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Summary of Federal Highway Administration Pedestrian and Bicycle Research and Program Activities

Prepared for TRB January 2016

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U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration

This document describes recent, ongoing, and upcoming pedestrian and bicycle research efforts and related activities for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) offices listed below. While collaboration and coordination occurs between offices, activities are listed under the lead office.

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FHWA Office of Human Environment

Guidance: FHWA updated its bicycle and pedestrian guidance at Bicycle and Pedestrian Provisions of Federal Transportation Legislation in September 2015. The update reflected changes in Federal surface transportation law and policy, made technical corrections and clarifications, and included references and updated links to other policies and guidelines.

Federal-Aid Funds for Pedestrian and Bicycle Programs and Projects: In FY 2015, States obligated $834 million in Federal-aid highway program funds for bicycle and pedestrian programs and projects, (including all Safe Routes to School and Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program funds), an increase from $820 million in FY 2014. Bicycle and pedestrian funding was less than 2.0% of Federal-aid highway funding (~$40 billion). See

FAST Act: The Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act reauthorized Federal surface transportation programs for FY 2016 through 2020. FHWA will post FAST Act implementation information under as it is developed. While there are pedestrian and bicyclist references in many provisions, in summary:

Separated Bike Lane Planning and Design Guide: FHWA released the Separated Bike Lane Planning and Design Guide in May 2015. It outlines planning considerations for separated bike lanes (also called "cycle tracks" and "protected bike lanes") and provides a menu of design options covering typical one and two-way scenarios. It highlights options for providing separation, and documents midblock design considerations for driveways, transit stops, accessible parking, and loading zones. It provides detailed intersection design information covering topics such as turning movement operations, signalization, signage, and on-road markings. Case studies highlight best practices and lessons learned throughout the document. The report identifies potential future research, highlights the importance of ongoing peer exchange and capacity building, and emphasizes the need to create holistic ways to evaluate the performance of a separated bike lane. FHWA has provided presentations on the Guide at the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Subcommittee on Design and National Association of Regional Councils conferences and at the Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals (APBP) Professional Development Seminar. The Guide will be highlighted at a workshop entitled Protected Bike Lanes in North America and the European Union: New FHWA Guide, Emerging Research and Research Gaps, and Lessons Learned at the 2016 Transportation Research Board meeting. See

Safer People, Safer Streets - Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Initiative: USDOT Secretary Anthony Foxx has made pedestrian and bicycle safety one of the top priorities of his administration. Secretary Foxx announced the Safer People, Safer Streets initiative at the 2014 Pro Walk / Pro Bike / Pro Place conference in Pittsburgh, PA. The initiative consists of three components (Safer Streets, Safer Communities, and Safer Policies) and includes a broad range of activities to improve nonmotorized safety. Activities completed as part of the initiative are highlighted below. The Secretary's Action Plan on Bike and Pedestrian Safety at provides more information on the initiative. Additional information is available at

Bicycle and Pedestrian Funding, Design, and Environmental Review: Addressing Common Misconceptions: Since launching the Safer People, Safer Streets Initiative, USDOT has engaged safety experts, existing and new stakeholders, local officials, and the public on a range of targeted strategies to encourage safety for bicyclists and pedestrians on and around our streets, including bus stops, transit stations, and other multimodal connections. Through these discussions, a number of common misconceptions have been raised about the use of Federal funding, street design, and the Environmental Review process that can cause confusion and result in project delay. This document addresses common misconceptions and distinguishes between Federal standards and State and local practice. It also identifies resources that provide more detail on the topic. This document focuses on three policy areas: Funding, Design, and Environmental Review and is available at

Bicycle and Pedestrian Research Agenda: FHWA initiated the following pedestrian and bicycle research projects. Several of these projects have technical working groups to help guide the research.

