Office of Planning, Environment, & Realty (HEP)

- 1. Overview
- 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION
- APPENDIX A Vehicle Noise Emissions
- APPENDIX B Vehicle Speeds
- APPENDIX C Horizontal Geometry And Acoustics
- APPENDIX D Vertical Geometry And Acoustics
- APPENDIX E Parallel Barrier Analysis
- APPENDIX F Contours
- APPENDIX G Model Verification
- References

- Figure 1. High-level flow chart of TNM calculation
- Figure 2. A-Weighted Vehicle Noise Emission Levels under Cruise Conditions
- Figure 3. First-level elemental triangle
- Figure 4. Maximum elemental triangle set to 10 degrees
- Figure 5. Absorption coefficient as a function of frequency for selected values of NRC
- Figure 6. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Average pavement, cruise throttle
- Figure 7. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Automobiles, cruise throttle
- Figure 8. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Automobiles, full throttle
- Figure 9. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Medium trucks, cruise throttle
- Figure 10. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Medium trucks, full throttle
- Figure 11. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Heavy trucks, cruise throttle
- Figure 12. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Heavy trucks, full throttle
- Figure 13. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Buses, cruise throttle
- Figure 14. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Buses, full throttle
- Figure 15. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Motorcycles, cruise throttle
- Figure 16. A-weighted sound-level emissions: Motorcycles, full throttle
- Figure 17. Emission spectra: Automobiles, average pavement
- Figure 18. Emission spectra: Automobiles, DGAC pavement
- Figure 19. Emission spectra: Automobiles, OGAC pavement
- Figure 20. Emission spectra: Automobiles, PCC pavement
- Figure 21. Emission spectra: Medium trucks, full throttle
- Figure 22. Emission spectra: Medium trucks, cruise throttle, average pavement
- Figure 23. Emission spectra: Medium trucks, cruise throttle, DGAC pavement
- Figure 24. Emission spectra: Medium trucks, cruise throttle, OGAC pavement
- Figure 25. Emission spectra: Medium trucks, cruise throttle, PCC pavement
- Figure 26. Emission spectra: Heavy trucks, full throttle
- Figure 27. Emission spectra: Heavy trucks, cruise throttle, average pavement
- Figure 28. Emission spectra: Heavy trucks, cruise throttle, DGAC pavement
- Figure 29. Emission spectra: Heavy trucks, cruise throttle, OGAC pavement
- Figure 30. Emission spectra: Heavy trucks, cruise throttle, PCC pavement
- Figure 31. Emission spectra: Buses
- Figure 32. Emission spectra: Motorcycles
- Figure 33. Sound emissions, high/low energy split: Automobiles
- Figure 34. Sound emissions, high/low energy split: Medium trucks, cruise throttle
- Figure 35. Sound emissions, high/low energy split: Medium trucks, full throttle
- Figure 36. Sound emissions, high/low energy split: Heavy trucks, cruise throttle
- Figure 37. Sound emissions, high/low energy split: Heavy trucks, full throttle
- Figure 38. Sound emissions, high/low energy split: Buses, cruise throttle
- Figure 39. Sound emissions, high/low energy split: Buses, full throttle
- Figure 40. Sound emissions, high/low energy split: Motorcycles
- Figure 41. Geometrics for speed effects of upgrades and traffic-control devices
- Figure 42. Entrance and exit speeds
- Figure 43. Acceleration away from traffic-control devices: Automobiles and motorcycles
- Figure 44. Acceleration away from traffic-control devices: Medium trucks and buses
- Figure 45. Acceleration away from traffic-control devices: Heavy trucks
- Figure 46. Deceleration caused by upgrades 1.5 percent or more: Heavy trucks
- Figure 47. Speeds for Roadway 16: Upgrades
- Figure 48. Speeds for Roadway 22: Traffic-control devices and subsequent grades
- Figure 49. Initial elemental triangle
- Figure 50. Maximum elemental triangle set to 10 degrees
- Figure 51. Definition of relevant distances and angles
- Figure 52. Vertical geometry definitions
- Figure 53. Barrier face definitions
- Figure 54. Example berm, shown at four perturbation heights
- Figure 55. Propagation path through tree zone
- Figure 56. Single diffraction geometry
- Figure 57. Example of multiple diffraction
- Figure 58. Example of an effective single diffraction from a multiple diffraction path
- Figure 59. Example of a geometry with reflections
- Figure 60. Example directions of propagation paths
- Figure 61. Diffraction geometry
- Figure 62. Example geometry showing reflection
- Figure 63. Example geometry showing an impedance discontinuity
- Figure 64. Example geometry for corner diffraction
- Figure 65. Ground impedance evaluation at two frequencies
- Figure 66. Foss double-barrier geometry
- Figure 67. Typical depressed section in a highly urbanized area
- Figure 68. Detailed input and representative rays
- Figure 69. Partial reflection near tops of parallel barriers
- Figure 70. Subdivision of grid cells during contouring
- Figure 71. Ground-effect model comparison, EFR = 10 cgs Rayls
- Figure 72. Ground-effect model comparison, EFR = 100 cgs Rayls
- Figure 73. Ground-effect model comparison, EFR = 1000 cgs Rayls
- Figure 74. Ground-effect model comparison, EFR = 10,000 cgs Rayls
- Figure 75. Comparison with measurements over grassland, distance = 35 meters (114 feet)
- Figure 76. Comparison with measurements over grassland, distance = 62 meters (202 feet)
- Figure 77. Comparison with measurements over grassland, distance = 110 meters (360 feet)
- Figure 78. Comparison with measurements over grassland, distance = 195 meters (640 feet)
- Figure 79. Comparison with measurements over grassland, distance = 348 meters (1140 feet)
- Figure 80. Comparison of barrier insertion loss in octave bands, receiver ht. = 1.5 m (5 ft), barrier ht. = 1.8 m (6 ft)
- Figure 81. Comparison of barrier insertion loss in octave bands, receiver ht. = 1.5 m (5 ft), barrier ht. = 4.9 m (16 ft)
- Figure 82. Comparison of barrier insertion loss in octave bands, receiver ht. = 3 m (10 ft), barrier ht. = 1.8 m (6 ft)
- Figure 83. Comparison of barrier insertion loss in octave bands, receiver ht. = 3 m (10 ft), barrier ht. = 4.9 m (16 ft)
- Figure 84. Comparison of barrier insertion loss in octave bands, receiver ht. = 6 m (20 ft), barrier ht. = 1.8 m (6 ft)
- Figure 85. Comparison of barrier insertion loss in octave bands, receiver ht. = 6 m (20 ft), barrier ht. = 4.9 m (16 ft)
- Figure 86. Comparison of barrier insertion loss in octave bands, receiver ht. = 12 m (40 ft), barrier ht. = 1.8 m (6 ft)
- Figure 87. Comparison of barrier insertion loss in octave bands, receiver ht. = 12 m (40 ft), barrier ht. = 4.9 m (16 ft)

