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Keyword Definition
1-Hour Ozone NAAQS The 1-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard codified at 40 CFR 50.9.
23 CFR 420 Planning and Research Program Administration
23 CFR 450 Planning Assistance and Standards
23 CFR 460 Public Road Mileage for Apportionment of Highway Safety Funds
23 CFR 470 Highway Systems
23 CFR 500 Management and Monitoring Systems
23 CFR 652 Pedestrian and Bicycle Accomodations and Projects
23 CFR 710 Right-of-way and Real Estate
23 CFR 750 Highway Beautification
23 CFR 751 Junkyard control and acquisition
23 CFR 752 Landscape and Roadside Development
23 CFR 771 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures
23 CFR 772 Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise
23 CFR 777 Mitigation of Impacts to Wetlands and Natural Habitat
23 CFR 940 Intelligent Transportation System Architecture and Standards
23 USC 134 Metropolitan Planning
23 USC 135 Statewide Planning
23 USC 149 Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program
23 USC 162 National Scenic Byways Program
23 USC 202 Sllocation of Highway Trust Funds for the Federal Lands Highway Program including the IRR Program.
23 USC 204 The administration of the Federal Lands Highway Program including the IRR Program.
23 USC 206 Recreational trails Program
23 USC 217 Bicycle Transportation and Pedestrian Walkways
23 USC 505 State Planning and Research
25 CFR 170 Tules for the administration of the IRR Program by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
40 CFR 51 Requirements for Preparation, Adoption, and Submittal of Implementation Plans; Subpart T-Conformity to State or Federal Implementation Plans of Transportation Plans, Programs, and Projects Developed, Funded or Approved Under Title 23 U.S.C. or the Federal Transit Laws; Section 51.390, Implementation Plan Revision
40 CFR 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Sections 5230-5234, Sanctions
40 CFR 93 Determining Conformity of Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans
42 USC 61 The Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies for Federal and Federally Assisted Programs
42 USC 85 Law regarding Air Pollution Prevention and Control
49 CFR 17 Intergovernmental Review of Department of Transportation Programs and Activities
49 CFR 18 Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments
49 CFR 19 Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals and Other Non-Profit Organizations
49 CFR 20 New Restrictions on Lobbying
49 CFR 21 Nondiscrimination in Federally-Assisted Programs of the Department of Transportation-- Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
49 CFR 24 Uniform Relocation and Real Property Acquisition for Federal and Federally Assisted Programs
49 CFR 26 Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial Assistance Programs
49 CFR 27 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance
49 CFR 29 Government Wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement)
49 CFR 32 Governmentwide Requirements for Drug-Free Workplace (Financial Assistance)
49 USC 53 Law regarding Mass Transportation
8-Hour Ozone NAAQS The 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard codified at 40 CFR 50.10.
Accident An incident involving a moving vehicle. Includes collisions with a vehicle, object, or person (except suicides) and derailment/left roadway. (FTA2) Occurrence in a sequence of events that produces unintended injury, death or property damage. Accident refers to the event, not the result of the event. (NSC1)
Accident (Aircraft) As defined by the National Transportation Safety Board, an occurrence incidental to flight in which, as a result of the operation of an aircraft, any person (occupant or nonoccupant) receives fatal or serious injury or any aircraft receives substantial damage.
Air Carrier The commercial system of air transportation comprising large certificated air carriers, small certificated air carriers, commuter air carriers, on-demand air taxis, supplemental air carriers, and air travel clubs.
Air Quality Conformity The link between air quality planning and transportation planning
Airplane An engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. (14CFR1)
Airport A landing area regularly used by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.
Airship An engine-driven lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered. (14CFR1)
Alcohol Concentration (AC) The concentration of alcohol in a person's blood or breath. When expressed as a percentage it means grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. (49CFR383)
Allocation An administrative distribution of funds for programs that do not have statutory distribution formulas.
Alternative Fuels The Energy Policy Act of 1992 defines alternative fuels as methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohol; mixtures containing 85 percent or more (but not less than 70 percent as determined by the Secretary of Energy by rule to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels. Includes compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels other than alcohols derived from biological materials, electricity, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines by rule is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security and environmental benefits.
Altitude The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point measured in feet Above Ground Level (AGL) or from Mean Sea Level (MSL). 1) MSL Altitude. Altitude expressed in feet measured from mean sea level. 2) AGL Altitude. Altitude expressed in feet measured above ground level. 3) Indicated Altitude. The altitude as shown by an altimeter. On a pressure or barometric altimeter it is altitude as shown uncorrected for instrument error and uncompensated for variation from standard atmospheric conditions. (FAA4)
American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials (AASHTO) A nonprofit, nonpartisan association representing highway and transportation departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. It represents all five transportation modes: air, highways, public transportation, rail and water. Its primary goal is to foster the development, operation and maintenance of an integrated national transportation system.
American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) The American Planning Association's professional institute that provides recognized leadership nationwide in the certification of professional planners, ethics, professional development, planning education, and the standards of planning practice.
American Planning Association (APA) A nonprofit public interest and research organization committed to urban, suburban, regional, and rural planning. APA and its professional institute, the American Institute of Certified Planners, advance the art and science of planning to meet the needs of people and society.
American Public Transportation Association (APTA) Acting as a leading force in advancing public transportation, APTA serves and leads its diverse membership through advocacy, innovation, and information sharing to strengthen and expand public transportation.
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) The legislation defining the responsibilities of and requirements for transportation providers to make transportation accessible to individuals with disabilities. (FTA1)
Amtrak Operated by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, this rail system was created by the Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-518, 84 Stat. 1327) and given the responsibility for the operation of intercity, as distinct from suburban, passenger trains between points designated by the Secretary of Transportation.
Analysis of Alternatives Understanding how the transportation system and its components work such as information on the costs, benefits and impacts of potential chances to the system.
Annual Funding Agreement A negotiated annual written funding agreement between a Self-Governance Indian Tribal Government (ITG) and the Secretary of the Interior, authorizing the ITG to plan, conduct, consolidate, and administer programs, services, functions, and activities or portions thereof previously administered by the Department of the Interior through the BIA, and other programs for which appropriations are made available for the ITG through the Secretary of the Interior from agencies other than Department of the Interior (DOI).
Apportionment 1) A term that refers to a statutorily prescribed division or assignment of funds. An apportionment is based on prescribed formulas in the law and consists of dividing authorized obligation authority for a specific program among the States. 2) The distribution of funds as prescribed by a statutory formula.
Appropriation Authorization of funding expenditures from Congress.
Appropriations Act Action of a legislative body that makes funds available for expenditure with specific limitations as to amount, purpose, and duration. In most cases, it permits money previously authorized to be obligated and payments made, but for the highway program operating under contract authority, the appropriations act specifies amounts of funds that Congress will make available for the fiscal year to liquidate obligations.
Area Source Small stationary and non-transportation pollution sources that are too small and/or numerous to be included as point sources but may collectively contribute significantly to air pollution (e.g., dry cleaners).
Areawide Control Schedule An accounting and project management tool that is developed from tribal Transportation Improvement Programs, tribal control schedules, and tribal priority lists to identify detailed project information for the expenditure of IRR funds for the current and next four fiscal years.
Arterial A class of roads serving major traffic movements (high-speed, high volume) for travel between major points.