Design Resource Index: FHWA and the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) developed the Design Resource Index to identify the specific location of information in key national design manuals for various pedestrian and bicycle design treatments. The Index incorporates national resource manuals and guidelines published by FHWA, Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), AASHTO, National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO), and the U.S. Access Board and it helps practitioners access resources and reduce the amount of time it takes to search through multiple design guides to find the information they need. The Index is available on PBIC's webpage at

Bicycle and Pedestrian Design Flexibility: FHWA issued a memorandum to support taking a flexible approach to pedestrian and bicycle facility design in August 2013. The memorandum recognizes the AASHTO Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, ITE Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares document, and the NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide as resources to inform the design of safe, comfortable, and context-sensitive pedestrian and bicycle facilities.

Delivering Safe, Comfortable, and Connected Pedestrian and Bicycle Networks - A Review of International Practices: FHWA published the Delivering Safe, Comfortable, and Connected Pedestrian and Bicycle Networks: A Review of International Practices report in May 2015. The report identifies and evaluates international best practices in establishing pedestrian and bicycle transportation networks and improving safety. See

Case Studies in Delivering Safe, Comfortable, and Connected Pedestrian and Bicycle Networks: This report focuses on the documentation and promotion of pedestrian and bicycle networks, which are interconnected pedestrian and/or bicycle transportation facilities that allow people of all ages and abilities to safely and conveniently get where they want to go. The report highlights projects that FHWA Division Office staff identified as successfully contributing toward network connectivity. See

Pedestrian Bicycle Information Center: FHWA has a cooperative agreement with the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center to operate the national bicycling and walking clearinghouse, known as the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC). FHWA works with the PBIC to develop and provide webinars, white papers, case studies, and other material to support walking and bicycling throughout the U.S. PBIC is working on a range of activities as part of its 2015-2016 work plan, including providing support for FHWA's pedestrian and bicycle network reporting activities and technical assistance as part of the Bicycle-Pedestrian Count Technology Pilot Program.

Recreational Trails Program: The Recreational Trails Program (RTP) was a set-aside from the Transportation Alternatives Program (TAP) and continues as a set-aside of the STP Set-Aside. The RTP provides funds through a cooperative agreement with American Trails for the National Trails Training Partnership, see FHWA posts trail publications and research, including several Forest Service publications and DVDs, at

Environmental Excellence Awards Program: These biennial awards recognize partners, projects and processes that use FHWA funding sources to go beyond environmental compliance and achieve environmental excellence. Nominations are accepted for projects, processes, groups or individuals involved in a project or process that has used FHWA funding sources to make an outstanding contribution that goes beyond the traditional transportation projects and encourages environmental stewardship and partnerships to achieve a multi-faceted, environmentally sensitive transportation solution. The 2016 Program is anticipated to include pedestrian and bicycle categories. See


Safe Routes to School

National Center for Safe Routes to School (National Center): FHWA has a cooperative agreement with the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center to operate the National Center for Safe Routes to School at, which serves as the clearinghouse for Safe Routes to School (SRTS) activities. Below are highlights of activities the National Center conducted in 2015.

Data Collection: To both facilitate local planning and monitoring and to inform a national-level understanding of progress of SRTS activities, standardized data collection forms and data processing are provided by the National Center. These may include parent surveys, success stories, and funds uses for a specific project.

Research: The National Center is engaged both in conducting research and evaluation of SRTS activities and working with researchers across the country to provide assistance in State evaluations.

Technical Assistance and Resource Development: Technical assistance occurs primarily through educational resource development, training and support for State and local SRTS Coordinators. The website is the central distribution mechanism for SRTS technical assistance. A second website serves as support for Walk and Bike to School Day activities. Technical assistance highlights in 2015 include:


Office of Planning

Bicycle-Pedestrian Count Technology Pilot Program: FHWA's Office of Planning, Environment, and Realty (HEP) announced awards to ten MPOs for a Bicycle-Pedestrian Count Technology Pilot Program. The Pilot Program funds the purchase of a limited number of portable automatic counters to collect counts at various locations within the MPO planning areas. The program requires collecting counts over a period of one year using the portable counters as well as sharing data and experiences with FHWA. Participants have access to a series of internal webinars and other technical assistance opportunities. FHWA will record these webinars for public availability. See The MPOs selected for the pilot are:

The Statewide Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning Handbook is designed to help State departments of transportation (DOTs) develop or update State pedestrian and bicycle plans. Based on research including interviews with nine State DOTs and critical evaluations of documents from 15 States, this handbook covers statewide planning from plan inception and scoping to engaging stakeholders and the general public; developing goals, objectives and strategies; collecting and analyzing data; linking to the larger statewide transportation planning process; and implementation. For each stage of the planning process, this handbook uses recent experiences and noteworthy practices from DOTs around the country, helping inform a new generation of statewide nonmotorized planning and implementation. See

Handbook for Metropolitan Planning Organization Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning: As a follow-up to the Statewide Handbook above, this project will develop a resource for pedestrian and bicycle planning at the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) level. The handbook will discuss how walking and bicycling fit into metropolitan planning activities and requirements; discuss the role of the MPO in regional pedestrian and bicycle planning and visioning; and provide examples and inspiration for how to continue to advance the state of the practice.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Updates to the Traffic Monitoring Analysis System: To support statistical analysis of travel trends, FHWA maintains a system called the Traffic Monitoring Analysis System (TMAS), which receives raw data from automatic motorized vehicle collection programs, vehicle classification counts, and weigh-in-motion counters, and computes basic reports from those data sets. A project funded by FHWA will modify TMAS to receive and report on bicycle and pedestrian counts based on the Traffic Monitoring Guide data format. Those enhancements will be included in TMAS (Version 3.0), scheduled for testing in 2016. With FHWA support, a related project for a regional count database is underway at Portland State University to assess the feasibility of moving counts from regional collection centers to the TMAS database.

Nonmotorized Travel Analysis Toolkit: The Nonmotorized Travel Analysis Toolkit (NMTK) is a research project to assess the feasibility of providing distributed access to analysis and modeling tools for bicycle and pedestrian planning across the internet. Tools may be developed and contributed to the toolkit by developers, and user access to those tools may be managed by other agencies or organizations. The toolkit framework is currently available through a partnership with the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center at The research system is open source and freely available to tool developers and others interested in exploring the concepts and implementation of a web-based analysis system.

Connected Bicycle Technology: A solicitation was issued via the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program to develop connected vehicle technology and supporting applications for bicycles. The solicitation is now closed, and an award will be announced in Spring 2016. Connected vehicle technology allows direct communication of safety and mobility information between suitably equipped vehicles, as well as between vehicles and infrastructure. The products of this research will ensure that bicycles can participate in this new information environment.

Planning Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM): The FHWA and the FTA jointly issued this NPRM proposing revisions to the regulations governing the development of metropolitan transportation plans and programs for urbanized areas, State transportation plans and programs, and the congestion management process, all of which impact pedestrian and bicycle transportation. The changes reflect enactment of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21). MAP-21 continued many provisions related to transportation planning from prior laws; however, it introduced transformational changes and added some new provisions. The proposed rule would make the regulations consistent with current statutory requirements and proposes changes outlined at

Note: The FAST Act did not make significant planning changes that would directly affect pedestrians and bicyclists.

Regional Models of Cooperation is a concept that is gaining popularity across the transportation planning discipline. This topic demonstrates the efficiencies and benefits to collaboration and coordination between jurisdictions. Many urbanized areas around the country have multiple MPOs that support one urbanized area. They share jurisdictional boundaries or are clustered in an urbanized area or adjoining areas yet support one regional transportation system. The purpose of Regional Models of Cooperation is to promote efficiency and regional cooperation by identifying best transportation planning practices, including those that impact walking and bicycling, that can be implemented by cooperating MPO jurisdictions, State DOTs, transit agencies, cities, and other agencies that have formal roles in the transportation planning process. Identifying opportunities to work together on regional planning can enhance the process and result in a better transportation system. This is an Every Day Counts Initiative and FHWA and FTA will be working with State DOTs, MPOs and transit authorities for implementation. See and

Performance-Based Approach to Scenario Planning: The development of a new guidebook will serve as a companion document to the FHWA Performance Based Planning and Programming Guidebook and Model Long-Range Transportation Plans: A Guide for Incorporating Performance-Based Planning, as well as an update to FHWA's 2011 Scenario Planning Guidebook. It will incorporate an increased focus on performance-based planning, as well as elaborate on how scenario planning can address emerging topics such as climate change. The report is expected Summer 2016.

