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FHWA Office of Real Estate Services Research Results: Public Sector Real Estate Certification Needs Analysis

II. Project Approach and Methodology

The methodology for performing the Public Sector Real Estate Certification Needs Assessment study consisted of the following primary elements and work steps:

This research approach initially relied on secondary research and direct contact with Federal Agency staff while FHWA obtained Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection process required to conduct the web-based survey and other data collection activities with individuals outside the Federal government. Following OMB approval, the researcher conducted the web-based market needs study and completed the primary research required to complete the survey of state licensing agencies and the survey of institutions and courses.

Exhibit II-1 provides an overview of this project approach. Each of the primary research techniques is described in further detail below.

Exhibit II-1: Public Sector Real Estate Certification Needs Analysis Project Approach
This research approach for the Public Sector Real Estate Certification Needs Assessment study initially relied on secondary research and direct contact with Federal Agency staff while FHWA obtained Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection process required to conduct the web-based survey and other data collection activities with individuals outside the Federal government. Following OMB approval, the researcher conducted the web-based market needs study and completed the primary research required to complete the survey of state licensing agencies and the survey of institutions and courses.

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A. Surveys of State Licensing Agencies

Licensing agencies in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands and Pacific Territories were surveyed to confirm licenses required for various real estate specialties and the associated educational and work requirements for each license. The purpose of obtaining this information was three-fold:

To understand pre and post licensing requirements for the real estate profession generally as a point of reference for determining potential requirements for public sector real estate professionals. To understand the amount of pre and post licensing course work required of real estate professionals generally to help determine the potential for public sector professionals to leverage courses, which might be required for a public sector real estate certification to meet more general requirements in their home states or territories.

To better understand the process for having courses certified by states so that any new public sector real estate courses can potentially be approved by licensing agencies so that public sector real estate professionals can apply these courses to general requirements and if so desired other non public sector real estate professionals could take these courses as part of their continuing education requirements, thus expanding the market potential for new courses.

A survey instrument captured information about real estate and other related licensing requirements including pre-licensing education requirements, licensing examination requirements, post licensing requirements and continuing education requirements.

Exhibit II-2 depicts the information collected from each state or territory licensing agency. Exhibit II-3 depicts the information collected for each type of license issued by a licensing agency in a state or territory.

Exhibit II-2: Information Collected from Licensing Agencies

Inventory of Licensing Agencies

Exhibit II-3 Information Collected About Specific Licensing Requirements

Inventory of Licensing Requirements

Where possible, this information was obtained from web sites of responsible licensing agencies in each state or territory. Following OMB approval of the information collection for this study, the researcher contacted a number of these agencies as required to obtain missing information and complete gaps in the research.

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B. Inventory of Schools, Institutions, and Courses

To determine the type and extent of public sector focused real estate courses available, the researcher surveyed four year colleges in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands and the Pacific Territories, Federal Agencies and major national organizations, associations and institutions. The purpose of this survey was to inventory and document existing real estate course offerings in order to determine the extent to which different types of courses might already be available in the marketplace to meet requirements for a potential certification and to help in planning strategies to address any apparent gaps in course offerings.

Exhibit II-4 outlines the basic contact information which was collected from four-year colleges in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands and the Pacific Territories and major national organizations, associations and institutions to inventory and document existing real estate course offerings. Exhibit II-5 outlines the information, which was collected for each of the real estate courses offered at the schools, and other organizations surveyed.

Exhibit II-4: Schools and Associations Inventory Information

Inventory of Schools and Associations

Exhibit II-5 Course Inventory Information

Inventory of Courses

As with the survey of state and territory licensing agencies, this information was primarily collected from the web sites of educational institutions and associations. In the case where all or some of the information was not available on a web site, our structured survey instrument was utilized following OMB approval to collect the information from appropriate staff at the educational institution or association through e-mail or a telephone interview.

The results from this survey are also contained in a Microsoft Access database. This Microsoft Access database has been provided to the FHWA Office of Real Estate Services, along with a set of reports for accessing the information.

C. Interviews of Federal Agency Personnel

During the summer and fall of 2004, interviews were conducted with 21 Federal Agency personnel. The staff interviewed performed either real estate roles in their Agencies or were responsible for the conduct of real estate training in their Agency. Interview topics included:

The information received from the interviews was a primary input into the design of the web-based survey.