Arterial Highway A major highway used primarily for through traffic.
Arterial Street A class of street serving major traffic movements (high-speed, high volume) for travel between major points.
Asphalt A dark brown to black cement-like material containing bitumen as the predominant constituent. The definition includes crude asphalt and finished products such as cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions, and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalt. Asphalt is obtained by petroleum processing.
Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (AMPO) AMPO is a nonprofit, membership organization established in 1994 to serve the needs and interests of "metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs)" nationwide. AMPO offers its member MPOs technical assistance and training, conferences and workshops, frequent print and electronic communications, research, a forum for transportation policy development and coalition building, and a variety of other services.
Attainment Area An area considered to have air quality that meets or exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health standards used in the Clean Air Act. Nonattainment areas are areas considered not to have met these standards for designated pollutants. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a nonattainment area for others.
Audit Periodic investigation of financial statements and their relationships to planned or permitted expenditures.
Authorization Basic substantive legislation or that which empowers an agency to implement a particular program and also establishes an upper limit on the amount of funds that can be appropriated for that program
Authorization Act Basic substantive legislation that establishes or continues Federal programs or agencies and establishes an upper limit on the amount of funds for the program(s). The current authorization act for surface transportation programs is the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21).
Auto inspection and maintenance (IM) Programs require the testing of motor vehicles in parts of the country with unhealthy air and the repair of those that do not meet standards.
Automobile A privately owned and/or operated licensed motorized vehicle including cars, jeeps and station wagons. Leased and rented cars are included if they are privately operated and not used for picking up passengers in return for fare. (FHWA3)
Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) The total volume of traffic on a highway segment for one year, divided by the number of days in the year.
Average Annual Daily Truck Traffic (AADTT) The total volume of truck traffic on a highway segment for one year, divided by the number of days in the year.
Average Haul The average distance, in miles, one ton is carried. It is computed by dividing ton-miles by tons of freight originated.
Average Passenger Trip Length (Bus/Rail) Calculated by dividing revenue passenger-miles by the number of revenue passengers.
BIA Area Certification Acceptance Plan A plan prepared by a specific area office which delineates how it will meet certification acceptance requirements under 23 U.S.C., Section 117(a). {This section of law was deleted in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century. CA is being replaced by Stewardship Agreements.}
BIA Atlas Map A series of maps which depict the IRR/BIA road system by reservation and jurisdictions.
BIA Classification of Roads An identification of specific roads or trails that take into account current and future traffic generators, and relationships to connecting or adjacent BIA, State, county, Federal, and/or local roads.
BIA Roads System Those existing and proposed roads for which the BIA has or plans to obtain legal right(s)-of-way. This includes only roads for which the BIA has the primary responsibility to construct, improve, and maintain. Any additions or deletions to this system must be supported by resolution from the ITG.
BIA/FHWA Memorandum of Agreement An agreement between the BIA and the FHWA which contains mutually agreeable roles and responsibilities for the administration of the IRR and Highway BridgeReplacement and Rehabilitation programs.
Bicycle A vehicle having two tandem wheels, propelled solely by human power, upon which any person or persons may ride. (23CFR217)
Bikeway 1) Any road, path, or way which in some manner is specifically designated as being open to bicycle travel, regardless of whether such facilities are designated for the exclusive use of bicycles or are to be shared with other transportation modes. (23CFR217) 2) A facility designed to accommodate bicycle travel for recreational or commuting purposes. Bikeways are not necessarily separated facilities; they may be designed and operated to be shared with other travel modes.
Blind Spot An area from which radio transmissions and/or radar echoes cannot be received. The term is also used to describe portions of the airport not visible from the control tower. (FAA4)
Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Is measured as a percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood (grams/deciliter). A positive BAC level (0.01 g/dl and higher) indicates that alcohol was consumed by the person tested. A BAC level of 0.10 g/dl or more indicates that the person was intoxicated. (NHTSA3)
Blood Alcohol Concentration (Highway) A measurement of the percentage of alcohol in the blood by grams per deciliter.
Bodily Injury Injury to the body, sickness, or disease including death resulting from any of these. (49CFR387)
Bow The front of a vessel. (MARAD2)
Brake An energy conversion mechanism used to stop, or hold a vehicle stationary. (49CFR393)
Bridge Management System (BMS) A systematic process that provides, analyzes, and summarizes bridge information for use in selecting and implementing cost-effective bridge construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance programs
Budget Authority Empowerment by Congress that allows Federal agencies to incur obligations that will result in the outlay of funds. This empowerment is generally in the form of appropriations. However, for most of the highway programs, it is in the form of contract authority.
Budget Resolution A concurrent resolution passed by Congress presenting the Congressional Budget for each of the succeeding 5 years. A concurrent resolution does not require the signature of the President.
Bulk Carrier (Water) A ship with specialized holds for carrying dry or liquid commodities, such as oil, grain, ore, and coal, in unpackaged bulk form. Bulk carriers may be designed to carry a single bulk product (crude oil tanker) or accommodate several bulk product types (ore/bulk/oil carrier) on the same voyage or on a subsequent voyage after holds are cleaned.
Bureau Of Economic Analysis (BEA) The Bureau of Economic Analysis is an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Bureau Of Labor Statistics (BLS) The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is the principal fact-finding agency for the Federal Government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics. The BLS is an independent national statistical agency that collects, processes, analyzes, and disseminates essential statistical data to the American public, the U.S. Congress, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, business, and labor. The BLS also serves as a statistical resource to the Department of Labor. BLS data must satisfy a number of criteria, including relevance to current social and economic issues, timeliness in reflecting today's rapidly changing economic conditions, accuracy and consistently high statistical quality, and impartiality in both subject matter and presentation.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) The Bureau was organized pursuant to section 6006 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 (49 U.S.C. 111), and was formally established by the Secretary of Transportation on December 16, 1992. BTS has an intermodal transportation focus whose missions are to compile, analyze and make accessible information on the Nation's transportation systems; to collect information on intermodal transportation and other areas; and to enhance the quality and effectiveness of DOT's statistical programs through research, the development of guidelines, and the promotion of improvements in data acquisition and use. The programs of BTS are organized in six functional areas and are mandated by ISTEA to 1) Compile, analyze, and publish statistics 2) Develop a long-term data collection program 3) Develop guidelines to improve the credibility and effectiveness of the Department's statistics 4) Represent transportation interests in the statistical community 5) Make statistics accessible and understandable and 6) Identify data needs. (OFR1)
Bus Large motor vehicle used to carry more than 10 passengers, including school buses, intercity buses, and transit buses.
Bus Lane 1) A street or highway lane intended primarily for buses, either all day or during specified periods, but sometimes also used by carpools meeting requirements set out in traffic laws. (APTA1) 2) A lane reserved for bus use only. Sometimes also known as a "diamond lane."
Caboose A car in a freight train intended to provide transportation for crew members. (49CFR223)
Calendar Year The period of time between January 1 and December 31 of any given year. (DOE6)
Capacity A transportation facility's ability to accommodate a moving stream of people or vehicles in a given time period.
