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STRUCTURES TEAM

April 4, 2002 Mid-Atlantic States PCEF Meeting Minutes

Approval of Minutes from October 31, 2002 Meeting in Manassas, VA

Minutes from October 31, 2001 meeting approved.

A) Subcommittee Status Reports by Chairmen

1. Production/Construction (P/C)

Group was advised that a Chairman for the Production/Construction Subcommittee was needed.

Former Chairman developed a ballot on acceptable cracking in prestressed concrete members. PCI is developing a Manual for repair of prestressed concrete members. Five sections have been developed that include identifying defects and how to repair a defect. The Manual should be available within a year. Ed Wasserman of the Tennessee DOT is chairing the effort to produce the Manual. PCI should make the Manual available for review before its publication. Acceptable cracking in prestressed concrete members should be included therein. The New England PCI group is also working toward the same goal.

The PCEF subcommittee was also addressing other issues that included: allowable strand sizes, use of draped or debonded strands, practices on development lengths, concrete properties, ultimate and de-tensioning values, minimum release hours, and maximum w/c ratio. Also, corrosion protection efforts (additives, reinforcement, clearances), inspection level of State inspectors, use of Consultants to conduct plant & on-site inspections, inspection reciprocity by States, inspection certifications, handling, storing and erecting members. Other possible issues included use of self consolidated concrete, beam sweep, use of SIP forms, tolerances and inspection guidelines.

To date, no results of the Subcommittee's work are available. After the entire PCEF group evaluated the Subcommittee's efforts toward prioritizing issues, it was decided to eliminate the strand size criteria study and that tolerances were part of the QA/QC subcommittee's work. Inspection criteria study will remain as part of the P/C subcommittee's work, along with handling, storage and erection issues. Since transportation issues are controlled by States' permitting regulations, it was decided to also delete those aspects from being part of the Subcommittee's work.

2. Materials & QC/QA

Draft 4 of the Specification Guidelines for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Bridge Products had been distributed and discussed during the Manassas, VA meeting. Sections 4.4 to 4.7 have been added into the Draft version, including PCI requirements where appropriate. Committee members were asked to review the Draft 5 distributed on this date, and to submit any comments to the co-chairmen before the next Subcommittee meeting, which will be held at the end of May. QA/QC issues will be addressed as a separate effort.

Sections 4.4 to 4.7 include criteria on forming, finishing, stripping, handling and storage. A discussion as to use of corrosion inhibitors in grout mixes developed. This is especially true when dealing with post tensioning and filling ducts with grout. There should be awareness when dealing with grout mix specifications. It was suggested that grout mix criteria should be a part of the guidelines.

An updated ballot taking into account the new sections 4.4 to 4.7, and any pertinent discussions at the subcommittee's May meeting, will be distributed to appropriate State DOT personnel for formal voting later this summer.

Status Report by Each State DOT on Implementation of High Performance Concrete (HPC) and PCEF

MDSHA - no action yet on use of PCEF Bulb T; however, will continue to investigate appropriate project with the State Bridge Engineer.. Studying a completed construction project, an HPC deck slab and use of a 7000 HPC psi mix for fabrication of AASHTO Type 4 girders.

DELDOT - no action on use of PCEF Bulb T; have one deck project under design that will utilize HPC.

NYSDOT - use the New England Bulb T shape; will allow use of the PCEF Bulb T as an alternate or re-design by the Contractor. 5 bridges built last year with HPC - 8 bridge projects underway - have ongoing effort to pre-approve HPC mix designs.

VDOT - have several projects in design using PCEF Bulb T. Some aspects of HPC have been used. Bayshore Concrete Products still needs forms, and is pushing for narrower width bottom flange.

PennDOT - allowing Producers to use PCEF Bulb T, but no response yet from Industry. HPC - have used up to an 8000 psi prestressed concrete HPC mix design. 2 HPC decks built that resulted in extensive cracking.

WVDOT - no action on use of PCEF Bulb T. HPC being studied - have formed task group to study the use of HPC and PCEF bulb-T.

NJ DOT - have included, in its Design Manual, guidance on the availability of the PCEF Bulb T shape. 6 to 8 projects underway on use of HPC for deck slabs. HPC will be primary deck slab type. Question was raised on the Abrasion testing specification that is stated in the FHWA HPC guidelines. ASTM C944, specified in FHWA guidelines, is not a test method performed by most labs. Suggested that ASTM C779 should be adopted as labs can more readily perform the ASTM C779 test. NJIT is researching deck cracking for the DOT.