Exhibit II-6 provides a summary of the interviews conducted by Federal Agency. Appendix A contains a copy of the structured interview questionnaire utilized for these interviews. Appendix B provides a summary of the findings from these interviews.

Exhibit II-6: Summary of Federal Agency Interviews

Agency Number Participants
Federal Highway Administration 7
Housing and Urban Development 3
General Services Administration 2
Federal Aviation Administration 1
Department of Agriculture 1
U.S. Forest Service 1
Bureau of Land Management 1
U.S. Navy 1
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1
Bureau of Reclamation 1
National Park Service 1
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1
Total 21
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D. Web-based Market Needs Survey

The researcher conducted a web-based survey of public sector real estate personnel during March and April 2004. A total of 175 public sector real estate professionals from the FHWA Office of Real Estate Services, FHWA Division Offices, other Federal Agencies, state transportation agencies, large local public agencies and private sector firms performing work for public agencies received e-mail invitations to take the survey, with additional follow-up reminders sent via e-mail as appropriate.

Appendix C contains a hard copy version of the Market Needs Survey. The survey covered a number of areas, including:

A total of 134 individuals responded to this survey for a response rate of 76.57%. Exhibit II-7 provides a break out of survey respondents by type or category of employer.

Exhibit II-7: Web-based Survey Responses by Employer Category

Agency Number Participants
FHWA 38
Other Federal Agencies 34
State Departments of Transportation 34
Private Sector Firms 24
Local Public Agencies 4
Total 134

A reasonable response to the survey was received from all groups except local public agencies, with a slightly higher mix of Federal responses versus non-Federal responses than anticipated.

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E. Focus Groups

Three (3) focus groups were conducted as a follow-up to the web-based survey. These focus groups were convened in May 2005 in the following locations:

Appendix D contains a copy of the focus group agenda.

The Washington focus group consisted of the attendees at the regularly scheduled Interagency Coordination meeting and consisted of representatives of several Federal agencies. The Austin and Baltimore sessions consisted of invited public sector real estate professionals. These invitations were extended by the project team based on a number of factors designed to obtain a reasonably representative mix of participants including varying degrees of work experience, different functional roles and different types of stakeholders and/or employer organizations (Federal, State, Local Public Agency, private sector firms and training providers).

Exhibit II-9 provides a profile of the focus group attendees by location. Exhibit II-10 breaks down by Federal Agency the representatives who attended the Washington focus group.

Exhibit II-9: Focus Group Attendees by Employer Category

Agency/Function Total Austin Washington Baltimore
FHWA Division Realty Officers 3 2   1
FHWA Headquarters staff 2 - 2 -
Other Federal Agencies 10 - 10 -
State Departments of Transportation 7 3 - 4
Private Sector Firms 6 5 - 1
Educational Institutions/Training Providers 2 1 - 1
Local Public Agencies - - - -
Total 30 11 12 7

Exhibit II-10: Washington Focus Group Attendees by Federal Agency

Agency Number Participants
Housing and Urban Development 3
FHWA National Highway Institute (NHI) 2
GSA 2
Department of Agriculture 1
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1
Federal Aviation Administration 1
Department of Energy 1
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1
Total 12

This section summarizes the key findings from the Public Sector Real Estate Certification Needs Analysis. The findings are organized into the following groupings:

Each grouping of related findings is presented in more detail in the subsections below.

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F. Market Value of a Uniform Act Certification

Both respondents to the web-based survey and focus group participants strongly supported the concept of developing a Uniform Act or public sector real estate focused professional certification.

Exhibit III-1 shows that 67% of survey respondents believe that a public sector real estate certification would be either very valuable or valuable and another 19% considered such a certification somewhat valuable.

The perceived value of a public sector real estate certification is also consistent across respondents based on their role within their organization (manager, supervisor or staff). Exhibit III-3 provides a breakout of respondents' perceptions of the value of a potential certification based on role within their organization.