Capital Gains or Losses, Other Gains or losses on no operating assets, investments in other than marketable equity securities, and troubled debt restructuring. (BTS4)
Capital Program Funds Financial assistance from the Capital Program of 49 U.S.C. This program enables the Secretary of Transportation to make discretionary capital grants and loans to finance public transportation projects divided among fixed guideway (rail) modernization; construction of new fixed guideway systems and extensions to fixed guideway systems; and replacement, rehabilitation, and purchase of buses and rented equipment, and construction of bus-related facilities.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 1) A fluid consisting of more than 90 percent carbon dioxide molecules compressed to a supercritical state. (49CFR195) 2) A colorless, odorless gas. It is not a liquid under standard temperature and pressure.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) A colorless, odorless, highly toxic gas that is a normal by-product of incomplete fossil fuel combustion. Carbon monoxide, one of the major air pollutants, can be harmful in small amounts if breathed over a certain period of time. (DOE6)
Carpool An arrangement where two or more people share the use and cost of privately owned automobiles in traveling to and from pre-arranged destinations together. (ATPA1)
Census The complete enumeration of a population or groups at a point in time with respect to well-defined characteristics for example, population,production, traffic on particular roads. In some connection the term is associated with the data collected rather than the extent of the collection so that the term sample census has a distinct meaning. The partial enumeration resulting from a failure to cover the whole population, as distinct from a designed sample enquiry, may be referred to as an "incomplete census." (DOE5)
Census Division A geographic area consisting of several States defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. The States are grouped into nine divisions and four regions. (DOE4)
Certification Acceptance ((CA)) A procedure authorized by 23 U.S.C. 117(a) wherein the FHWA can delegate any of the 23 U.S.C. responsibilities for planning, design, and construction of projects, not on the Interstate System, to other qualified governmental entities. {This section of law was deleted in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century. CA is being replaced by Stewardship Agreements. BIA area offices and ITGs may apply for Stewardship Agreements.}
Certification of Public Road Mileage An annual document (certification) that must be furnished by each state to Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) certifying the total public road mileage (kilometers) in the state as of December 31 of the preceding year. (FHWA2)
Certified Capacity The capability of a pipeline project to move gas volumes on a given day, based on a specific set of flowing parameters (operating pressures, temperature, efficiency, and fluid properties) for the pipeline system as stated in the dockets filed (and subsequently certified) in the application for the Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Generally, the certificated capacity represents a level of service that can be maintained over an extended period of time and may not represent the maximum throughput capability of the system on any given day. (DOE1)
Charter Bus A bus transporting a group of persons who pursuant to a common purpose, and under a single contract at a fixed price, have acquired the exclusive use of a bus to travel together under an itinerary. (APTA1)
Class 1) With respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and limitations of airmen, means a classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics. Examples include single engine; multiengine; land; water; gyroplane; helicopter; airship; and free balloon; and 2) With respect to the certification of aircraft, means a broad grouping of aircraft having similar characteristics of propulsion, flight, or landing. Examples include airplane; rotorcraft; glider; balloon; landplane; and seaplane. (14CFR1)
Class 1 Road Hard surface highways including Interstate and U.S. numbered highways (including alternates), primary State routes, and all controlled access highways. (DOI3)
Class 2 Road Hard surface highways including secondary State routes, primary county routes, and other highways that connect principal cities and towns, and link these places with the primary highway system. (DOI3)
Class 3 Road Hard surface roads not included in a higher class and improved, loose surface roads passable in all kinds of weather. These roads are adjuncts to the primary and secondary highway systems. Also included are important private roads such as main logging or industrial roads which serve as connecting links to the regular road network. (DOI3)
Class 4 Road Unimproved roads which are generally passable only in fair weather and used mostly for local traffic. Also included are driveways, regardless of construction. (DOI3)
Class 5 Road Unimproved roads passable only with 4 wheel drive vehicles. (DOI3)
Class I Railroad Railroad with an annual operating revenue of at least $266.7 million.
Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) The original Clean Air Act was passed in 1963, but the national air pollution control program is actually based on the 1970 version of the law. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are the most far-reaching revisions of the 1970 law. The 1990 Clean Air Act is the most recent version of the 1970 version of the law. The 1990 amendments made major changes in the Clean Air Act.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) A compilation of the general and permanent rules of the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government as published in the Federal Register. The code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. (DOE5)
Collector (Highway) In rural areas, routes that serve intracounty rather than statewide travel. In urban areas, streets that provide direct access to neighborhoods and arterials.
Combination Truck A power unit (truck tractor) and one or more trailing units (a semitrailer or trailer).
Commercial Bus Any bus used to carry passengers at rates specified in tariffs; charges may be computed per passenger (as in regular route service) or per vehicle (as in charter service).
Commercial Driver's License (CDL) A license issued by a State or other jurisdiction, in accordance with the standards contained in 49 CFR 383, to an individual which authorizes the individual to operate a class of a commercial motor vehicle. (49CFR383)
Commercial Service Airport Airport receiving scheduled passenger service and having 2,500 or more enplaned passengers per year.
Commute Regular travel between home and a fixed location (e.g., work, school). (TRB1)
Commuter A person who travels regularly between home and work or school. (APTA1)
Commuter Air Carrier Different definitions are used for safety purposes and for economic regulations and reporting. For safety analysis, commuter carriers are defined as air carriers operating under 14 CFR 135 that carry passengers for hire or compensation on at least five round trips per week on at least one route between two or more points according to published flight schedules, which specify the times, days of the week, and points of service. On March 20, 1997, the size of the aircraft subject to 14 CFR 135 was reduced from 30 to fewer than 10 passenger seats. (Larger aircraft are subject to the more stringent regulations of 14 CFR 121.) Helicopters carrying passengers or cargo for hire, however, are regulated under CFR 135 whatever their size. Although, in practice, most commuter air carriers operate aircraft that are regulated for safety purposes under 14 CFR 135 and most aircraft that are regulated under 14 CFR 135 are operated by commuter air carriers, this is not necessarily the case. For economic regulations and reporting requirements, commuter air carriers are those carriers that operate aircraft of 60 or fewer seats or a maximum payload capacity of 18,000 pounds or less. These carriers hold a certificate issued under section 298C of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended.
Commuter Lane Another name for "High-Occupancy Vehicle Lane." (APTA1)
Commuter Rail Long-haul passenger service operating between metropolitan and suburban areas, whether within or across the geographical boundaries of a state, usually characterized by reduced fares for multiple rides, and commutation tickets for regular, recurring riders. (FTA1)
Commuter Rail (Transit) Urban passenger train service for short-distance travel between a central city and adjacent suburb. Does not include rapid rail transit or light rail service.
Compressed Natural Gas Natural gas compressed to a volume and density that is practical as a portable fuel supply. It is used as a fuel for natural gas-powered vehicles.
Conformity Process to assess the compliance of any transportation plan, program, or project with air quality implementation plans. The conformity process is defined by the Clean Air Act.
Congestion Management System (CMS) Systematic process for managing congestion. Provides information on transportation system performance and finds alternative ways to alleviate congestion and enhance the mobility of people and goods, to levels that meet state and local needs.
Congestion Mitigation & Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) A categorical Federal-aid funding program created with the ISTEA. Directs funding to projects that contribute to meeting National air quality standards. CMAQ funds generally may not be used for projects that result in the construction of new capacity available to SOVs (single-occupant vehicles).
Constant Dollars Dollar value adjusted for changes in the average price level by dividing a current dollar amount by a price index. See also Chained Dollar and Current Dollar.