FLDOT - looking at major projects to make form acquisition worthwhile.

NCDOT - looking at deck cracking. Now use 54" and 72" PCI bulb-Ts. Have built 2 HPC decks with AASHTO Type V girders.

The issue of deck cracking is still receiving much attention. In addition to references from the States at this meeting, a national pooled fund study is being solicited, with the KSDOT taking the lead. Purpose of the effort will be to implement the most cost-effective techniques for improving bridge deck life through reducing cracking. Contact Dick McReynolds at KSDOT (785-291-3841, or dick@ksdot.org). A 1996 NCHRP Study #380, "Transverse Cracking in Newly Constructed Bridge Decks" produced many findings on causes. This current study will followup.

Self-Consolidated Concrete (SCC) - Presentation by Dr. Celik Ozyildirim, VDOT

Mr. Rod Meyers of Masterbuilders gave a general presentation on SCC, as Dr. Ozyildirim was unable to attend. (Hard copy attached)

Also, a specific example of Virginia DOT's use of SCC was presented by Mr. Paul Ramsburg of Oldcastle Precast. Findings and results were as follows:

  • No deviations in slump test results were noted between using the slump cone upright and using it in the inverted position
  • W/c < 0.40 should be easily attained
  • Do a cost comparison before using modified fine aggregate instead of a viscosity modifying agent
  • Good permeability results with SCC
  • No difference in freeze-thaw durability characteristics
  • Cores showed no segregation of the SCC mix

Producer benefits included: reduced cleanup efforts; faster placements; vibrator noise eliminated; and 8 man-hours per day were eliminated. Producer concerns included: need for training; need to maintain member tolerances; moisture contents of concrete and aggregates need to be monitored closely; and need to apply form release agent properly (excess form oil creates bug holes).

Costs: Leaner mix was only $1.45/cy more than conventional concrete mix, and $1.78/cy greater than normal concrete mix for Bebo arches. A $4-$5 increase is seen in precast concrete prices.

NJDOT suggested that future discussions of SCC should address DOT owners' experiences and benefits gained. States need to know that they are getting equal or better quality at equal cost. Also, SCC looks promising for design/build projects and for buildings.

PADOT has had positive experiences so far with initial testing of the effects of long-term creep using SCC. MDSHA noted that control of mixing water is critical for SCC. They and VDOT are developing specifications for SCC. VDOT has submitted an SCC project to the FHWA Innovative Bridge Research & Construction Program. DELDOT noted that placing and curing requirements of SCC appear to be the same as for conventional concrete, but that drop height issues need to be addressed. NC noted that there might be application for SCC in drilled shafts.

D) Subcommittee Status Reports by Chairmen

1. Subcommittee on Standardization

Subcommittee developed details on use of steel diaphragms for prestressed concrete superstructures. Status of States' use of the standard drawing was queried. Delaware DOT no use reported - will study use steel diaphragms. New Jersey has adopted a standard drawing that is based on the Subcommittee's work. A proposal for the adoption of the Subcommittee's standard drawing for use of steel intermediate diaphragm for prestressed concrete superstructures was made. State representatives voted to adopt the PCEF standard drawing. Representatives also voted to adopt the Subcommittee's standard drawing for diaphragm layout.

Use of spliced girders, haunched girders and lightweight concrete will be the next issues to be undertaken by the Subcommittee. A soon-to-be completed NCHRP study on spliced girders will be evaluated by the group. The group will also look at standard details for positive moment connections.

2. Subcommittee on Design Parameters (need Chairman)

Due to the lack of a Chairman for this group over the past couple of years, it was suggested that the Subcommittee be joined with Standardization Subcommittee.

E) Precast Concrete Elements

It was questioned whether the PCEF wished to address standardization of precast concrete elements as part of their general efforts. The committee had previously agreed that it would be a positive move to do so. There are enough concerns for DOT's to look at, including noise walls, drainage components, as well as other precast items. QA/QC is one item to look at. Survey form will be developed to obtain input from States. Issues such as technician certification would be an item that can be studied. Reciprocity between States for approval of plants should be studied. Industry's input would be critical. Delaware DOT and Virginia DOT have limited interest. New York would show interest dependent on type of structures looked at. New Jersey cautioned direction of proposed study so that legal implications would be avoided.

F) Other Issues

February 11, 12, 13, 2003 are dates of the next Mid-Atlantic States Quality Assurance Workshop, at the Holiday Inn in Charleston, WV. We will tentatively target 2/13/03 as the date of next PCEF meeting in Charlestown, West Virginia.

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