The Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1964 was introduced by President John F. Kennedy and signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 2, 1964. The CRA of 1964 is similar to the CRA of 1875, which protected the legal and civil rights of all citizens. In summary, the CRA of 1964 prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, employment and schools. It also provided increased protections regarding the right to vote. Initially, the CRA of 1964 was drafted to protect the rights of African-Americans, however it was amended to include women. The CRA of 1964 also authorized the United States Department of Justice to prosecute State governments operating segregated school systems, public accommodations and/or employment.
There are 11 Titles in the CRA of 1964. Each of these 11 titles are highlighted below:
Title I - Voting Rights
Barred unequal application of voter registration requirements to ensure that voting procedures, rules and related activities are applied equally to all races.
Title II - Public Accommodation
Prohibited discrimination in all public accommodations, such as; restaurants, hotels, theaters, etc. Private clubs were exempted from Title II because these establishments were private and not public.
Title III - Desegregation of Public Facilities
Prohibited state and municipal governments (city, county village, borough, town, etc.) from denying access to public facilities on the grounds of race, ethnicity, gender and/or religion.
Title IV- Desegregation Of Public Education
Promoted the desegregation of public schools and authorized the US Attorney General to file suit to enforce Title IV.
Title V – Commission on Civil Rights
Expanded the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights with additional rules, procedures and powers. The CRA of 1957 created the Civil Rights Commission.
Title VI - Federal Financial Assistance
Prohibited discrimination in all programs and activities of government agencies (i.e. state, city, county village, borough, town, etc.) which receive Federal financial assistance. Title VI prohibits discrimination based on race, color and national origin.
Title VII - Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
Prohibits discrimination in Employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex and national origin. Title VII applies to employers with at least 15 employees.
Title VIII - Registration and Voting Statistics
Requires voter registration and voter data in geographical areas specified by the U.S.
Commission on Civil Rights.
Title IX - Intervention and Procedure After Removal In Civil Rights Cases
Facilitated change of venue of Civil Rights cases from State courts to Federal courts to ensure fair trials because some State courts had segregationist judges and all–white juries.
Title X - Establishment Of Community Relations Services
Established the Community Relations Service to assist in community disputes involving claims of discrimination.
Title XI - Miscellaneous
Provided entitlement to an accused party of a trial by jury in any proceeding for criminal contempt under Titles II, III, IV, V, VI and VII of the CRA of 1964.