FHWA Resource Center
CONCRETE COMMITTEE FOR ECONOMICAL FABRICATION
FEBRUARY 13, 2003
HOLIDAY INN CHARLESTON HOUSE - CHARLESTON, WV
I. CALL TO ORDER AND INTRODUCTIONS
The chairman, Mr Lou Triandafilou,
called the meeting to order by welcoming all attendees. All attendees
were asked to make self-introductions.
A copy of the committee’s
current “Mailing List” was circulated for everyone to review
and verify that the information contained on the list was correct and
to make corrections as necessary. New attendees were encouraged to add
their names and addresses to the list. Also circulated was the “List
of Subcommittees” where everyone, especially first-time attendees,
was asked if they were not currently serving on a subcommittee, but would
be interested in serving, to please add their name and address.
Mr Triandafilou again mentioned
that we are lacking chairpersons for the subcommittees on Production/Construction
and Design Parameters. He also mentioned the possibility of combining
them with other closely related subcommittees.
II. APPROVAL OF MINUTES FROM LAST MEETING
Mr. Triandafilou asked if there
were any additions or deletions to the minutes of the April 4, 2002 meeting
held in West Atlantic City, NJ.
A motion was made, seconded
and carried to accept the minutes as written.
III. USE OF NATURAL POZZOLAN TO ENHANCE THE PROPERTIES OF SELF-CONSOLIDATING
Mr. Chris Dumas was unable
to attend and give his presentation on the International Use of Self-Consolidating
Concrete (SCC). In his absence, Mr. Paul Ramsburg of Rotundo Precast,
Inc./Oldcastle, Inc. gave an informative presentation on the use of natural
pozzolans to enhance the properties of SCC. Some of the highlights of
his talk included:
· Use of SCC in precast
products is widely expanding in the U.S., while the Europeans are using
it more in ready-mix applications. Plants in Baltimore and Manchester,
NY have used SCC in prestressed box beams.
VDOT noted that a Bebo arch recently built using SCC had a cleaner appearance
than 1 cast with conventional concrete.
· SCC performs well
under durability, bond and shrinkage tests, and shows little difference
in hardened properties from conventional concrete. Big advantages are
with easier and faster placement, less labor and equipment needed.
· 40 out of 70 plants
that Oldcastle deals with are using viscosity modifying agents
Since Mr. Ramsburg’s
presentation did not address the issue of permeability, Messrs. Triandafilou
and Napier requested that he provide any information available regarding
these issues. Messrs. Potter and Tucker asked about development length
studies (strand pull-out tests) that have been conducted on strands used
in SCC. Mr Ramsburg stated that he was not aware of any studies conducted
as of yet on development lengths. He stated that this is an area which
would require future investigation.
A copy of the First North American
Conference on the Design and Use of Self-Consolidating Concrete’s
November 12-13, 2002 Conference Proceedings was given to all in attendance.
IV. STATUS REPORT FROM THE STATES ON USE OF THE PCEF BULB-T SHAPES AND
IMPLEMENTATION OF HPC
NCDOT completed a 4-span bridge
using 10 ksi HPC in AASHTO Modified bulb-Ts; 1 line of girders was instrumented.
(A CD of the project is available). Deck cracking was an issue, mainly
in the negative moment areas over the piers, and they are investigating
causes. They also completed a 5.2-mile long bridge with 230’ center
spans, using over 1800 AASHTO modified beams with 7 - 8 ksi compressive
strengths. Only minor deck cracking was evident in the end spans. The
State has yet specified the PCEF bulb-t shapes but will investigate their
use on future projects.
DelDOT likes the PCEF bulb-T
concept, and is still looking for their first application. They have completed
2 bridges that consist of all-HPC elements, plus 1 bridge with a HPC superstructure.
They have also constructed HPC deck overlays. They allow lower temperatures
for deck placements, and that practice has resulted in little or no deck
WVDOT has formed an in-house
committee to investigate future use of the PCEF bulb-Ts. They have built
a limited number of full-depth HPC decks, some overlays and at least 1
superstructure project. They have initiated a research with WVU to evaluate
MDSHA has 1 project under design
using the PCEF bulb-t shapes. They completed their first HPC deck 2-1/2
years ago with excellent results (little or no cracking using fibers and
fly ash). They have an upcoming re-decking project of a 110’ span
bridge, using lightweight HPC. The Woodrow Wilson Bridge replacement calls
for lightweight concrete in the bascule span deck, and used HPC in the
mass concrete placements for the V-pier foundations. Lightweight concrete
slabs are also being used at the BWI Airport project. The March 3rd MD
Concrete Conference was announced (Note: the event was excellent).
NYSDOT stated that they are
continuing to design with the New England bulb-Ts (metric units). A hard
conversion to English units makes them very similar in shape to the PCEF
bulb-t shapes; therefore, Contractor-proposed substitutes are acceptable.