Exhibit III-3: Perception of the Value of a Public Sector Real Estate Certification by Respondent Level in Their Organization

  All Responses Manager or Above Supervisor Staff
Very Valuable 29% 29% 36% 27%
Valuable 38% 43% 21% 34%
Somewhat Valuable 18% 13% 21% 25%
Limited Value 8% 5% 7% 12%
Little or No Value 5% 7% 7% 3%
N/A or No Response 2% 3% 7% 0%
Total Responses 134 76 14 44

This finding was somewhat surprising given the larger number of managers and supervisors in the survey population who given their substantial work experience might be less inclined personally to pursue a certification. This finding itself tends to underscore the perceived value of the certification and is potentially an indication that senior public agency staff believes that such a certification would be important to have if they are planning on pursuing a post retirement career with a private sector consulting firm.

Further, Exhibit III-5 on the page below indicates that 90% of the respondents classifying themselves as manager or supervisors indicated that they would be either very likely or likely to be supportive of a staff person pursuing a certification.

The findings from the web-based market survey are consistent with the feedback received in the three focus groups concerning the potential value of a public sector real estate certification. Focus group participants indicated that, a certification that is broadly defined to provide managerial level proficiency in the various acquisition disciplines would be a valuable integrator during the project development process. In addition, there was significant discussion in two of the three focus groups about the lack of recognition for the real estate discipline in an engineering based organization, which several participants believed is linked to the perception on the part of the engineering staff that there are lower hiring standards for real estate professionals. It was believed by the focus group participants that a professional certification would help to reduce these perceptions about lower hiring standards and would help to enhance acceptance for the real estate staff within engineering or technical organizations. While projections for the future size of the public sector real estate field (and consequently ongoing demand for a potential public sector real estate certification) were not specifically included as part of the research conducted for this study, it is reasonable to extrapolate that the need for public sector real estate professionals who would pursue a potential certification program will continue to grow over the foreseeable future.

Based on the experience of the research team; the market needs survey results; findings from the follow-up focus groups and additional research on the future of public sector real estate currently being conducted as part of a separate project, the research team would offer the following anecdotal observations:

Public sector project work (transportation, public housing and other public benefit projects) should continue to grow in budget terms by at least a minimum of 10% a year for the foreseeable future. This assumption is based in part on the funding levels in the recent Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act (Safetea-Lu).

The existing public sector real estate work force is aging. This is especially true of staff employed by State and Federal Agencies. Thus, there will be a need for new staff to replace the current work force and manage the anticipated growth in public sector real estate work.

The nature of projects are expected to be at least as complicated in the future, if not more complicated, due to more projects being in urban or suburban areas with existing infrastructure, residences and businesses. This will lead to more complicated acquisition and relocation activities and require staff with the necessary training and experience to perform this work. Where public agencies were the primary employer of public sector real estate personnel in the past, a larger percentage of public sector real estate personnel in the future are likely to be employed by private sector firms performing work on behalf of public sector organizations.

Private sector firms have relied extensively on retiring public sector employees who want to continue to work for several more years to meet their needs for highly experienced staff to execute contracts for public agencies. Private sector firms will not be able to count on the availability of these highly experienced workers in the future and will need to do substantially more internal development of staff or better leverage education and training programs from universities, community colleges and other organizations.

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G. Components of a Public Sector Real Estate Certification

1. Based on the results of the survey and discussions in the focus groups, there is substantial agreement that a public sector real estate certification should require course work, some level of work experience and an independent capstone exam.

Discussion in all three (3) focus groups for the most part mirrored the survey results. The focus group attendees generally expressed that any certification needed to reflect both classroom accomplishments and experience. Mixing course work with on-the-job work activities to prepare for some form of a capstone exam was thought by focus group participants to probably be the best way to demonstrate mastery of the qualifications needed for certification. In terms of what the right amount of work experience might be, 90% of all respondents indicating that work experience should be required believe that 12 months or more work experience should be required

2. Survey respondents and focus group participants believe that any public sector certification should consist of both a mix of technical disciplines/skills and a set of softer skill areas integral to public sector real estate.

Soft skills is intended to describe those skill sets identified by survey respondents that are not specifically technical in nature (i.e. business relocation) that were identified by market needs survey respondents and focus group participants as being essential skills for public sector real estate staff to have regardless of their specific technical discipline (i.e. appraisal, acquisition, relocation, etc.).

For purposes of the study, the research team defined soft skills to include:

Some of the soft skill areas such as oral and written communication skills and people skills were not specifically identified as possible choices in the market needs study. However, the importance of these soft skills was consistently emphasized by a number of focus group participants at all management levels across the three follow-up focus groups.