Containerized Cargo Cargo that is transported in containers that can be transferred easily from one transportation mode to another
Contract Authority (CA) A form of Budget Authority that permits obligations to be made in advance of appropriations. Most of the programs under the Federal-Aid Highway Program operate under Contract Authority.
Contract Carrier Carrier engaged in interstate transportation of persons/ property by motor vehicle on a for‑hire basis, but under continuing contract with one or a limited number of cus­tomers to meet specific needs.
Control Strategy Implementation Plan Revision The implementation plan which contains specific strategies for controlling the emissions of and reducing ambient levels of pollutants in order to satisfy CAA requirements for demonstrations of reasonable further progress and attainment (including implementation plan revisions submitted to satisfy CAA sections 172(c), 182(b)(1), 182(c)(2)(A), 182(c)(2)(B), 187(a)(7), 187(g), 189(a)(1)(B), 189(b)(1)(A), and 189(d); sections 192(a) and 192(b), for nitrogen dioxide; and any other applicable CAA provision requiring a demonstration of reasonable further progress or attainment).
Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (CAFÉ) Originally established by Congress for new automobiles and later for light trucks. This law requires automobile manufacturers to produce vehicle fleets with a composite sales-weighted fuel economy not lower than the CAFE standards in a given year. For every vehicle that does not meet the standard, a fine is paid for every one-tenth of a mile per gallon that vehicle falls below the standard.
Corridor A broad geographical band that follows a general directional flow connecting major sources of trips that may contain a number of streets, highways and transit route alignments. (APTA1)
Crash (Highway) An event that produces injury and/or property damage, involves a motor vehicle in transport, and occurs on a trafficway or while the vehicle is still in motion after running off the trafficway.
Cubic Foot Conversion equivalents 1,728 cubic inches, 60 pints, 8/10 bushel, 0.028 cubic meter, 28.32 liters. (TNDOT1)
Current Assets Cash and cash equivalents, as well as current receivables and short-term investments, deposits and inventories. (BTS4)
Current Flight Plan The flight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by subsequent clearances. (FAA4)
Current Liabilities Current portion of long-term debt and of capital leases, air travel liabilities and other short-term trade accounts payable. (BTS4)
Dedicated Funds Any funds raised specifically for transit purposes and which are dedicated at their source (e.g., sales taxes, gasoline taxes, and property taxes), rather than through an allocation from the pool of general funds. (FTA1)
Degree of (Critical) Hazard A situation in which collision avoidance was due to chance rather than an act on the part of the pilot. Less than 100 feet of aircraft separation would be considered critical. (FAA10)
Degree of (No Hazard) Hazard A situation in which direction and altitude would have made a midair collision improbable regardless of evasive action taken. (FAA10)
Degree of (Potential) Hazard An incident which would have resulted in a collision if no action had been taken by either pilot. Closest proximity of less than 500 feet would usually be required in this case. (FAA10)
Demand Responsive Vehicle (Transit) A nonfixed-route, nonfixed-schedule vehicle that operates in response to calls from passengers or their agents to the transit operator or dispatcher.
Demand-Responsive Descriptive term for a service type, usually considered paratransit, in which a user can access transportation service that can be variably routed and timed to meet changing needs on an as-needed basis.
Department of Energy (DOE) The Department of Energy's overarching mission is to advance the national , economic and energy security of the United States; to promote scientific and technological innovation in support of that mission; and to ensure the environmental cleanup of the national nuclear weapons complex. The Department has four strategic goals toward achieving the mission: Defense Strategic Goal: To protect our national security by applying advanced science and nuclear technology to the Nation's defense; Energy Strategic Goal: To protect our national and economic security by promoting a diverse supply and delivery of reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy; Science Strategic Goal: To protect our national and economic security by providing world-class scientific research capacity and advancing scientific knowledge; and Environment Strategic Goal: To protect the environment by providing a responsible resolution to the environmental legacy of the Cold War and by providing for the permanent disposal of the Nation's high-level radioactive waste.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) The Department of Health and Human Services is the United States government's principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services, especially for those who are least able to help themselves.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) HUD's mission is to increase homeownership, support community development and increase access to affordable housing free from discrimination. To fulfill this mission, HUD will embrace high standards of ethics, management and accountability and forge new partnerships--particularly with faith-based and community organizations--that leverage resources and improve HUD's ability to be effective on the community level.
Department of Transportation (DOT) Establishes the nation's overall transportation policy. Under its umbrella there are ten administrations whose jurisdictions include highway planning, development and construction; urban mass transit; railroads; aviation; and the safety of waterways, ports, highways, and oil and gas pipelines. The Department of Transportation (DOT) was established by act of October 15, 1966, as amended (49 U.S.C. 102 and 102 note), "to assure the coordinated, effective administration of the transportation programs of the Federal Government" and to develop "national transportation policies and programs conducive to the provision of fast, safe, efficient, and convenient transportation at the lowest cost consistent therewith." (OFR1)
Depreciation and Amortization All depreciation and amortization expenses applicable to owned or leased property and equipment including that categorized as flight equipment or ground property and equipment. (BTS4)
Deregulation Revisions or complete elimination of economic regulations controlling transportation. For example, the Motor Carrier Act of 1980 and the Staggers Act of 1980 revised the economic controls over motor carriers and railroads. (MARAD1)
Dial-A-Ride Term for demand-responsive systems usually delivering door-to-door service to clients, who make request by telephone on an as-needed reservation or subscription basis.
Direct Funding Funds transferred directly from the Secretary of the Interior to the ITG upon request for programs contracted or compacted under P.L. 93-638 as amended.
Direct Service Tribes ITGs that receive services directly from the BIA.
Domestic Produced in the United States, including the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). (DOE5)
Domestic Freight (Water) All waterborne commercial movement between points in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, excluding traffic with the Panama Canal Zone. Cargo moved for the military in commercial vessels is reported as ordinary commercial cargo; military cargo moved in military vessels is omitted.
Domestic Operations (Air Carrier) All air carrier operations having destinations within the 50 United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Donut Areas Geographic areas outside a metropolitan planning area boundary, but inside the boundary of a nonattainment or maintenance area that contains any part of a metropolitan area(s). These areas are not isolated rural nonattainment and maintenance areas.
Driver 1) A person who operates a motorized vehicle. If more than one person drives on a single trip, the person who drives the most miles is classified as the principal driver. 2) An occupant of a vehicle who is in physical control of a motor vehicle in transport or, for an out of-control vehicle, an occupant who was in control until control was lost. (FHWA3) (NHTSA3)
Driver's License A license issued by a State or other jurisdiction, to an individual which authorizes the individual to operate a motor vehicle on the highways. (49CFR383)
Driving Under the Influence (DUI) The driving or operating of any vehicle or common carrier while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics. (FTA1)
Emergency Preparedness Plan A comprehensive plan which identifies potential emergencies and their impact on the community, and identifies operating procedures and actions to put in place during actual emergencies.
Emissions Budget The part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that identifies the allowable emissions levels, mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), for certain pollutants emitted from mobile, stationary, and area sources. The emissions levels are used for meeting emission reduction milestones, attainment, or maintenance demonstrations.
Emissions Inventory A complete list of sources and amounts of pollutant emissions within a specific area and time interval.
Energy Efficiency The ratio of energy inputs to outputs from a process, for example, miles traveled per gallon of fuel (mpg).