They have completed 4 PCEF bulb-T projects using HPC, one using spliced
girders. Three more projects are currently under review. Fabrication experiences
have been mostly positive, with some end cracking. All cast-in-place decks
have been HPC since about 1996. An internal task force is looking into
deck cracking issues, while a university is studying creep, shrinkage
and thermal properties of HPC mixes. Fourteen bridges have been built
with HPC beams, and 25 more are planned this summer. Four precasters have
approved HPC mix designs, using 0.32 w/c. 56-day compressive strengths
have been required for beams; in some cases these later strengths have
been lower than measured 28-day strengths (causes still unknown). Costs
of HPC beams have been comparable to conventional beams. DCI corrosion
inhibitor and silane is used, along with blended cements.
PennDOT stated that prestressed
concrete suppliers wrote to the Department stating they would like to
move forward with implementing PCEF bulb-t shapes, holding the 8”
web thickness that the state prefers. Schuylkill Products currently has
the forms for these shapes, and another supplier is ordering the forms.
The State has been using 8 ksi in their beams for about 15 years, with
a Penn State study underway to increase strengths. Deck cracking has been
a problem on some early projects, but probably not due to the HPC mix.
Their 4000 psi deck designs have typically been achieving 9000 psi. The
State is considering lowering the specified strength to 3000 psi and placing
a 6000 psi upper limit, in order to reduce cracking.
VDOT has incorporated a set
of nine PCEF bulb-t shapes as their standard bulb-t shapes for sometime
now. Projects in the state where prestressed concrete beams are appropriate
will utilize these shapes. One exception would be bridges on a sharp skew,
where cracking problems have been noted where thick closure diaphragms
frame into beam ends. VDOT has several projects currently underway utilizing
the PCEF bulb-t shapes, including some with spliced haunches.
All states are either using
or considering the use of high performance concrete (HPC). Several states
using HPC in concrete decks expressed problems with deck cracking. It
was noted that the Ohio DOT performed a detailed study of several years
of deck placements. A definitive result was that decks placed with coarse
aggregate containing >1% absorption rate showed little or no cracking.
Decks containing aggregates with <1% absorption showed extensive cracking.
They plan to revise their mix design specs accordingly. NYSDOT is very
interested in this finding, and will investigate their own experiences
V. UPDATE ON GROUTING ISSUES
FOR POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE BRIDGES
Mr. Jerry Potter of the FHWA
gave an update on the work he is doing with regards to grouting issues
for post tensioned concrete bridges. These issues apply to any concrete
superstructure with post-tensioned conditions, and not only segmental
box girder structures. A handout was distributed.
Mr Potter briefly went over
the handout containing information provided by numerous states regarding
the condition of tendons in their post-tensioned bridges. Probable causes
for tendon corrosion include: use of high bleed grout; poor design details;
relaxed inspection oversight; relaxed construction and grouting operations;
weak construction specs.
Mr. Potter finished his presentation
by discussing continuing actions to help resolve the grouting issues in
connection with post-tensioned tendons. Vacuum grouting is considered
more effective for small voids, compared to pressure grouting. Also, the
flow cone test is considered unnecessary.
VI. SUBCOMMITTE STATUS REPORT
A. Materials and QC/QA Subcommittee
It was mentioned that the Guide
Specification for QC/QA Manual which had previously been adopted by PCEF
Committee member states is ready for publication. A hard copy and a copy
on a CD will be provided to each member state.
The next tasks to be undertaken
by this subcommittee will be to look into developing a set of regional
acceptance program guidelines/specifications for use of self-consolidating
concrete, and specifications for grouting materials and operations for
Mr. Triandafilou once again
brought up the fact that a chairman is needed for the Production and Construction
Subcommittee, to oversee development of regional criteria for such items
as prestressed concrete beam plant inspection, beam handling, storage
and erection. He also brought up the idea of combining this subcommittee
with the Materials and QC/QA Subcommittee. After a short discussion, it
was decided to combine both subcommittees into one.
B. Design Parameters and Standardization Subcommittee
Mr. Claude Napier, co-chairman,
mentioned that only old business the Standardization subcommittee has
remaining is the issue of diaphragms (to include closure diaphragms) as
pertaining to their details, spacing and for use on skewed bridges. Mr.
Joseph Tucker suggested adding topics for skewing the ends of beams and
Mr. Napier stated that this
subcommittee will also start looking into developing recommended anchorage
details for splice girders, based on NCHRP recommendations. Other possibilities
include deck pouring sequences, and any other pertinent topics included
in the original PCEF survey.
Now that the Design Parameters subcommittee has been combined with the
Standardization subcommittee Mr. Napier stated his committee will also
be looking into the issue of debonding of strands to include coming up
with a recommended maximum number of debonded strands and any other necessary
criteria for the use of debonded strands.
Mr. Napier added that this
subcommittee will have the industry respond to the issues of design parameters
by setting a priority to the ones developed by the former subcommittee
VII. PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS
At previous meetings, there
has been little interest expressed by the member states regarding the
PCEF Committee being involved with precast concrete elements. Still keeping
this topic on a very informal basis, Mr. Finnerty offered to distribute
a survey to the member states, to at least solicit information on their
current acceptance criteria for these elements; whether or not they see
any benefits in participating in a regional acceptance program for structural
precast products, and if not, why not.
VIII. OTHER ISSUES
The next meeting of the PCEF
Committee will be scheduled for sometime in late August/early September
of 2003. The exact date and location of this meeting to be determined
and announced at a later date.