Performance Based Planning and Programming Guidebook: Performance-based planning and programming (PBPP) refers to the application of performance management principles within the planning and programming processes of transportation agencies to achieve desired performance outcomes for the multimodal transportation system. This Guidebook has been designed to help State DOTs, MPOs, RTPOs, transit agencies, and other partner organizations understand the key elements of a PBPP process and the relationship of these elements within existing planning and programming processes. The Guidebook highlights effective practices to help transportation agencies move towards a performance-based approach to planning and programming. See

Model Long-Range Transportation Plans: A Guide for Incorporating Performance Based Planning: This Guidebook will describe and discuss model Statewide and Metropolitan Long Range Transportation Plans that are performance-driven and outcome-based and is intended for use by State DOTs, MPOs, and transit agencies who are interested in transitioning toward performance based long-range transportation planning and programming. See

Performance Based Planning STIPs: As States and MPOs transition to develop STIPs using a performance based planning approach; the FHWA is researching available tools necessary to transition towards a performance-based transportation planning and programming processes. We're:

Transportation Planning Excellence Awards (TPEA) Program: This biennial awards program provides a unique opportunity to recognize and celebrate the outstanding transportation planning practices performed by planners and decisionmakers in communities across the country. 2015 awards winners and honorable mentions were announced in Summer 2015. The 2017 TPEA Program will accept nominations in Fall 2016 and are anticipated to include pedestrian and bicycle categories. See

Developing a Regional Approach to Transportation Demand Management and Nonmotorized Transportation: Best Practice Case Studies: This report highlights four MPOs that embrace transportation demand management (TDM) and nonmotorized transportation in an ambitious, conscious, and holistic manner at both regional and local scales. These MPOs, which represent a diversity of sizes and geographic areas, can serve as models for other MPOs seeking to take a holistic approach to TDM and nonmotorized transportation to further advance their agencies' goals. The case studies answer how and why regional scale approaches to TDM and nonmotorized transportation are embraced, and assesses how they contributed to meeting regional transportation goals. See

Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) Round 7 (PlanWorks): In Spring 2016, FHWA will offer incentives to States and MPOs to implement PlanWorks: Better Planning, Better Projects. PlanWorks is a systematic web-based resource that supports collaborative decision-making. Applicants are encouraged to consider utilizing PlanWorks to address planning issues, including those that impact pedestrian and bicycle transportation. More information will be provided during webinars in February and March 2016. The application period is April 1-29, 2016. Visit the SHRP2 Solution page for information on the program and other related products at

The Transportation Health Tool: The Tool at was developed by the USDOT and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to provide easy access to data that practitioners can use to examine the health impacts of transportation systems. The tool provides data on a set of transportation and public health indicators for each State and metropolitan area that describe how the transportation environment affects safety, active transportation, air quality, and connectivity to destinations. The tool can be used to quickly see how States or metropolitan areas compare with others in addressing key transportation and health issues. It also provides information and resources to help agencies better understand the links between transportation and health and to identify strategies to improve public health through transportation planning and policy.


Office of Infrastructure

Controlling Criteria for Design: A Notice was published in the Federal Register on October 7, 2015 to solicit public feedback on proposed policy changes to revise the 13 controlling criteria for design that were established in 1985. FHWA proposes to reduce the number of controlling criteria to 10, and to only apply 2 of those in the low-speed environment. The comment period ended December 7th and a Final Notice is expected to be published early in 2016.