- Table 1. Sound Energy Distribution Between Sub- source heights
- Table 2. Ground Type and Effective Flow Resistivity
- Table 3. Effective Flow Resistivity used for values of Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC)
- Table 4. Attenuation through Dense Foliage
- Table 5. Constants for A-weighted sound-level emissions and 1/3rd-octave-band spectra
- Table 6. Constants for subsource-height split
- Table 7. Multiplier, m, for each built-in subsource height
- Table 8. Regression coefficients for accelerating vehicles
- Table 9. Regression coefficients for decelerating heavy trucks
- Table 10. Effective Flow Resistivity used for values of Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC)
- Table 11. Absorption coefficients as a function of frequency, for selected values of Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC)
- Table 12. Attenuation through dense foliage
- Table 13. Maximum attenuation for rows of buildings by frequency
- Table 14. Atmospheric absorption by frequency for default atmospheric conditions
- Table 15. Parallel-barrier degradations: Initial comparison of measured and computed values
- Table 16. Sensitivity of computed degradations to assumed source height
- Table 17. Rt. 99 CA: BEFORE (no barrier) Levels
- Table 18. Rt. 99 CA: AFTER (barrier) levels
- Table 19. Rt. 99 CA: Barrier insertion loss
- Table 20. I-495 MD: AFTER (barrier) levels