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A Framework for Considering Climate Change in Transportation and Land Use Scenario Planning

Appendix F: Potential GHG Reduction Strategies

Description: The transportation strategies listed below are possible options that towns and federal agencies on the Cape identified for potential implementation to reduce GHG emissions. The strategies, which are organized into seven categories, are aimed at reducing the amount of vehicle travel, increasing the use alternative transportation modes, reducing the amount of fuel consumed, and increasing the use of alternative fuels.
Pricing Strategies
Parking pricing Charge parking fees for all parking in central business districts, employment areas, and retail centers to encourage "park once" behavior and reduce single occupant trips. In addition, higher parking fees would be charged for ferry lots to encourage visitors to take transit to the ferries. Other approaches include the introduction of taxes or higher fees on otherwise free private parking lots and parking management approaches, including requirements for residential parking permits, as well as permits for delivery and service vehicles and for visitors.
Pricing of major facilities to access the Cape Collect tolls on congested facilities, such as on the bridges and/or sections of Route 6. Local residents would receive discounts or be exempt.
Ferry pricing Charge higher fares on car ferries, and offer discounted fares for non-vehicle ferries.
Land Use and Smart Growth Strategies
Growth Management/Incentive Zones Establish designated Growth Incentive Zones (GIZ), to encourage a concentrated mix of residential and commercial uses within village centers and other areas of existing development, while ensuring that all growth is properly served by adequate infrastructure. As part of the GIZ designation process, towns shall protect land outside these areas through the implementation of transferable development rights, downzoning, conservation restrictions, and other land protection measures.
Nonmotorized Transportation Strategies
Pedestrian and bicycle accessibility Tailor "complete streets" concepts to Cape Cod. Complete street policies are intended to help make roadways safe, attractive, and comfortable for all users, including pedestrians and bicyclists, as well as drivers. Strategies include buffered sidewalks, marked/signalized crossings, traffic calming measures such as bulb-outs and median refuges.
Designate vehicle-free times or locations Plan car-free periods for areas of town and federal lands.
Promote trails Expand user-friendly trail network to allow people to enjoy the Cape outside their vehicles.
Public Transportation Strategies
Fare measures Offer lower fares and/or discounted passes to visitors to encourage transit use. For example, discounted bus passes could be distributed via various lodging accommodations.
Increased levels of service and improved travel times Increase level of service on existing routes and improve travel times through reduced headways, signal prioritization, and limited stop service.
Expand intercity bus and rail services Expand existing intercity bus and rail services and investment in new routes.
Increased marine transportation services Invest in new and expanded in the inland waterways and coastal waterways.
Bus-only lanes Restrict lanes on certain roadways, such as Route 3, to buses only. Restriction can be time-dependent or permanent.
Regional Ride-Sharing, Car-Sharing, and Commuting Strategies
Car- and bike-sharing Provide support to start up public, private, or nonprofit car-sharing and/or bike-sharing organizations, including providing public street parking, either subsidized or free, for the shared vehicles. Aim to locate these facilities at the Island and Provincetown ferry terminals and the airports. Cars in the fleet should be fuel efficient or alternative fuel vehicles.
Employer-based telework and compressed work week programs, and employer-based TDM requirements, outreach, and support Encourage employer- and government agency-based telework and compressed work-week programs to reduce the number of days employees travel back and forth to their places of work.
Rental car facility in Hyannis Limit rental fleet to efficient/clean-fueled vehicles, such as hybrids and electric-vehicles.
Link Smartcar and bike rentals with weekly lodging rentals Work with lodging and rental car facilities to provide visitors with incentives to increase the use of fuel efficient vehicles and bicycles.
Encourage staff to carpool when commuting Encourage municipal staff to carpool for commuting to work. Strategies include sharing carpooling information with staff, developing incentive programs, and increasing education on the benefits of alternative forms of travel.
Encourage staff to bike or take alternative transportation to work Establish an employee bike-to-work program and/or provide monthly pass option for the Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority (CCRTA).