Accessibility: FHWA posted Department of Justice/Department of Transportation Joint Technical Assistance on the Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act Requirements to Provide Curb Ramps when Streets, Roads, or Highways are Altered through Resurfacing in June 2013 ( FHWA posted Questions and Answers on the Joint Technical Assistance on Resurfacing Projects on December 1, 2015, at The offices of Infrastructure, Civil Rights, and Chief Counsel will be coordinating with the Department of Justice to update FHWA's general ADA/Section 504 Questions and Answers. The U.S. Access Board is continuing its work on accessibility guidelines for pedestrian facilities in the public right-of-way with the goal of publishing final guidelines in 2016.


Office of Technical Services

National Highway Institute Courses: The National Highway Institute's (NHI) course on Pedestrian Facility Design at was updated in 2015 and is available for hosting. FHWA is developing a "Designing for Bicyclist Safety" course that is anticipated to begin piloting in Summer 2016. It will be a parallel workshop to the "Designing for Pedestrian Safety" course that is offered free to Pedestrian/Bicyclist Focus cities and States and as an NHI course to others who are interested.


Office of Operations

Interim Approval for Bicycle Signals: The FHWA issued an Interim Approval for bicycle signal faces on December 24, 2013 (IA-16) through the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways (MUTCD). See and the official interpretation 9(09)-47(I) at

Bicycle Facilities and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices Website: The FHWA revised its website entitled Bicycle Facilities and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices to reflect the current state of the practice with bicycle facilities and how they relate to the MUTCD. This includes Interim Approvals and Official Interpretations. Website updates address bicycle boxes, two-stage turn boxes, dashed bicycle lanes, destination guide signs for shared-use paths, and the use of green-colored pavement in conjunction with the shared-lane marking. Information on what constitutes an acceptable request to experiment with these devices is also provided.

Additional Approved Flash Pattern for the Rectangular-Rapid Flashing Beacon: The Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) conducted research to determine the effectiveness of various flash patterns for rectangular rapid flashing beacons. FHWA supported research to determine if a simpler flash pattern that included more dark time would be equally or more effective at getting motorists to stop for pedestrians at uncontrolled crossings. An overview of the study and an executive summary that provides the detailed results are available on the TTI website. More information on the alternative flash pattern is provided through official interpretation 4(09)-41(I). See


Office of Safety

Pedestrian and Bicyclist Scalable Risk Assessment Methodology: The purpose of this project is to build off existing resources to create a standardized approach that agencies can use to estimate pedestrian and bicyclist exposure to risk at a regional level. The project will result in a Scalable Risk Assessment Methodology. This resource will make it easier for stakeholders to assess risk and inform funding decisions, which is especially important given the constrained fiscal environment. FHWA anticipates awarding the contract in 2016.

Pedestrian and Bike Safety Reference Tool: FHWA has developed numerous tools, case studies, and resources to assist State and local agencies with making pedestrian and bicyclist safety improvements. Despite this, there are concerns that end users are not aware of these resources and when/how to use them. The overall project will compile and provide in one central location comprehensive decision support tools, design guidance, and other resources to support the development of safe and complete bicycle and pedestrian transportation networks. The decision support resource will assist stakeholders with the full life cycle of pedestrian and bicyclist project development, including public involvement, planning, programming, design and construction, safety, operations and maintenance, and evaluation. Will be complete in the Fall 2016.

Noteworthy Local Policies that Support Safe and Complete Pedestrian and Bicycle Networks: This review will identify examples, highlight noteworthy practices, and discuss advantages, effectiveness, and any shortcomings of provisions supporting safe and complete walking and biking environments (i.e. complete streets policies and access management). Will be complete in late 2016.