Exhibit III-8 on the page below shows that while technical disciplines and skills appropriate to public sector real estate rank very high on the list of skills for a certification, several other managerial oriented skills are also viewed as extremely important. These softer skill sets include overviews of the project delivery process, environmental processes and requirements, and project management. The emphasis on project management skills is very important given the increased outsourcing of work by public sector agencies. Public agency staff will need experience managing projects and/or contracts to oversee outsourced work, while staff joining private sector organizations will likewise need these skills. The importance placed on an overview of the project delivery process and environmental processes and requirements is especially critical for individuals working for or with transportation agencies. It is a best management practice to involve real estate staff as early as possible in the project delivery cycle in order to be able to identify and mitigate potential project risks or cost impacts related to right-of-way-acquisition. The more understanding real estate staff have of the entire project delivery process, the more effectively they will be able to participate as an equal partner in the project delivery process.

The focus group participants were even much stronger on the need for a mix of technical skills and managerial skills than the survey respondents were. Several focus group participants indicated that strong people skills, effective communication skills and the ability to manage projects effectively were much more important than specific technical competence. One state department of transportation right-of-way manager even indicated that their state had recently changed many of the job requirements for real estate positions to adjust the desired skill mix to put less emphasis on technical or discipline specific skills. In addition, several focus group participants also indicated that the skill level required in the technical acquisition disciplines should be established at an introductory or basic level. These participants stressed that a certification should focus on providing a generalist credential indicating that the individual has a broad background in and a solid understanding of the concepts of public sector real estate. It was believed that existing programs and certifications already provide opportunities for individuals to demonstrate mastery in specific functional areas such as appraisal or relocation.

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H. Availability of courses to meet the requirements of a potential certification program

This subsection summarizes findings concerning the availability of courses in the marketplace to meet the requirements of a potential public sector real estate certification program and actions, which may be required to address some gaps in course coverage.

1. Implementation of a certification program will require a substantial commitment from educational institutions, national organizations and other training service providers in terms of course standardization and consistency.

A number of courses are currently available to meet most of the technical competencies areas proposed for the certification such as appraisal and relocation. These courses are offered by various providers including national organizations such as the Appraisal Institute and the International Right-of-Way Association (IRWA) as well as various Federal Agencies such as FHWA's National Highway Institute or the Realty Academies sponsored by a number of other Federal Agencies. However, there still needs to be an effort to increase the standardization of the curriculums for these courses to be consistent with the baseline to be established for the certification curriculum and to establish common standards for end of course testing.

One of the concerns discussed in some detail during two of the focus groups involved the wide variations in quality of some of the courses offered by national associations and/or their local chapters. Participants expressed that too often the quality of the course was directly dependent on the quality of the instructor and the teaching style of that person. In addition, several examples were given where end of course tests were not consistently administered so as to allow the tests to provide a true indication of whether or not a student had actually mastered the material covered in the course.

2. Many of the courses currently available have too narrow a focus for some potential participants in a public sector real estate certification program.

Several focus group participants raised the issue that a number of the courses currently available in the market place, while potentially intended to broadly cover a topic area, are very narrowly focused on transportation and/or utilities making them less meaningful to many potential participants.

3. Additional course development will be required to address the softer skill areas with a public sector real estate focus.

There are a number of providers who market project management training and provide course offerings geared towards helping students achieve their Project Management Professional (PMP) TM certification from the Project Management Institute. While these courses will provide generalist project management training, there are very few courses available focusing on project delivery, project management, environmental processes or other related processes from a public sector real estate context. One exception is a recent course on Project Management for Public Sector Real Estate recently offered by Baltimore County Community College in Maryland. Consequently, to support a public sector real estate certification, several new courses will need to be developed and made readily available to the public real estate community in areas such as project delivery, environmental processes, and project management for public sector real estate professionals.

4. Many of the courses required for State licensing are not generally applicable to a public sector real estate certification.

The survey of the 54 states and territory licensing agencies conducted as part of this research study indicated that there is little correlation between the courses required for licensure and those courses viewed by survey respondents and focus group participants as being most applicable to a Public Sector Real Estate Curriculum or Certification.

