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NCHRP Project 17-35: Evaluation of Safety Strategies at Signalized Intersections

 

 

Evaluations of Low Cost Safety Improvements Pooled Fund Study

 

PPT version for Printing

A Human Centered Systems
Research Perspective for
Road Safety


Dr. Thomas M. Granda
United States Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Safety Research and Development
Human Centered Systems


Low–Cost Safety Improvement
Technical Advisory Committee Meeting
June 19, 2007


Overview

  • Introduction
  • Description of Human Centered Systems laboratory facilities
  • Description of nature and scope of research
  • Selected areas/studies of behavioral research

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Human Error & Crash Causation

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Turner–Fairbank Highway Research Center HCS Research Capabilities

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Sign Simulator
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Desktop Simulator
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Field Research Vehicle
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Highway Driving Simulator(HDS)
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Field–Tests,Validation
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Photometric Visibility Laboratory

Sign Simulator

  • Determine meaning of signage
  • Obtain initial estimates of recognition distance
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Low Fidelity Simulation Field Data Collection

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Field Research Vehicle

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  • 1999 Saturn SL–1
  • Data collection system
    • 4 cameras
    • Video quad unit
    • 3 axis digital accelerometer
    • GPS receiver
    • Inverter for 120v AC power
    • Laptop computer for data storage
    • Analog and digital video recording

Highway Driving Simulator

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  • Saturn Car cab with 3 df motion base
  • 270 degree field of view
  • Rear and side view mirrors
  • cluster–based PC workstation environment
  • GeForce NVidea 7900 GTX Pro graphics cards
  • In–house programming using open source code in a Linux Environment

Proper Fit of Research Tools & Activities

Generic Transportation HF Research Activities SQ TA CM PT LF HF FT
Initial user concept acceptance

           
Initial user preferences            
Initial user requirements          
Initial evaluation of device parameters        
Evaluation of rapid prototype(s)          
Initial evaluation of a procedure        
Refine user requirements in tasking situation          
Explore elementary non–driving component          
Non–driving subsystem and driving integration          
Non–driving subsystem and component and driving integration            
Initial integration of multiple subsystems            
Study of complex multiple independent variables          
Integration of multiple systems          
Full prototype testing and evaluation          

Research tools proceeds from simple on the left to complex on the right
SQ = Survey/Questionnaire, TA = Task Analysis, CM = Computer Model, PT = Part Task Simulator, LF = Low Fidelity Simulator, HF = High Fidelity Simulator, FT = Field Test


HCS Program Areas

  • Intersections
    • Warning to potential crash victims
    • Diverging Diamond Interchange
  • Pedestrians & Bicycles
  • Speed Management
  • Visibility
  • Operations
    • Transportation Management Pooled Fund Study
    • Traffic Control Device Pooled Fund Study

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Intersections: Infrastructure Based Red–Light Violator Warning

  • Test 3 warnings in HDS
  • Assess driver response to unexpected warning
  • 64 % of drivers responded in a way that would prevent collision with a red–light violator
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  • Assessed unexpected warning on Smart Road
  • 90% of drivers stop given 2.7 sec. advance warning
  • Need to assess driver response when subject vehicle is part of a platoon
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Intersections:
Red–Light Violator Warning to Drivers in Platoons

Four platoon scenarios

  • Lead vehicle brakes
  • Lead vehicle does not react to warning
  • Vehicle following participant
  • No other vehicles present

Three warning distances (assuming 45 mph)

  • 180 ft (2.7 s,)
  • 142.5 ft (2.2 s)
  • 105 ft (1.6 s)

Pedestrian Exposure to Risk

Problem

 –  Crash statistics must be adjusted for exposure
 –   Risk = Crashes / Exposure
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Procedure

 –  Conducted literature review of 100 papers
 –  Analyzed previously suggested exposure metrics
 –  Recommended new metric: hundred million pedestrian feet
     of roadway travelled
 –  Tested feasibility of collecting data with new metric at 7
     sites in Washington, DC

Pedestrian Exposure to Risk: Sampling Sites

  • Calm stop–controlled intersection
  • Metro stop mid–block crossing
  • Dead–end street with car repairs, etc.
  • Busy entertainment area intersection
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  • Busy Metro stop intersection
  • Shopping mall parking lot
  • Residential street with many driveways
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Pedestrian Exposure to Risk: Findings

  • It is feasible to collect data using proposed metric
  • 8 hour samples at 7 sites in one city yielded total of 1.13 million pedestrian feet of roadway traveled
  • Developed special measurement techniques for driveways and parking lots
  • Proposed metric has promise to serve as denominator of pedestrian risk equation
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Pedestrian Exposure to Risk:Next Research Steps

  • Collect more samples in a single city
  • Test collecting samples in a rural area
  • Generalize to entire city or area
  • Employ combination of empirical sampling and statistical modeling
  • Generalize to exposure for entire nation
  • Develop validation and update procedures
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Pavement Markings for Speed Reduction: Research Goals

  • Determine a low–cost pavement marking treatment with a high probability of success
  • Determine the effectiveness of the marking through a field evaluation at three different locations

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Pavement Markings for Speed Reduction: Results

  • Peripheral Transverse Lines as a Pavement Marking Pattern have the ability to significantly reduce vehicle speeds (4 mph reduction in average speeds in New York and 5 mph reduction in Mississippi)
  • Appear to be most effective with unfamiliar drivers and in situations where roadway geometry requires a reduction in speed
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Colors for Transponder–Controlled Tollbooth Lanes: Research Goal

Purpose of study

Develop a set of sign color recommendations for Transponder–Controlled Tollbooth Lanes

  • Background Color
  • Font Color
  • Overlay Color with Pictographs

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Colors for Transponder–Controlled Tollbooth Lanes: Results

Consistent with current practice, signs with a green background and white font was easiest to see at larger distances by research participants.
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Human Centered Systems Perspective

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