencies to conduct a preservation review process for historic properties under their jurisdiction or potentially affected by their proposed actions.
household income
This term means total gross income received for a twelve month period from all sources (earned and unearned) including, but not limited to wages, salary, child support, alimony, unemployment benefits, workers compensation, social security or the net income from a business. It does not include income received or earned by dependent children and full time students under 18 years of age. (See 49 CFR, Appendix A 24.2(a)(14) for examples of exclusions to income.)
housing of last resort
The Uniform Act requires that comparable decent, safe, and sanitary replacement (DSS) housing within a person's financial means be made available before that person may be displaced. When such housing cannot be provided by using replacement housing payments, the Uniform Act provides for "housing of last resort." Housing of last resort may involve the use of replacement housing payments that exceed the Uniform Act maximum amounts. Housing of last resort may also involve the use of other methods of providing comparable decent, safe, and sanitary housing within a person's financial means.

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incidental expenses (settlement expenses or closing costs)
This is a reimbursement for some settlement expenses that a residential property owner, or in some cases a residential tenant, may receive after he or she buys a replacement dwelling. A complete list of eligible expenses can be found at 49 CFR 24.401(e)(1)-(9).
income capitalization
The income capitalization approach estimates a property's capacity to generate income over a period of time and then converts that income into an estimate of the present value of the property.
international valuation standards
The International Valuation Standards provide uniformity in the valuation approaches used in real estate markets. Standards have now also been developed for many types of assets, including plant and equipment, intangible assets and businesses, and for different applications such as financial reporting and bank lending.

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joint use and occupancy
A joint use and occupancy agreement describes the obligations, responsibilities, rights, and privileges of two parties with uses on the same land. In right-of-way development, the two parties are often a utility and a highway/transportation authority. The agreement is often used for situations in which the utility has a compensable interest in the land occupied by its facilities and the land is to be jointly occupied and used for highway and utility purposes.
junkyards
A place where waste, discarded or salvaged materials are bought, sold, exchanged, stored, baled, cleaned, packed, disassembled, or handled, including, but not limited to, auto and motor vehicle wrecking yards, house wrecking yards, used lumber yards, and yards for use of salvaged house wrecking and structural steel materials and equipment.
just compensation
The amount of loss for which a property owner is compensated when his or her property is condemned or taken. Just compensations should put the owner in as good a position pecuniarily as he or she would be if the property had not been taken. Generally, just compensation is held to be market value, but courts have refused to rule that it is always equivalent to market value. See also Before and After Rule.

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land consolidation
Because highway projects often bisect agricultural land, a land consolidation policy permits States to purchase property remainders or agricultural properties offered for sale in the general corridor area. This type of acquisition allows states to acquire property outside the right-of-way limits to be exchanged for property needed for construction.
land titles
Deeds or other instruments necessary as evidence for establishing, or conveying, good title to property ownership.
landscape and roadside development
This competency area includes landscape plantings, erosion, rest area site development, tree preservation, historic mitigation, reforestation, and protection of scenic and natural resources.
lease
A lease is an agreement between a landlord, property owner or property manager and tenant. The agreement covers issues such as rental amount and length of time the lease is in effect. The rental amount may include or exclude property taxes, garbage pickup fees, utility costs, property maintenance and other expenses.
licensing
Licensing refers to a personal, unassignable, and typically revocable privilege or permit to perform some activity on the land of another without obtaining an interest in the property.

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mitigation
Alleviation of the social, economic, and environmental impacts of right-of-way acquisition. A number of mitigation techniques are available, including: acquisition and transfer of agricultural lands to minimize uneconomic land uses; property acquisition for wetland banking; and other techniquest that reduce the impact of right-of-way acquisition on real property.
mortgage interest differential payment (MIDP)
This is a payment that a residential property owner may be eligible to receive to offset the increased cost of getting a mortgage on a dwelling to replace the dwelling that was acquired. An explanation of how to determine if a property owner is eligible to receive this reimbursement and how to calculate the payment can be found at 49 CFR 24.401(d).
moving costs
The costs that are paid to disconnect, move and reinstall personal property.
multiple funding sources
Transportation projects may be funded by more than one funding source, agency or program. Each funding source may have requirements or conditions that must be complied with to utilize that particular funding source.
MUTCD
The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, or MUTCD, defines the standards used by road managers nationwide to install and maintain traffic control devices on all streets and highways. The MUTCD is published by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) under 23 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 655, Subpart F.