Pedestrian Forum: This quarterly newsletter focuses on pedestrian safety. See

Pedestrian Safety Focus States and Cities: Since 2004, extra resources have been provided to cities and States with the highest pedestrian fatalities and/or fatality rates. The States and cities were revised in 2015 to include bikes. The current Focus States and Cities are highlighted on the map at and the selection process is outlined on the Office of Safety's Focused Approach Website at Free technical assistance, courses, and bimonthly webinars are offered to each of the States and cities. See

Safety Products

A Resident's Guide for Creating Safer Communities for Walking and Biking: This guide is an update of A Resident's Guide for Creating Safe and Walkable Communities developed in 2008. It assists residents, parents, community association members, and others in getting involved in making communities safer for pedestrians and bicyclists. See

BIKESAFE: Bicycle Countermeasure Selection System: FHWA updated BIKESAFE in October 2014. BIKESAFE provides practitioners with the latest information available for improving the safety and mobility of those who bicycle. See

Pedsafe: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System: First developed in 2003, Pedsafe is an expert system that allows the user to select treatments (mainly engineering with some enforcement and education activities) that help mitigate a known crash problem or help achieve a specific performance objective. See

Bicycle Safer Journey: This resource helps educators, parents, and others who care about bicycle safety to get the conversation started with children and youth. Available online, three videos - one for each of three age groups - accompanied by a quiz or discussion and an educator's resource library can be used as an introduction to bicycle safety skills or to augment a comprehensive curriculum. See

The Road Diet Informational Guide, available at, provides detailed information on road diets, which are one of FHWA's Proven Safety Countermeasures. A Road Diet involves converting an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two through lanes and a center two-way left-turn lane. The reduction of lanes allows the roadway cross section to be reallocated for other uses such as bike lanes, pedestrian refuge islands, transit stops, or parking. Road diets are also part of the FHWA Every Day Counts 3 initiative.

Guide for Maintaining Pedestrian Facilities for Enhanced Safety: The resource provides guidance for maintaining pedestrian facilities with the primary goal of increasing safety and mobility. The Guide addresses the needs for pedestrian facility maintenance; common maintenance issues; inspection, accessibility, and compliance; maintenance measurers; funding; and construction techniques to reduce future maintenance. See The research report is also online.

Pedestrian Safer Journey: These resources help educators, parents and others who care about pedestrian safety get the conversation started with children and youth. Three videos - one for each of three age groups - accompanied by a quiz or discussion and an educator's resource library can be used as an introduction to pedestrian safety skills or to augment a comprehensive curriculum. See


Office of Safety Research and Development

Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Research Team (Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center)

Pedestrian Safety Program Strategic Plan: Note that this is a joint activity between FHWA's Safety Research and Safety Design teams. The project description can be found in the Safety Technologies section of this document.

Evaluation of Pedestrians Safety Engineering Countermeasures at Urban and Suburban Midblock Crossing Locations: The goals of this effort is to improve pedestrian safety at urban and suburban midblock crossing locations by identifying and evaluating low- to medium-cost pedestrian countermeasures to reduce pedestrian fatalities and injuries at these locations.

Evaluation of Safety Treatments for Pedestrian Crossing: Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon, Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon, Circular Rapid Flashing Beacon, and Raised Crosswalks: This effort will develop and analyze pedestrian and driver behaviors regarding Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon (PHB) and the operational tradeoffs for different locations of PHBs. Additional research will begin to identify the impacts of beacon/LED characteristics, such as size or flash pattern, being used or considered for Pedestrian Crossing signs, and determine the safety effectiveness of raised crosswalks. This project will be completed by Summer 2016.

Pedestrian Countermeasure Crash Modification Factor Study: FHWA's Countermeasure Deployment Project was completed in 2009. The purpose of the project was to: 1) demonstrate the effectiveness of pedestrian safety plans in reducing pedestrian fatalities, injuries, and conflicts and 2) to demonstrate the plan's portability to other jurisdictions within the United States. The objective of this new follow-on effort is to evaluate the three sites (Las Vegas, Miami, and San Francisco) several years later to determine the project's effectiveness in improving pedestrian safety. This project will be completed by Fall 2017.

Identification and Prioritization of High Pedestrian Crash Location Areas: The objective of this research is to document methods to identify and/or prioritize high pedestrian crash sites or areas. The research will outline the methods' input data demands. Using the information gathered as part of this research, the project will result in a best practice guide that will assist State and local agencies in identifying high pedestrian crash locations, corridors, and zones. This project will be completed by Spring 2017.

Completed Research Reports and Resources


Updated: 1/31/2017
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