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Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access

Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide

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Contents
  1. Disclaimer

  2. UNDERSTANDING THE USER

  3. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1 Guidebook overview
    2. 1.2 Metric verses English units
    3. 1.3 Benefits of sidewalks and trails
    4. 1.4 Legislation and standards
      1. 1.4.1 Accessibility standards for new construction and alterations
      2. 1.4.2 Developing accessibility standards for sidewalks
      3. 1.4.3 Developing accessibility standards for trails

  4. Chapter 2: Understanding Sidewalk and Trail Users
    1. 2.1 Function, activity and participation
      1. 2.1.1 Function
      2. 2.1.2 Activity
      3. 2.1.3 Participation
      4. 2.1.4 Contextual factors
    2. 2.2 Different abilities for sidewalks and trails
    3. 2.3 Designing for all abilities
      1. 2.3.1 The need for a new approach
      2. 2.3.2 Accessible environments through universal design
      3. 2.3.3 Natural and constructed environmental constraints
    4. 2.4 Barriers create activity and participation limitations
      1. 2.4.1 Movement barriers
      2. 2.4.2 Information barriers
    5. 2.5 Conflicting pedestrian needs
    6. 2.6 Function, activity, participation and technology
      1. 2.6.1 Personal technologies
      2. 2.6.2 Activity-specific technologies
      3. 2.6.3 Environmental technologies and design
      4. 2.6.4 How does technology influence design?
      5. 2.6.5 Limitations of technology

  5. SIDEWALK DEVELOPMENT

  6. Chapter 3: Integrating Pedestrians into the Project Planning Process
    1. 3.1 Recent legislation
      1. 3.1.1 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
      2. 3.1.2 Federal transportation legislation (ISTEA and TEA-21)
    2. 3.2 Prioritizing pedestrian access
      1. 3.2.1 Sidewalk installation
      2. 3.2.2 Pedestrian oriented detail
      3. 3.2.3 National policy
      4. 3.2.4 State and local sidewalk policies
    3. 3.3 Local land use and zoning
      1. 3.3.1 Traditional land use patterns
      2. 3.3.2 Land use recommendations
    4. 3.4 Comprehensive planning
      1. 3.4.1 Pedestrian master plans
      2. 3.4.2 Pedestrian design guides
    5. 3.5 Prioritizing resources
    6. 3.6 Funding strategies
    7. 3.7 Site development
      1. 3.7.1 Pedestrian level of service
      2. 3.7.2 Access management
      3. 3.7.3 Design constraints
    8. 3.8 Public involvement
      1. 3.8.1 Making accessibility provisions at public meetings
      2. 3.8.2 Outreach strategies for initiating community involvement
      3. 3.8.3 Public involvement strategies
      4. 3.8.4 Community involvement in sidewalk assessments

  7. Chapter 4: Sidewalk Corridors
    1. 4.1 Sidewalk corridor width
      1. 4.1.2 The zone system
        1. 4.1.2.1 Curb zone
        2. 4.1.2.2 Planter/furniture zone
        3. 4.1.2.3 Pedestrian zone
        4. 4.1.2.4 Frontage zone
      2. 4.1.3 Protruding objects
      3. 4.1.4 Improving access on narrow sidewalks
    2. 4.2 Sidewalk grades and cross slopes
      1. 4.2.1 Grade
      2. 4.2.2 Cross slope
        1. 4.2.2.1 Grade and cross slope construction tolerances
        2. 4.2.2.2 Elevation difference between street and building
    3. 4.3 Sidewalk surfaces
      1. 4.3.1 Surface material
        1. 4.3.1.1 Firm and stable
        2. 4.3.1.2 Slip resistant
        3. 4.3.1.3 Wet or icy surfaces
        4. 4.3.1.4 Decorative surface materials
      2. 4.3.2 Changes in level
      3. 4.3.3 Gaps, grates, and openings
    4. 4.4 The impact of trees on the sidewalk corridor
    5. 4.5 Well-lit sidewalks
    6. 4.6 Grade-separated crossings
    7. 4.7 Sidewalks in confined spaces

  8. Chapter 5: Driveway Crossings
    1. 5.1 Change in cross slope
    2. 5.2 Driveway crossings on wide sidewalk corridors
    3. 5.3 Jogged driveway crossing
    4. 5.4 Built-up driveway crossing
    5. 5.5 Parallel ramped driveway crossing
    6. 5.6 Rolled curbs