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negotiation skills
Negotiation is the primary method for acquiring property for a project. It involves explaining items such as details of construction, an agency's offer of just compensation and what just compensation is. The negotiation process involves listening to the property owner and determining the best way (negotiated settlement/administrative settlement) to reach an agreement for the sale of property.
NEPA
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions. To meet NEPA requirements federal agencies prepare a detailed statement known as an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).
non-residential relocation
A process for Federally assisted projects and programs which involves identifying and considering the potential impact created by displacing farms, businesses and non-profit organizations and planning methods to minimize that impact.
notice of relocation eligibility
When a person becomes eligible for relocation assistance, an Agency must promptly notify him or her in writing of the eligibility for applicable relocation assistance. The dates that eligibility begins are referenced at 49 CFR 24.203(b).

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outdoor advertising control
Outdoor advertising control is the assurance that states are compliant with the provisions of the federal Highway Beautification Act (HBA). Under the terms of the HBA, the states must provide continuing "effective control" of outdoor advertising or be subject to a loss of 10 percent of their Federal-aid highway funds.

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partial acquisition
The acquisition of only a portion of a larger tract of land. The remainder may or may not be declared an uneconomic remnant by the acquiring agency.
permits
Revocable permission, or license, granted by the property or easement owner, for a non-transportation-related improvement, or use, to occupy right-of-way.
personal property
In general refers to property that can be moved. It is not permanently attached to, or a part of, the real estate.
personalty
Refers to items which are determined to be personal property.
planning
Planning is the implementation of concepts, theories and principles to address complex jurisdictional transportation issues. Within the Realty field, planning involves corridor preservation, economic development, and public involvement in Right-of-Way projects.
procurement
The act of acquiring goods and services (including construction) for the use of a governmental activity through purchase, rent, or lease. Includes the establishment of needs, description of requirements, selection of procurement method, selection of sources, solicitation of procurement, solicitation for offers, award of contract, financing, contraction administration, and related functions.
project management
The planning, organizing and controlling of allocated resources to accomplish a project within budget, on time, and to the satisfaction of those involved.
property descriptions
Property descriptions use various methods, such as the rectangular grid system, metes and bounds, point and centerline, and subdivisions, to chart property parcels and boundaries.
property interests
Property interest refers to the extent of a person's or entity's rights in property. It deals with the percentage of ownership, time period of ownership, right of survivorship, and rights to transfer or encumber property.
property management
Real property acquisitions for property management require long-term management strategies to protect, maintain, and manage the corridor until it is needed for its intended highway use.
public involvement
The active and meaningful participation of the public in the development and implementation of transportation plans and programs.
public lands and historic sites (Section 4F)
Section 4(f) prohibits use of land from publicly owned parks, recreational areas, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, and public or private historical sites by Federal transportation projects unless U.S. DOT determines that there is no feasible and prudent avoidance alternative and that all possible planning to minimize harm has occurred; or such use is a de minimis use.

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railroad acquisition
The acquisition of any property interest (i.e., any of the "bundle of rights") currently in use for railroad operations and/or owned by a railroad company.
real estate
Public sector real estate, or "realty," refers to facilities, land, and anything constructed on, or attached to, land that is governed or managed by a public sector entity.
realty
Public sector real estate, or "realty," refers to facilities, land, and anything constructed on, or attached to, land that is governed or managed by a public sector entity.
realty specialist
A professional with expertise in dealing with public sector real estate.
recreational trails
The Recreational Trails Program (RTP) provides funds to the States to develop and maintain recreational trails and trail-related facilities for both nonmotorized and motorized recreational trail uses. Each State administers its own program, usually through a State resource agency.
reestablishment payments
A business, farm or non-profit organization may be eligible to receive reimbursement for some of its expenses related to relocating and reestablishing when it is required to move for a Federally assisted project.
relocation
A process for Federally assisted projects and programs which involves identifying and considering the potential impact created by displacing residences, farms, businesses and non-profit organizations and planning methods to minimize that impact.
remediation
The process of correcting environmental degradation.
rental assistance payment
The difference between the comparable replacement rental dwelling as determined by the Agency and the base monthly rental, calculated over a period of 42 months. This amount may change based on the replacement dwelling actually rented by the displaced person. This amount is limited to $5,250, unless Housing of Last Resort is necessary. [See 49 CFR 24.402(b)(1)]
replacement housing payments
This is a payment to a residential owner-occupant or tenant to assist in the purchase or rental of a comparable replacement dwelling. Replacement housing payments for 180-day homeowner-occupants are the sum of the price differential, increased mortgage interest differential and incidental expenses and for tenants or short-term homeowner-occupants they are rental assistance payments that may be converted to down payment assistance.
residential relocation
A process for Federally assisted projects and programs which involves identifying and considering the potential impact created by displacing residences and planning methods to minimize that impact.
right-of-way
(1) A general term denoting land, property, or interest therein, usually in a strip, acquired for or devoted to transportation purposes. (2) A strip of land which is used as a roadbed, either for a street or railway. The land is set aside as an easement or in fee, either by agreement or condemnation. May also be used to describe the right itself to pass over the land of another.
right-of-way engineering
Identifying the location of existing property boundaries, ownership or real property interests. Involves the preparation of property maps based upon title records and field evidence. Combined with the design requirements of the project, determine right of way acquisition needs and develop documents necessary for acquisition.
right-of-way maps
Maps or plans which provide property information related to the right of way required for construction of a project.