Energy Information Administration (EIA) An independent agency within the U.S. Department of Energy that develops surveys, collects energy data, and analyzes and models energy issues. The Agency must meet the requests of Congress, other elements within the Department of Energy, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Executive Branch, its own independent needs, and assist the general public, or other interest groups, without taking a policy position. (DOE5)
Enhancement Activities Refers to activities related to a particular transportation project that 'enhance' or contribute to the existing or proposed project. Examples of such activities include provision of facilities for pedestrians or cyclists, landscaping or other scenic beautification projects, historic preservation, control and removal of outdoor advertising, archaeological planning and research, and mitigation of water pollution due to highway runoff.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Report developed as part of the National Environmental Policy Act requirements, which details any adverse economic, social, and environmental effects of a proposed transportation project for which Federal funding is being sought. Adverse effects could include air, water, or noise pollution; destruction or disruption of natural resources; adverse employment effects; injurious displacement of people or businesses; or disruption of desirable community or regional growth.
Environmental Justice (EJ) Environmental justice assures that services and benefits allow for meaningful participation and are fairly distributed to avoid discrimination.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The federal regulatory agency responsible for administering and enforcing federal environmental laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and others.
Environmental Restoration Re-establishment (including all site preparation activities) of natural habitats or other environmental resources on a site where they formerly existed or currently exist in a substantially degraded state. This can include the restitution for the loss, damage, or destruction of natural resources arising out of the accidental discharge, dispersal, release or escape into or upon the land, atmosphere, watercourse, or body of water of any commodity transported by a motor carrier. This also may include the on-site or offsite replacement of wetlands and other natural habitats lost through development activities. (49CFR387 and 23CFR 777)
Environmentally Sensitive Area An area of environmental importance having natural resources which if degraded may lead to significant adverse, social, economic or ecological consequences. These could be areas in or adjacent to aquatic ecosystems, drinking water sources, unique or declining species habitat, and other similar sites. (49CFR194)
Ethanol A clear, colorless, flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 78.5 °C in the anhydrous state. It is used in the United States as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (10 percent concentration). Ethanol can be used in high concentrations in vehicles optimized for its use. Otherwise known as ethyl alcohol, alcohol, or grain-spirit.
Evaluation of alternatives A synthesis of the information generated by an analysis in which judgments are made on the relative merits of alternative actions.
Expenditures 1) Actual cash (or electronic transfer) payments made to the States or other entities. Outlays are provided as reimbursement for the Federal share for approved highway program activities. 2) A term signifying disbursement of funds for repayment of obligations incurred. An electronic transfer of funds, or a check sent to a State highway or transportation agency for voucher payment, is an expenditure or outlay.
Expressway A controlled access, divided arterial highway for through traffic, the intersections of which are usually separated from other roadways by differing grades.
Fatality For purposes of statistical reporting on transportation safety, a fatality is considered a death due to injuries in a transportation crash, accident, or incident that occurs within 30 days of that occurrence.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) FAA provides a safe, secure, and efficient global aerospace system that contributes to national security and the promotion of US aerospace safety. As the leading authority in the international aerospace community, FAA is responsive to the dynamic nature of customer needs, economic conditions, and environmental concerns.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Formerly the Federal Aviation Agency, the Federal Aviation Administration was established by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 106) and became a component of the Department of Transportation in 1967 pursuant to the Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) The set of regulatory obligations contained in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations which FAA is charged to enforce in order to promote the safety of civil aviation both domestically and internationally. (FAA1)
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) The federal agency with jurisdiction over, among other things, gas pricing, oil pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certification.
Federal Finance System (FFS) An automated accounting system used by the DOI for tracking obligations and expenditures.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) A branch of the US Department of Transportation that administers the federal-aid Highway Program, providing financial assistance to states to construct and improve highways, urban and rural roads, and bridges. The FHWA also administers the Federal Lands Highway Program, including survey, design, and construction of forest highway system roads, parkways and park roads, Indian reservation roads, defense access roads, and other Federal lands roads. The Federal agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation responsible for administering the Federal-Aid Highway Program. Became a component of the Department of Transportation in 1967 pursuant to the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. app. 1651 note). It administers the highway transportation programs of the Department of Transportation under pertinent legislation
Federal Lands Highway Program (FLHP) Provides funds to construct roads and trails within (or, in some cases, providing access to) Federal lands. There are four categories of FLHP funds: Indian Reservation Roads, Public Lands Highways, Park Roads and Parkways, and Refuge Roads. Funds available to the US Forest Service may be used for forest development roads and trails. To be eligible for funding, projects must be open to the public and part of an approved Federal land management agency general management plan. 23 U.S.C. 204.
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR) The regulations are contained in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Chapter III, Subchapter B. (FHWA2) (FHWA4)
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) The purpose of the Federal Railroad Administration is to promulgate and enforce rail safety regulations, administer railroad financial assistance programs, conduct research and development in support of improved railroad safety and national rail transportation policy, provide for the rehabilitation of Northeast corridor rail passenger service, and consolidate government support of rail transportation activities. The FRA was created pursuant to section 3(e)(1) of the Department of Transportation Act of 1966 (49 U.S.C. app. 1652). (OFR1)
Federal Register Daily publication which provides a uniform system for making regulations and legal notices issued by the Executive Branch and various departments of the Federal government available to the public. (USCG1)
Federal Transit Administration (FTA) A branch of the US Department of Transportation that is the principal source of federal financial assistance to America's communities for planning, development, and improvement of public or mass transportation systems. FTA provides leadership, technical assistance, and financial resources for safe, technologically advanced public transportation to enhance mobility and accessibility, to improve the Nation's communities and natural environment, and to strengthen the national economy. (Formerly the Urban Mass Transportation Administration) operates under the authority of the Federal Transit Act, as amended (49 U.S.C. app. 1601 et seq.). The Federal Transit Act was repealed on July 5, 1994, and the Federal transit laws were codified and re-enacted as chapter 53 of Title 49, United States Code. The Federal Transit Administration was established as a component of the Department of Transportation by section 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1968 (5 U.S.C. app.), effective July 1, 1968. The missions of the Administration are 1) to assist in the development of improved mass transportation facilities, equipment, techniques, and methods, with the cooperation of mass transportation companies both public and private. 2) to encourage the planning and establishment of areawide urban mass transportation systems needed for economical and desirable urban development, with the cooperation of mass transportation companies both public and private. and 3) to provide assistance to State and local governments and their instrumentalities in financing such systems, to be operated by public or private mass transportation companies as determined by local needs; and 4) to provide financial assistance to State and local governments to help implement national goals relating to mobility for elderly persons, persons with disabilities, and economically disadvantaged persons. (OFR1)
Federal-aid Highway Program (FAHP) An umbrella term for most of the Federal programs providing highway funds to the States. This is not a term defined in law. As used in this document, FAHP is comprised of those programs authorized in Titles I and V of TEA-21 that are administered by FHWA.
Federal-Aid Highways Those highways eligible for assistance under Title 23 U.S.C. except those functionally classified as local or rural minor collectors. (23CFR500)
Ferry Boat A boat providing fixed-route service across a body of water. (APTA1)
Ferryboat (Transit) Vessels that carry passengers and/or vehicles over a body of water. Generally steam or diesel-powered, ferryboats may also be hovercraft, hydrofoil, and other high-speed vessels. The vessel is limited in its use to the carriage of deck passengers or vehicles or both, operates on a short run on a frequent schedule between two points over the most direct water routes other than in ocean or coastwise service, and is offered as a public service of a type normally attributed to a bridge or tunnel.