  9. Chapter 6: Providing Information to Pedestrians
    1. 6.1 Non-visual information
    2. 6.2 Pedestrian signs
    3. 6.3 Detectable warnings
      1. 6.3.0 Detectable warnings update - May 2002
      2. 6.3.1 Design specifications for detectable warnings
      3. 6.3.2 Installation recommendations for detectable warnings
      4. 6.3.3 Recommended locations
      5. 6.3.4 Grooves
    4. 6.4 Directional surfaces
      1. 6.4.1 Raised directional tiles and pavers
      2. 6.4.2 Intersection guidestrips
    5. 6.5 Accessible pedestrian signals
      1. 6.5.1 Installation recommendations
      2. 6.5.2 Fixed time signals (pedestrian signal indicators with automated signal phasing)
      3. 6.5.3 Pedestrian actuated signal devices
        1. 6.5.3.1 Providing information in multiple formats
        2. 6.5.3.2 Physical design characteristics
      4. 6.5.4 Infrared or LED transmitters

  10. Chapter 7: Curb Ramps
    1. 7.1 The impact of curb ramps
      1. 7.1.1 Impact of curb ramps on people with mobility impairments
      2. 7.1.2 Impact of curb ramps on people with vision impairments
      3. 7.1.3 Ideal design characteristics
    2. 7.2 Curb ramp types
      1. 7.2.1 Perpendicular curb ramps
      2. 7.2.2 Diagonal curb ramps
      3. 7.2.3 Parallel curb ramps
      4. 7.2.4 Combined parallel and perpendicular curb ramp
      5. 7.2.5 Built-up curb ramps
      6. 7.2.6 Depressed corners
      7. 7.2.7 Recommendations for selecting a curb ramp design
    3. 7.3 Curb ramp specifications
      1. 7.3.1 Ramp grade
      2. 7.3.2 Ramp cross slope
      3. 7.3.3 Ramp length
      4. 7.3.4 Ramp width
      5. 7.3.5 Gutter slope
        1. 7.3.5.1 Gutter slope at diagonal curb ramps
      6. 7.3.6 Transition detection
      7. 7.3.7 Change of grade
        1. 7.3.7.1 Impacts of change of grade on people who use wheelchairs
        2. 7.3.7.2 Recommendations for maximum change in grade
        3. 7.3.7.3 Street resurfacing
      8. 7.3.8 Transition height
      9. 7.3.9 Sidewalk approach width
      10. 7.3.10 Landing dimension and slope
      11. 7.3.11 Returned curbs and flares
    4. 7.4 Design considerations for curb ramp installation
      1. 7.4.1 Curb ramp placement at an intersection
      2. 7.4.2 Influence of turning radii on curb ramp design
      3. 7.4.3 Determining sidewalk width at pedestrian crossings
        1. 7.4.3.1 Type of crossing
        2. 7.4.3.2 Curb ramp design
        3. 7.4.3.3 Steep terrain
        4. 7.4.3.4 Volume of pedestrian traffic
      4. 7.4.4 Curb ramps at high curbs
      5. 7.4.5 Curb ramps on narrow sidewalks
      6. 7.4.6 Curb ramps on steep terrain
    5. 7.5 Curb ramp drainage

  11. Chapter 8: Pedestrian Crossings
    1. 8.1 Barriers to pedestrian access
      1. 8.1.1 Movement barriers
      2. 8.1.2 Information barriers
      3. 8.1.3 Design solutions
    2. 8.2 Midblock crossings
    3. 8.3 Turning radius
    4. 8.4 Right turn on red and turning vehicles
    5. 8.5 Crosswalks
      1. 8.5.1 Crosswalk markings
      2. 8.5.2 Crosswalk research
      3. 8.5.3 Recommendations for enhancing pedestrian safety and access
        1. 8.5.3.1 Flashing signals
        2. 8.5.3.2 Reducing motorist speeds
    6. 8.6 Crossing times
    7. 8.7 Medians
    8. 8.8 Corner islands
    9. 8.9 Improving sight lines at intersections
    10. 8.10 Skewed intersections
    11. 8.11 Railroad crossings