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sales comparison approach
The sales comparison approach estimates the value of a property by comparing similar properties which have sold recently (comparables) and then making adjustments to the sale price of the comparables to account for differing characteristics.
scenic byways
National scenic byways designations recognize those roads across the country that exhibit one of more six core intrinsic qualities - scenic, natural, historic, recreational, archaeological, or cultural - contributing towards a unique travel experience. Individual states may also recognize scenic byways with similar qualities based on state policy.
(moving cost) schedule
This schedule is used to calculate the amount of reimbursement that displaced persons may be eligible to receive if they decide to move their own personal property. The schedule is periodically updated and can be found at FHWA's website: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/real_estate/
service contracts
The act of acquiring services from the private sector to supplement the services provided by in-house staff. Service contractors may be called "fee" contractors, as in fee appraiser or fee review appraiser, indicating that they have been hired to provide a specific service.
sign
An outdoor exchange of visual information which promote or advertise a message or idea by means of a design, light, display, device, figure, painting, drawing, message, placard, poster, planting, structure, or other thing which is visible from any place on the main-traveled way of the Interstate or Primary Systems, whether the same be permanent or portable installation.
special acquisitions
Special FHWA programs that are subject to their own special regulations or policy. Among these are hardship and protective buying of properties on proposed transportation locations; base closures (BRAC); railroad acquisitions; Tribal acquisitions; compensation due tenant owned improvements; accommodation of utilities; utility adjustments in cooperation with public utilities; joint development and multiple use of highway corridors; functional replacement of public facilities; and Federal land transfers for highway purposes.
specialty appraisals
Specialty appraisal is used to assist the principal appraiser in estimating the contributory value of specialty items in relation to the total fair market value of the property being appraised. Specialty appraisals may be for items such as: Machinery and equipment, fixtures, timber, and contractor and builder estimates.
substitute personal property
In some cases a business or farm owner who has to move his or her personal property may decide to replace some items of personal property instead of moving them. The business owner may receive some reimbursement for replacing these items which is the lesser of the cost of the substitute item, including installation costs of the replacement site, minus any proceeds from the sale or trade-in of the replaced item; or the estimated cost of moving and reinstalling the replaced item but with no allowance for storage. [See 49 CFR 24.301(g)(16)]
sustainability
The concept of sustainability is accommodating the needs of the present population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable transportation planning can incorporate a variety of strategies to conserve natural resources (including use of clean fuels), encourage modes other than single occupant vehicles, and promote travel reduction strategies.

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Title VI
As part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs and activities receiving Federal financial assistance.
transportation enhancements
Transportation Enhancements (TE) refers to funding opportunities that increase surface transportation choices and enhance the transportation experience. TE "activities" that qualify include pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure and safety programs, scenic and historic highway programs, landscaping and scenic beautification, historic preservation, and environmental mitigation.
tribal acquisition
The acquisition of any property interest (i.e., any of the "bundle of rights") owned by or in trust to a tribal government.

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Uniform Act
The Uniform Act is the short name for the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, as amended. This law was enacted as Public Law 91-646, and brought a minimum standard of performance to all Federally funded projects with regard to the acquisition of real property and the relocation of persons displaced by the acquisition of such property.
USPAP
The Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) represents the generally accepted and recognized standards of appraisal practices in the United States. The purpose of USPAP is to promote and maintain a high level of public trust in appraisal practice by establishing requirements for appraisers. USPAP addresses the ethical and performance obligations of appraisers through definitions, rules, standards, and statements.
utility accommodation
Accommodation can be either the policy of allowing utilities to occupy roadway right of way, or the practice of physically designing and constructing both the roadway and the utility to co-locate within the road right of way.

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valuation
The assessed value of a property, or the process of assessing the value of a property.

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- W -

wetland mitigation/banking
A mitigation bank is a wetland, stream, or other aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or (in certain circumstances) preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404 or a similar state or local wetland regulation.

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- X -

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- Y -

Yellow Book
Standards for the appraisal of real property acquired on behalf of the government.

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- Z -

zoning/land use
Zoning and land use refer to the manner in which portions of land or the structures on them are used (or designated for use in a plan), i.e., commercial, residential, retail, industrial, etc. Land use represents a broad category, where zoning implies regulations that are determined by land use category.

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Updated: 04/02/2013
HEP Home Planning Environment Real Estate
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