Financial analysis Estimating costs, establishing a revenue baseline, comparing revenues with costs and evaluating new revenue sources.
Financial Capacity Refers to the ISTEA requirement that an adequate financial plan for funding and sustaining transportation improvements be in place prior to programming Federally-funded projects. Generally refers to the stability and reliability of revenue in meeting proposed costs.
Financial Planning The process of defining and evaluating funding sources, sharing the information, and deciding how to allocate the funds.
Financial Programming A short-term commitment of funds to specific projects identified in the regional Transportation Improvement Program (see TIP).
Fine Particulates Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in size (PM-2.5). A micron is one millionth of a meter. See "Particulate matter" below.
Fiscal Constraint Making sure that a given program or project can reasonably expect to receive funding within the time allotted for its implementation.
Fiscal Year (FY) The yearly accounting period beginning October 1 and ending September 30 of the subsequent calendar year. Fiscal years are denoted by the calendar year in which they end (e.g. FY 1991 began October 1, 1990, and ended September 30, 1991).
Fixed-Route Term applied to transit service that is regularly scheduled and operates over a set route; usually refers to bus service.
For Hire Carrier Carrier that provides transportation service to the public on a fee basis.
Formula Capital Grants Federal transit funds for transit operators; allocation of funds overseen by FTA.
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Allows all U.S. citizens and residents to request any records in possession of the executive branch of the federal government. The term "records" includes documents, papers, reports, letters, films, photographs, sound recordings, computer tapes and disks
Freeway A divided arterial highway designed for the unimpeded flow of large traffic volumes. Access to a freeway is rigorously controlled and intersection grade separations are required.
Freight Revenue (Rail) Revenue from the transportation of freight and from the exercise of transit, stopoff, diversion, and reconsignment privileges as provided for in tariffs.
Future Needs Represents the gap between the vision and the current or porjected performance of the system
Gasohol A blend of finished motor gasoline (leaded or unleaded) and alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) limited to 10 percent by volume of alcohol.
Gasoline A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons, with or without small quantities of additives that have been blended to produce a fuel suitable for use in spark ignition engines. Motor gasoline includes both leaded or unleaded grades of finished motor gasoline, blending components, and gasohol. Leaded gasoline is no longer used in highway motor vehicles in the United States.
General Accounting Office (GAO) The General Accounting Office is the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress. GAO exists to support the Congress in meeting its Constitutional responsibilities and to help improve the performance and ensure the accountability of the federal government for the American people. GAO examines the use of public funds, evaluates federal programs and activities, and provides analyses, options, recommendations, and other assistance to help the Congress make effective oversight, policy, and funding decisions. In this context, GAO works to continuously improve the economy, efficiency, and effectiveness of the federal government through financial audits, program reviews and evaluations, analyses, legal opinions, investigations, and other services. GAO's activities are designed to ensure the executive branch's accountability to the Congress under the Constitution and the government's accountability to the American people. GAO is dedicated to good government through its commitment to the core values of accountability, integrity, and reliability.
General Aviation 1) All civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and nonscheduled air transport operations for taxis, commuter air carriers, and air travel clubs that do not hold Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity. 2) All civil aviation activity except that of air carriers certificated in accordance with Federal Aviation Regulations, Parts 121, 123, 127, and 135. The types of aircraft used in general aviation range from corporate multiengine jet aircraft piloted by professional crews to amateur-built single-engine piston-driven acrobatic planes to balloons and dirigibles.
Geographic Information System (GIS) 1) Computerized data management system designed to capture, store, retrieve, analyze, and display geographically referenced information. 2) A system of hardware, software, and data for collecting, storing, analyzing, and disseminating information about areas of the Earth. For Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) purposes, Geographical Information System (GIS) is defined as a highway network (spatial data which graphically represents the geometry of the highways, an electronic map) and its geographically referenced component attributes (HPMS section data, bridge data, and other data including socioeconomic data) that are integrated through GIS technology to perform analyses. From this, GIS can display attributes and analyze results electronically in map form. (FHWA2)
Goals Generalized statements which broadly relate to the physical environment to values
Grants A federal financial assistance award making payment in cash or in kind for a specified purpose. The federal government is not expected to have substantial involvement with the state or local government or other recipient while the contemplated activity is being performed. The term "grants-in-aid" is commonly restricted to grants to states and local governments. (BTS3)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 1) The total value of goods and services produced by labor and property located in the United States. As long as the labor and property are located in the United States, the supplier (that is, the workers and, for property, the owners) may be either U.S. residents or residents of foreign countries. (DOE3) 2) The total output of goods and services produced by labor and property located in the United States, valued at market prices. As long as the labor and property are located in the United States, the suppliers (workers and owners) may be either U.S. residents or residents of foreign countries.
Gross National Product (GNP) A measure of monetary value of the goods and services becoming available to the nation from economic activity. Total value at market prices of all goods and services produced by the nation's economy. Calculated quarterly by the Department of Commerce, the Gross National Product is the broadest available measure of the level of economic activity. (DOE6)
Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) The combined total weight of a vehicle and its freight.
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (Truck) The maximum rated capacity of a vehicle, including the weight of the base vehicle, all added equipment, driver and passengers, and all cargo.
Hazardous Material Any toxic substance or explosive, corrosive, combustible, poisonous, or radioactive material that poses a risk to the public's health, safety, or property, particularly when transported in commerce.
Heavy Rail (Transit) An electric railway with the capacity to transport a heavy volume of passenger traffic and characterized by exclusive rights-of-way, multicar trains, high speed, rapid acceleration, sophisticated signaling, and high-platform loading. Also known as: Subway, Elevated (railway), or Metropolitan railway (metro).
High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Vehicles carrying two or more people. The number that constitutes an HOV for the purposes of HOV highway lanes may be designated differently by different transportation agencies.
High Occupancy Vehicle Lane Exclusive road or traffic lane limited to buses, vanpools, carpools, and emergency vehicles. (APTA1)
Highway Is any road, street, parkway, or freeway/expressway that includes rights-of-way, bridges, railroad-highway crossings, tunnels, drainage structures, signs, guardrail, and protective structures in connection with highways. The highway further includes that portion of any interstate or international bridge or tunnel and the approaches thereto (23 U.S.C. 101a). (FHWA2)
Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program (HBRRP) Established under 23 U.S.C., Section 144, to enable the several states to replace and rehabilitate highway bridges when it is determined that the bridge is unsafe because of structural deficiencies, physical deterioration, or functional obsolescence.
Highway Trust Fund (HTF) An account established by law to hold Federal highway user taxes that are dedicated for highway and transit related purposes. The HTF has two accounts: the Highway Account, and the Mass Transit Account.
Highway-Rail Grade Crossing (Rail) A location where one or more railroad tracks are crossed by a public highway, road, street, or a private roadway at grade, including sidewalks and pathways at or associated with the crossing.
Highway-User Tax A charge levied on persons or organizations based on their use of public roads. Funds collected are usually applied toward highway construction, reconstruction, and maintenance.