Encourage citizens and visitor carpooling Provide discounts and incentives for high occupancy vehicles.
Operational and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Strategies
Eco-driving training programs Implement driver training programs on techniques that can reduce gas consumption, such as avoiding rapid acceleration and braking, reducing speeds, changing gears properly, and using cruise control. These programs would also provide training on proper vehicle maintenance, such as tire pressure, wheels, and motor oil.
Integrated corridor management Use technology to coordinate a variety of intelligent transportation system technologies across multiple corridors to reduce congestion.
Incident management Implement a variety of technologies to identify, respond to, and clear incidents, including detection algorithm and free cell call systems, closed-circuit TV cameras, on call service patrols, and transportation management centers.
Ramp metering (centrally controlled) Implement ramp metering to regulate the flow of traffic entering a freeway to maintain a desired level of service.
Road weather management (snow, ice, fog, and hurricane emergency evacuation) Implement coordinated weather advisories, speed reductions, and snow and ice treatments to promote safe operations when conditions become severe.
Active traffic management based on traffic conditions to dynamically change signalization Implement active traffic management based on traffic conditions to dynamically change the speed limit on roadway segments or temporarily convert shoulders to travel lanes.
Signal preemption for congestion management strategies Interconnect "smart" traffic signals to control remotely. As congestion occurs, smart signals to give priority to congested areas. System is also able to give priority to transit and emergency vehicles.
Traveler Information (511 and DOT website) Provide timely and accurate information to travelers about roadway conditions and incidents, closures, and special events, as well as alternate routes. The information would be communicated through various systems, including variable message signs, advisory services (such as 511 systems), and traveler information call centers.
Freight consolidation Increase the consolidation of freight so that fewer trucks need to travel to the islands.
Identify areas to reduce or eliminate mowing Incorporate xeriscaping - a waste-efficient landscaping technique - and increase the use native vegetation throughout landscaped areas.
Vehicle Efficiency/Alternative Fuel Strategies
Incentivize use of alternative vehicles Recognize those who are driving high efficiency (>40 mpg) or alternative fuel vehicles with reduced fees at local attractions or climate-friendly bumper stickers. Give incentives or discounts to those traveling by bike or on foot.
Increase use of alternative fuels Run municipal and federal agency fleets, including cars, trucks, non-road equipment and boats, on biodiesel or other climate friendly fuels. Use B20 biodiesel in diesel fuel applications, and if possible move up to using B50 biodiesel and B100 when appropriate. Prioritize/require use of alternative fuel buses to areas of heavy use and traffic. Provide incentives to convert local private providers (Plymouth & Brockton, Cape Air, and others) to more climate friendly fuels.
Increase alternative fuel infrastructure Work with fuel providers to increase the availability of alternative fuel infrastructure, including biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity.
Replace 2-stroke engines Look for opportunities to substitute two-stroke engines with more efficient four-stroke engines in boats, snowmobiles and other equipment. Minimize or eliminate use of leaf blowers.
Encourage all carriers to be certified under EPA's Smartway Transport Partnership Encourage motor carrier companies to work with EPA to improve the fuel efficiency of their trucks and reduce emissions from transportation related activities.
Develop a vehicle replacement plan For municipal and federal agency fleets: benchmark existing fleet-wide mile per gallon average and increase fleet fuel-efficient by replacing vehicles with efficient or alternative fuel vehicles.
Right-size the vehicle fleet For municipal and federal agency fleets: use a Vehicle Allocation Methodology (VAM) to achieve a fleet that is the right size and type. A VAM defines appropriate vehicle type and use for specific tasks and counters the tendency to size-up.
Replace 4-wheel drive with 2-wheel drive vehicles For municipal and federal agency fleets: evaluate the need for 4-wheel drive vehicles and replace with 2-wheel drive vehicles on appropriate replacement schedule.
Electric alternatives for equipment For municipal and federal agency fleets: evaluate the feasibility of using electric equipment to meet certain needs.
Updated: 12/23/2016
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