Typical requirements for licensing as an appraiser include course work such as basic appraisal, residential appraisal, overview of the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal and appraisal report writing. Typical broker course requirements include such courses as real estate law and practice; contracts and regulations and trust accounts and record keeping.

The market needs study and the follow-up focus groups, however, indicate that public sector real estate professionals require a different set of skills including:

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I. Feedback about existing public sector real estate courses and expectations about any new courses to be developed

This subsection summarizes the research findings in terms of perceptions about existing public sector real estate courses and expectations about any new courses to be developed. This feedback will be of special importance as educational institutions, national associations and other training providers update existing courses or design new courses to meet specific requirements in a certification program.

A limited number of specific public sector real estate courses are available from colleges, associations and other non Federal agency providers

Of the 182 institutions in the database, three (3) non-government institutions specifically offer courses that are principally designed for and marketed to public sector real estate professionals. These institutions are Baltimore County Community College, Delaware Technical and Community College and the International Right-of-Way Association.

An additional eight (8) non-public institutions offer courses which while not completely focused on the public sector have the public sector as a key or principal target market for the course. These include the American Society of Appraisers, American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, the Appraisal Institute and several Appraisal Institute chapters, the Columbia Real Estate Institute ("Easements and Right-of-Way") and the National Society of Professional Surveyors.

Exhibit III-9: Analysis of Public Sector Real Estate Course Offerings by Provider Type

Category Institutions Courses
Non-Government Institutions Offering Courses with a Specific Public Sector Real Estat-1 Focus 3 16
Non-Government Institutions Offering Courses with a Significant Emphasis on Public Sector Audience 8 37
Government Agencies or Private Sector Organizations Contracted on Behalf of Government Agencies 7 28
Total: Public Sector Orientation or Significant Focus 18 81
Total: Survey Database 182 748

2. In general, public sector real estate courses, that are currently available, are considered an excellent return on investment.

3. There is some concern about the variability of the quality of courses offered by national institutions.

As discussed above, there was an extensive amount of discussion in two of the focus group sessions about some inconsistencies in the quality and delivery methods of courses offered by national associations. There was also recognition by the focus group participants that there are efforts underway, for example by the IRWA, to revise and strengthen where appropriate their entire curriculum.

4. Consistent with the recommended components of a certification, public real estate staff are interested in new course offerings, which go beyond technical acquisition and appraisal disciplines.

While there is interest in new courses being developed in traditional public sector real estate disciplines, there is also significant interest in courses being developed for softer skill topic areas directly applicable to public sector real estate such as a Uniform Act Overview, environmental process overview and fundamentals of project delivery/project development.

5. Public sector real estate professionals strongly prefer instructor led courses, but recognize that travel and other cost restrictions will require greater use of distance learning concepts.

Focus group participants strongly indicated a preference for classroom based, instructor led training. At the same time, representatives from several state departments of transportation indicated that both course cost and travel cost were limiting their staff's ability to attend training. Thus, there was a recognition that for future courses, distance learning, while less preferable, may be more cost effective.

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J. Implementation considerations related to a potential certification program

This subsection describes some of the potential implementation considerations related to a public sector real estate certification. The findings in this area include the following.

1. A large number of survey respondents recommended that FHWA take the lead role in administering a public sector real estate certification, while a number of focus group participants suggested an independent foundation be established.

49% of respondents suggested that FHWA assume the lead role in administering a public sector real estate certification, while 29% recommended a consortium of professional real estate organizations.

Many of the focus group participants, on the other hand, suggested that an independent organization would be the most appropriate group for administering a certification. Participants in the Austin focus group, for example, suggested that the Appraisal Foundation and the Appraisal Standards and Certification programs could be a good model for a public sector real estate certification.

In addition, concerns were expressed by a number of study participants about potential legal liability based on FHWA's administering the certification.

Twelve (12) of the 134 respondents provided specific comments on the most appropriate approach/method for organizing and administering a proposed Public Sector Real Estate Certification program. An inventory of the comments made by market survey respondents on this topic are provided below.

"FHWA should have significant input/control over curriculum elements and development. Courses should be available in each state w/some being somewhat generic, ex. Basic Appraising, Basic Negotiations etc."

"Unless there were some Federal law mandating a certification of sorts, the value of such a certification would be dubious. The idea of right of way people being professionals is an "in-house" understanding generally not shared by the rest of the transportation community. A new piece of paper will not change their minds."