Historic Preservation Protection and treatment of the nation's significant historic buildings, landmarks, landscapes, battlefields, tribal communities, and archeological sites; prominent federally-owned buildings; and State and privately-owned properties. [National Park Service, Historic Preservation Services]
Hydrocarbons (HC) Colorless gaseous compounds originating from evaporation and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.
Imports Receipts of goods into the 50 States and the District of Columbia from foreign countries and from Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. possessions and territories. (DOE3)
Indian Lands Indian reservation or Indian trust land or restricted Indian land which is not subject to fee title alienation without the approval of the Federal Government, or Indian and Alaska Native villages, group, or communities in which Indians and Alaskan Natives reside, whom the Secretary of the Interior has determined are eligible for services generally available to Indians under Federal laws specifically applicable to Indians.
Indian Reservation Roads (IRR) Public roads that are located within or provide access to an Indian reservation or Indian trust land or restricted Indian land which is not subject to fee title alienation without the approval of the Federal Government, or Indian and Alaska Native villages, group, or communities in which Indians and Alaskan Natives reside, whom the Secretary of the Interior has determined are eligible for services generally available to Indians under Federal laws specifically applicable to Indians. Roads on the BIA Road System are also IRR roads.
Indian Tribal Government (ITG) Duly formed governing body of an Indian Tribe.
Indian Tribe Means any Indian or Alaska Native tribe, band, nation, pueblo, village, or community that the Secretary of the Interior acknowledges to exist as an Indian tribe pursuant to the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994, 25 U.S.C. 479a.
Infrastructure 1) In transit systems, all the fixed components of the transit system, such as rights-of-way, tracks, signal equipment, stations, park-and-ride lots, but stops, maintenance facilities. 2) In transportation planning, all the relevant elements of the environment in which a transportation system operates. (TRB1) 3) A term connoting the physical underpinnings of society at large, including, but not limited to, roads, bridges, transit, waste systems, public housing, sidewalks, utility installations, parks, public buildings, and communications networks.
Inland And Coastal Channels Includes the Atlantic Coast Waterways, the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, the New York State Barge Canal System, the Gulf Coast Waterways, the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, the Mississippi River System (including the Illinois Waterway), the Pacific Coast Waterways, the Great Lakes, and all other channels (waterways) of the United States, exclusive of Alaska, that are usable for commercial navigation.
Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) An emissions testing and inspection program implemented by States in nonattainment areas to ensure that the catalytic or other emissions control devices on in-use vehicles are properly maintained.
Integrated Transportation and Land-Use Package (ITLUP) The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), an international individual member educational and scientific association, is one of the largest and fastest-growing multimodal professional transportation organizations in the world. ITE members are traffic engineers, transportation planners and other professionals who are responsible for meeting society's needs for safe and efficient surface transportation through planning, designing, implementing, operating and maintaining surface transportation systems worldwide.
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) The application of advanced technologies to improve the efficiency and safety of transportation systems.
Intercity Class I Bus As defined by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, an interstate motor carrier of passengers with an average annual gross revenue of at least $1 million.
Intercity Truck A truck that carries freight beyond local areas and commercial zones.
Intermodal The ability to connect, and the connections between, modes of transportation.
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) Legislative initiative by the U.S. Congress that restructured funding for transportation programs. ISTEA authorized increased levels of highway and transportation funding from FY92-97 and increased the role of regional planning commissions/MPOs in funding decisions. The Act also required comprehensive regional and Statewide long-term transportation plans and places an increased emphasis on public participation and transportation alternatives.
International Airport 1) Any airport designated by the Contracting State in whose territory it is situated as an airport of entry and departure for international air traffic. 2) An airport of entry which has been designated by the Secretary of Treasury or Commissioner of Customs as an international airport for customs service. 3) A landing rights airport at which specific permission to land must be obtained from customs authorities in advance of contemplated use. 4) Airports designated under the Convention on International Civil Aviation as an airport for use by international commercial air transport and/or international general aviation. (FAA4)
International Passenger Any person traveling on a waterborne public conveyance between the United States and foreign countries and between Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and foreign countries. (TNDOT1)
International Transportation Transportation between any place in the United States and any place in a foreign country; between places in the United States through a foreign country; or between places in one or more foreign countries through the United States. (49CFR171)
Intersection 1) A point defined by any combination of courses, radials, or bearings of two or more navigational aids. 2). Used to describe the point where two runways, a runway and a taxiway, or two taxiways cross or meet. (FAA4)
Interstate Limited access divided facility of at least four lanes designated by the Federal Highway Administration as part of the Interstate System. (NHTSA3)
Interstate Commerce Trade, traffic, or transportation in the United States which is between a place in a State and a place outside of such State (including a place outside of the United States) or is between two places in a State through another State or a place outside of the United States. (49CFR390)
Interstate Highway Limited access, divided highway of at least four lanes designated by the Federal Highway Administration as part of the Interstate System.
Interstate Highway (Freeway or Expressway) A divided arterial highway for through traffic with full or partial control of access and grade separations at major intersections. (FHWA3)
Interstate Highway System (IHS) The system of highways that connects the principal metropolitan areas, cities, and industrial centers of the United States. Also connects the US to internationally significant routes in Canada and Mexico.
Interstate Maintenance (IM) The Interstate Maintenance (IM) program provides funding for resurfacing, restoring, rehabilitating and reconstructing (4R) most routes on the Interstate System.
Intrastate Travel within the same state. (BOC3)
Intrastate Commerce Any trade, traffic, or transportation in any State which is not described in the term "interstate commerce." (49CFR390)
IRR Inventory An inventory of roads which meet the following criteria: a) public roads strictly within reservation boundaries, b) public roads that provide access to lands, to groups, villages, and communities inwhich the majority of residences are Indian, c) public roads that serve Indian lands not within reservation boundaries, and d) public roads that serve recognized Indian groups, villages, and isolated communities not located within a reservation.
IRR Program Stewardship Plan The plan which details the roles and responsibilities of the BIA, FHWA and ITGs in the administration and operation of the IRR Program.
IRR Road/Bridge Inventory An inventory of BIA owned IRR and bridges.
IRR TIP A multi-year listing of road improvement projects programmed for construction by a BIA area office, with IRR Program funds, for the next 3-5 years. A separate IRR TIP is prepared for each State within the area office's jurisdiction.
IRR Transportation Planning Funds Funds provided under 23 U.S.C., Section 204 (j), for transportation planning by ITGs.
Isolated Rural Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas Areas that do not contain or are not part of any metropolitan planning area as designated under the transportation planning regulations. Isolated rural areas do not have Federally required metropolitan transportation plans or TIPs and do not have projects that are part of the emissions analysis of any MPO's metropolitan transportation plan or TIP. Projects in such areas are instead included in statewide transportation improvement programs. These areas are not donut areas.
Just in Time (JIT) Cargo or components that must be at a destination at the exact time needed. The container or vehicle is the movable warehouse.
Land Use Refers to the manner in which portions of land or the structures on them are used, i.e. commercial, residential, retail, industrial, etc.
Land Use Plan A plan which establishes strategies for the use of land to meet identified community needs.
Large Regionals (Air) Air carrier groups with annual operating revenues between $20 million and $99,999,999.
Large Truck Trucks over 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating, including single-unit trucks and truck tractors.