  12. Chapter 9: Traffic Calming
    1. 9.1 Volume control measures
      1. 9.1.1 Full closures
        1. 9.1.1.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.1.1.2 Design recommendations for full closures
      2. 9.1.2 Half closures
        1. 9.1.2.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.1.2.2 Design recommendations for half closures
      3. 9.1.3 Median barriers
        1. 9.1.3.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.1.3.2 Design recommendations for median barriers
      4. 9.1.4 Forced turn islands
        1. 9.1.4.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.1.4.2 Design recommendations for forced turn islands
    2. 9.2 Speed control measures
      1. 9.2.1 Speed humps
        1. 9.2.1.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.2.1.2 Design recommendations speed humps
      2. 9.2.2 Speed tables and raised crosswalks
        1. 9.2.2.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.2.2.2 Design recommendations for speed tables
      3. 9.2.3 Raised intersections
        1. 9.2.3.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.2.3.2 Design recommendations for raised intersections
      4. 9.2.4 Textured pavement
        1. 9.2.4.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.2.4.2 Design recommendations for textured pavement
      5. 9.2.5 Roundabouts
        1. 9.2.5.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.2.5.2 Design recommendations for roundabouts
      6. 9.2.6 Neighborhood traffic circles
        1. 9.2.6.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.2.6.2 Design recommendations for neighborhood traffic circles
      7. 9.2.7 Chicanes, lateral shifts, and chokers
        1. 9.2.7.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.2.7.2 Design recommendations for chicanes, lateral shifts, and chokers
      8. 9.2.8 Curb extensions at intersections
        1. 9.2.8.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.2.8.2 Design recommendations for curb extensions
      9. 9.2.9 Center island narrowings
        1. 9.2.9.1 Impact on pedestrian access
        2. 9.2.9.2 Design recommendations for center island narrowings

  13. Chapter 10: Sidewalk Maintenance and Construction Site Safety
    1. 10.1 Facility maintenance
      1. 10.1.1 Assessment techniques
      2. 10.1.2 Sidewalk maintenance problems
      3. 10.1.3 Maintenance responsibilities
    2. 10.2 Information maintenance
    3. 10.3 Citizen reporting
    4. 10.4 Construction safety

  14. Chapter 11: Sidewalk Assessment
    1. 11.1 Benefits of assessment
    2. 11.2 Sidewalk Assessment Process overview
    3. 11.3 Sidewalk access characteristics
    4. 11.4 Data collection
      1. 11.4.1 Stroll Sheet station measurements
      2. 11.4.2 Stroll Sheet feature measurements
      3. 11.4.3 Stroll Sheet curb ramp measurements
      4. 11.4.4 Intersection Checklist
      5. 11.4.5 Sidewalk Element Analysis Forms
    5. 11.5 Presentation of sidewalk assessment information

  15. TRAIL DEVELOPMENT

  16. Chapter 12: Trail Planning
    1. 12.1 Commitment to universal design
    2. 12.2 Key players in trail design
    3. 12.3 Types of trails
    4. 12.4 Long-range planning
      1. 12.4.1 Trails versus the built environment
      2. 12.4.2 Developing accessibility standards for trails
      3. 12.4.3 New construction
      4. 12.4.4 Alterations
      5. 12.4.5 Routine maintenance
      6. 12.4.6 Long-range planning for multiple trail systems
    5. 12.5 Providing access and preserving the environment
      1. 12.5.1 Potential conflicts between access and preservation
        1. 12.5.1.1 Cultural, historic, religious, or significant natural features
        2. 12.5.1.2 Nature of the setting or purpose of the trail
        3. 12.5.1.3 Federal, State, or local regulations or statutes
        4. 12.5.1.4 Terrain, conditions, or prevailing construction practices
      2. 12.5.2 Priorities for access to extreme environments
        1. 12.5.2.1 Single extreme condition limits access
        2. 12.5.2.2 Cumulative conditions limit access
    6. 12.6 Trail components
      1. 12.6.1 Trail corridor
      2. 12.6.2 Trail element access
      3. 12.6.3 Trailhead access
        1. 12.6.3.1 Facilities and amenities at the trailhead
        2. 12.6.3.2 Directing trailhead traffic
        3. 12.6.3.3 Information at the trailhead.