"This is a great opportunity for FHWA to take the lead and to develop and maintain a high quality, well respected certification program."

"The IR/WA does a good job in reaching their own members but there are lots of LPA's that are not in the IR/WA loop and never hear about training. An independent consortium might be able to target that audience. Also for people who are not already in the field, colleges offer an opportunity for students to enter the field."

"FHWA and IRWA offer very good training. Structuring the existing courses by these two entities into a formal curriculum would be adequate to serve as a basis for certification."

"A Uniform Act certification by FHWA as Lead Agency for the Uniform Act is long overdue. FHWA certification should put an emphasis on using FHWA courses, however, other courses should also be applicable to achieving the required coursework. Any other courses FHWA considers should be highly scrutinized by a panel of Federal technical experts in the Uniform Act. Panelists should include technical experts from government agencies outside of FHWA. Remember to gain a certification, candidates need to realize and understand the context of applying the Uniform Act to other Federal programs outside of the Federal Aid Highway Program."

'The IRWA is the only organization to currently offer this type of designation: the SR/WA designation. IT should be promoted and expanded; another designation is NOT needed. IRWA should have just kept ONE designation instead of implementing their "alphabet soup" of certification specialties, etc... That might help the egos of some people who get them, but its all too confusing for users of services. All doctors, regardless of specialty, are an M.D.; the same thing with accountants - CPA (even if they do personal accounting or corporate). Similarly, an appraiser who appraises office buildings has an MAI but still has the same designation if condo developments are appraised. ONE UNIFORM ACT FOCUSED PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION IS NEEDED - use the SR/WA as the vehicle to promote this."

"Pursuing an advanced designation from the International Right of Way Association might be easier to implement. I'm a member of that organization."

"The issue of a Uniform Act focused professional certification is something I can not see a Federal agency administering. There are always issues of differences between State DOT's on implementation issues as well differing issue among the Federal agencies. How to you administer, recertify, etc. This is a private (non-government) issue."

"Additionally, for the certifications being asked about, I feel they would they would be of more substance if the FHWA strongly encouraged public sector clients to require or reward more on proposals for those with such certifications."

"Public sector real estate training, as currently constituted, is adequate in my opinion. The IRWA and similar professional organizations such as the Appraisal Institute, have addressed the need for basic and continuing education within the various disciplines. A focused Uniform Act Certification however, should consolidate these diverse efforts into a more relevant program."

"I think the UA Professional Certification is critical to the continued success of the program. Our experience in hiring people with basic appraisal skills has been less than satisfying and finding other UA skills in our market place is virtually impossible. That, coupled with the move toward using off-season construction personnel for ROW negotiations opens the door for some problems. I strongly support the UA certification programs and would recommend looking to IR/WA cert programs as a model."

2. A number of focus group participants suggested the need for a phase-in or transition period to allow existing public sector real estate professionals to grandfather in for all or some requirements of a certification.

The web-based survey suggested that almost 66% of respondents would personally pursue a public sector real estate certification. During the focus groups, however, some of the participants did express the need for establishing a phase-in period for existing professionals during which experienced professionals could grandfather in for all or some requirements. This issue will need to be explored in more to determine what requirements could be grandfathered and whether existing professionals should demonstrate mastery just by documenting experience or by taking the capstone examination.

3. A number of focus group participants indicated that FHWA or other Agencies would need to provide incentives to jump-start the certification program in order to ensure it gains wide acceptance.

Focus group participants believe that some agencies and some staff will need a little extra motivation to make a achieving the public sector real estate certification a priority. Suggested incentives from the focus group participants included:

4. It is anticipated that the existing IRWA certification programs and course offerings should be complimentary with any proposed public sector real estate certification program.

The offerings of the International Right-of-Way Association (IRWA) were analyzed by the research team as part of this study from a number of perspectives. This includes reviewing and assessing the role of the IRWA as:

IRWA management was interviewed as part of the research process and various IRWA materials were reviewed in compiling the database of course offerings and in understanding the composition of the current IRWA certifications.

The findings from the market needs survey and the follow-on focus groups provided several insights in terms of how the IRWA's existing and planned offerings compliment and integrate with a potential public sector real estate certification. These findings include:

Updated: 09/05/2014
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