Some relevant studies regarding TCM effectiveness are cited below. While many methods have been developed, the ability of practitioners to successfully analyze TCMs still relies heavily on the assumptions that go into the analysis. The data limitations regarding cost-effectiveness and difficulties associated with identifying the "true" costs and benefits make this process even more complex. The effectiveness of TCM activities is often small relative to the size and complexity of a communities' transportation network. It often takes a number of TCMs working in tandem to produce a synergy necessary to see the cumulative effects of such strategies. It also takes creativity in developing new approaches such as parking cashout, carsharing or pay at the pump insurance. Currently there is a need for more pre and post analysis to determine how effective TCMs can be.
Benefits Estimates for Selected TCM Programs (PDF - 678 KB. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Publication: EPA-420-R-98-002. March 1999.
Abstract: This report illustrates the use of EPA's Methodologies for Estimating Emission and Travel Activity Effects of TCMs by applying the methodologies to the estimation of benefits for six operating TCM programs.
Costs and Emissions Impacts of CMAQ Project Types. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Hagler Bailly, Inc., September, 1999
Abstract: The purpose of the report is to determine, for each of a set of 24 individual CMAQ projects, the total annual costs (i.e., CMAQ and non-CMAQ funds), estimated annual emissions reductions, and actual project lifetimes. The projects selected for review, to the extent feasible within the limits of this study, represent the geographic diversity of the CMAQ program and the types of transportation projects that are eligible for CMAQ funding.
Comparative Evaluation of the Cost Effectiveness of 58 Transportation Control Measures. Transportation Research Board, Research Record 1641. 1998.
Abstract: This research applies a standardized method to evaluate the cost effectiveness of fixed-route transit, transportation demand management, and alternative fuels.
Learning from Experiments: An Evaluation Plan for CMAQ Projects. (PDF - ? KB Resources for the Future. February 1998.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to outline a strategy of analysis and data collection that will facilitate evaluation of CMAQ projects. This paper argues that the lack of emphasis (in all but the largest projects) on project evaluation can be explained by local implementing agencies bearing the costs of evaluation, while the benefits are enjoyed by other jurisdictions in planning their transportation and environment projects.
This paper examines the kinds of data collected now in CMAQ programs in comparison wit the kinds of data that would permit more effective program evaluation, particularly ex post evaluation.
Cost Effectiveness of Transportation Control Measures by CMAQ Category. TERIS, North Carolina State University, 1997.
Abstract: At the request of FHWA, the Transportation and Environmental Research and Information Services (TERIS) at the Center for Transportation and the Environment at North Carolina State University conducted an extensive database search to compile a review of available literature on the subject of cost effectiveness of transportation control measures. Taking into account that many of these measures were introduced in response to the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act and financed by the 1991 ISTEA legislation, TERIS found many ongoing and completed studies that focused on cost benefit analysis. Nearly 90 studies are presented in abstract form in the report, representing cost effectiveness experiences in the U.S. as well as other countries pertaining to demand management strategies, and market based TCMs.
Transportation Pricing for California: An Assessment of Air Quality, Congestion, Energy, and Equity Impacts. Deakin, Harvey, & Skabardonis (DHS, Inc.), 1996.
For copies please contact Jeff Weir of California Air Resources Board at (916) 445-0098.
Costs and Effectiveness of Transportation Control Measures (TCMs): A Review and Analysis of the Literature. Apogee Research, Inc., 1994. - Out of Print
Abstract: The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 require the use of transportation control measures (TCMs) for purposes of conforming to state implementation plans and achieving the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). This document provides an overview of some real life experiences with TCM implementation and their potential to reduce the emissions from mobile sources. The emissions reduction potential of TCMs are segregated into strong, weak, and speculative scenarios for the purpose of this study. The report analyzes TCMs only in context with their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness with regard to reductions of emissions and is intended to provide valuable information on clean-air effects of a variety of transportation measures.
Transportation Control Measure Information. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Publication EPA400-R-92-006, March 1992.
Abstract: This report contains information documents on the 16 broad categories of TCMs as required and described under Section 108(f) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Each of the TCM categories is described in terms of its objectives, variations in the ways it may be implements, representative examples of actual usage, expected transportation and emission impacts, other potentially important considerations, and a set of implementation guidelines that can be followed by state, regional, and local agencies.
This document is available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at (800) 553-6847. Reference NTIS #PB92-172566/REB.