  17. Chapter 13: Universal Trail Assessment Process
    1. 13.1 Overview
    2. 13.2 Benefits of assessment
    3. 13.3 Trail assessment coordinators
    4. 13.4 Data collection and processing
    5. 13.5 Presenting trail access information

  18. Chapter 14: Shared-Use Path Design
    1. 14.1 Background information
    2. 14.2 Access to shared-use paths.
      1. 14.2.1 Rail trails
    3. 14.3 Conflicts between multiple user groups
    4. 14.4 Shared-use path surfaces
      1. 14.4.1 Surface material
      2. 14.4.2 Surface firmness, stability, and slip resistance
      3. 14.4.3 Changes in level
      4. 14.4.4 Openings
    5. 14.5 Shared-use path grade and cross slope
      1. 14.5.1 Grade
      2. 14.5.2 Rest areas
      3. 14.5.3 Cross slope and drainage
    6. 14.6 Shared-use path width
      1. 14.6.1 Passing space
      2. 14.6.2 Protruding objects
    7. 14.7 Railings
    8. 14.8 Signs

  19. Chapter 15: Recreation Trail Design
    1. 15.1 Background information
    2. 15.2 Outdoor recreation access routes.
    3. 15.3 Trail conflicts between multiple user groups
    4. 15.4 Trail surfaces
      1. 15.4.1 Surface material
      2. 15.4.2 Surface firmness, stability, and slip resistance
      3. 15.4.3 Changes in level and tread obstacles
        1. 15.4.3.1 Changes in level
        2. 15.4.3.2 Tread obstacles
      4. 15.4.4 Openings
    5. 15.5 Trail grades and cross slopes
      1. 15.5.1 Grade
        1. 15.5.1.1 Recommended grade specifications.
        2. 15.5.1.2 Grades that do not meet accessibility recommendations
        3. 15.5.1.3 Grade transitions and rest intervals
        4. 15.5.1.4 Trails through steep terrain
        5. 15.5.1.5 Change of grade
        6. 15.5.1.6 Curvilinear trails
        7. 15.5.1.7 Trails with steps
      2. 15.5.2 Cross slope and drainage
        1. 15.5.2.1 Recommended cross slope specifications
        2. 15.5.2.2 Cross slopes that do not meet accessibility recommendations
        3. 15.5.2.3 Change of cross slope
        4. 15.5.2.4 Minimizing erosion through natural drainage patterns
        5. 15.5.2.5 Waterbars
        6. 15.5.2.6 Trails in regions with heavy rain
      3. 15.5.3 Rest areas
    6. 15.6 Trail tread width
      1. 15.6.1 Trails with vegetation
      2. 15.6.2 Passing space
      3. 15.6.3 Protruding objects and vertical obstructions
    7. 15.7 Edge protection
    8. 15.8 Signs

  20. Chapter 16: Trail Crossings
    1. 16.1 Trail crossing another trail
    2. 16.2 Bridges
    3. 16.3 Trail intersecting a roadway
      1. 16.3.1 Use of curb ramps on trails at intersections
    4. 16.4 Grade separated crossings
    5. 16.5 Trail intersecting a railroad

  21. Chapter 17: Specialized Trails
    1. 17.1 Viewpoints
    2. 17.2 Beach trails
      1. 17.2.1 Beach access route specifications
      2. 17.2.2 Selecting surface materials
      3. 17.2.3 Considering temporary paths
      4. 17.2.4 Providing beach wheelchairs
    3. 17.3 Trails in extreme climates
    4. 17.4 Interpretive trails

  22. Chapter 18: Trail Maintenance
    1. 18.1 Facility maintenance.
      1. 18.1.1 Assessment techniques
      2. 18.1.2 Shared-use paths maintenance
      3. 18.1.3 Recreation trail maintenance
    2. 18.2 Information maintenance
    3. 18.3 Citizen reporting

  23. Chapter 19: Research Recommendations

  24. APPENDICES [as published September 2001]

  25. Appendix A: Sidewalk Assessment Process Forms
    1. Stroll Sheet
    2. Intersection Checklist
    3. Curb Ramp Element Analysis Form
    4. Driveway Crossing Element Analysis Form.
    5. Cut-Through Median Element Analysis Form.
    6. Ramped Median Element Analysis Form.

  26. Appendix B: Sidewalk Accessibility Checklist

  27. Appendix C: Contact Information

  28. Appendix D: Detectable Warning Manufacturers
    The US Access Board has an updated list of Manufacturers of Detectable Warning Products.

  29. Appendix E: Slope Conversion Chart

  30. Appendix F: Abbreviations and Acronyms

  31. Appendix G: Glossary

  32. Appendix H: Bibliography

Updated: 02/10/2014
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