Level of Service (LOS) 1) A qualitative assessment of a road's operating conditions. For local government comprehensive planning purposes, level of service means an indicator of the extent or degree of service provided by, or proposed to be provided by, a facility based on and related to the operational characteristics of the facility. Level of service indicates the capacity per unit of demand for each public facility. 2) This term refers to a standard measurement used by transportation officials which reflects the relative ease of traffic flow on a scale of A to F, with free-flow being rated LOS-A and congested conditions rated as LOS-F.
Light Rail A streetcar-type vehicle operated on city streets, semi-exclusive rights-of-way, or exclusive rights-of-way. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level boarding.
Light Truck Trucks of 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating or less, including pickups, vans, truck-based station wagons, and sport utility vehicles.
Light-Duty Vehicle A vehicle category that combines light automobiles and trucks.
Limitation on Obligations Any action or inaction by an officer or employee of the United States that limits the amount of Federal assistance that may be obligated during a specified time period. A limitation on obligations does not affect the scheduled apportionment or allocation of funds, it just controls the rate at which these funds may be used.
Limited Maintenance Plan A maintenance plan that EPA has determined meets EPA's limited maintenance plan policy criteria for a given NAAQS and pollutant. To qualify for a limited maintenance plan, for example, an area must have a design value that is significantly below a given NAAQS, and it must be reasonable to expect that a NAAQS violation will not result from any level of future motor vehicle emissions growth.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas, primarily methane, that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 °F at atmospheric pressure.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Pro-pane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene produced at refineries or natural gas processing plants, including plants that fractionate new natural gas plant liquids.
Local Street A street intended solely for access to adjacent properties.
Local Technical Assistance Program Center These Centers are responsible for providing transportation assistance to State and local governments that includes, but is not limited to, circuit rider programs, providing training on intergovernmental transportation planning and project selection, and tourism recreation travel.
Locomotive Railroad vehicle equipped with flanged wheels for use on railroad tracks, powered directly by electricity, steam, or fossil fuel, and used to move other railroad rolling equipment.
Logistics All activities involved in the management of product movement; delivering the right product from the right origin to the right destination, with the right quality and quantity, at the right schedule and price.
Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) A document resulting from regional or statewide collaboration and consensus on a region or state's transportation system, and serving as the defining vision for the region's or state's transportation systems and services. In metropolitan areas, the plan indicates all of the transportation improvements scheduled for funding over the next 20 years.
Long Term In transportation planning, refers to a time span of, generally, 20 years. The transportation plan for metropolitan areas and for States should include projections for land use, population, and employment for the 20-year period.
Maintenance Area Maintenance area is any geographic region of the United States previously designated nonattainment pursuant to the CAA Amendments of 1990 and subsequently redesignated to attainment subject to the requirement to develop a maintenance plan under section 175A of the CAA, as amended.
Majors (Air) Air carrier groups with annual operating revenues exceeding $1 billion.
Management Systems (1) Systems to improve identification of problems and opportunities throughout the entire surface transportation network, and to evaluate and prioritize alternative strategies, actions and solutions. (2) A systematic process, designed to assist decisionmakers in selecting cost-effective strategies/actions to improve the efficiency and safety of, and protect the investment in, the nation's transportation infrastructure.
Maritime Business pertaining to commerce or navigation transacted upon the sea or in seaports in such matters as the court of admiralty has jurisdiction. (MARAD2)
Maritime Administration (MARAD) The Maritime Administration was established by Reorganization Plan No. 21 of 1950 (5 U.S.C. app.) effective May 24, 1950. The Maritime Act of 1981 (46 U.S.C. 1601) transferred the Maritime Administration to the Department of Transportation, effective Aug
Mass Transportation Another name for public transportation. (APTA1)
Mass Transportation Agency An agency authorized to transport people by bus, rail, or other conveyance, either publicly or privately owned, and providing to the public general or special service (but not including school, charter or sightseeing service) on a regular basis. (FTA1)
Measures of Effectiveness Measures or tests which reflect the degree of attainment of particular objectives.
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) A document providing a general description of the responsibilities that are to be assumed by two or more parties in their pursuit of some goal(s). More specific information may be provided in an associated SOW.
Methanol A light, volatile alcohol produced commercially by the catalyzed reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Methanol is blended with gasoline to improve its operational efficiency.
Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Ether (MTBE) A colorless, flammable, liquid oxygenated hydrocarbon that contains 18.15 percent oxygen. It is a fuel oxygenate produced by reacting methanol with isobutylene.
Metropolitan Planning Area The geographic area in which the metropolitan transportation planning process required by 23 U.S.C. 134 and section 8 of the Federal Transit Act (49 U.S.C. app. 1607) must be carried out. (23CFR420)
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) 1) Regional policy body, required in urbanized areas with populations over 50,000, and designated by local officials and the governor of the state. Responsible in cooperation with the state and other transportation providers for carrying out the metropolitan transportation planning requirements of federal highway and transit legislation. 2) Formed in cooperation with the state, develops transportation plans and programs for the metropolitan area. For each urbanized area, a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) must be designated by agreement between the Governor and local units of government representing 75% of the affected population (in the metropolitan area), including the central cities or cities as defined by the Bureau of the Census, or in accordance with procedures established by applicable State or local law (23 U.S.C. 134(b)(1)/Federal Transit Act of 1991 Sec. 8(b)(1)). (FHWA2)
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Areas defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. A Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is 1) A county or a group of contiguous counties that contain at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more, or 2) An urbanized area of at least 50,000 inhabitants and a total MSA population of at least 100,000 (75,000 in New England). The contiguous counties are included in an MSA if, according to certain criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character and are socially and economically integrated with the central city. In New England, MSAs consist of towns and cities rather than counties. (DOE4) (DOE5) (FHWA3)
Metropolitan Status A building classification referring to the location of the building either located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) or outside a MSA. (DOE5)
Metropolitan Transportation Plan (MTP) The official intermodal transportation plan that is developed and adopted through the metropolitan transportation planning process for the metropolitan planning area, in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 134, 23 USC 135 and 49 U.S.C. 5303.
Mile A statute mile (5,280 feet). All mileage computations are based on statute miles. (BTS5) (BTS6)
Miles Per Gallon (MPG) A measure of vehicle fuel efficiency. Miles Per Gallon (MPG) represents "Fleet Miles per Gallon". For each subgroup or "table cell", MPG is computed as the ratio of the total number of miles traveled by all vehicles in the subgroup to the total number of gallons consumed. MPGs are assigned to each vehicle using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification files and adjusted for on-road driving. (DOE4) (DOE5)
Milestone The meaning given in CAA sections 182(g)(1) and 189(c) for serious and above ozone nonattainment areas and PM10 nonattainment areas, respectively. For all other nonattainment areas, a milestone consists of an emissions level and the date on which that level is to be achieved as required by the applicable CAA provision for reasonable further progress towards attainment.
Minor Arterials (Highway) Roads linking cities and larger towns in rural areas. In urban areas, roads that link but do not penetrate neighborhoods within a community.
Mobile Source 1) The mobile source-related pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM-10 and PM 2.5). 2) Mobile sources include motor vehicles, aircraft, seagoing vessels, and other transportation modes. The mobile source related pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) or volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and small particulate matter (PM-10).
Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATS) Identified by the EPA, MSATs are the 21 hazardous air pollutants generated in large part by transportation sources.
Mobility The ability to move or be moved from place to place.
Mode A specific form of transportation, such as automobile, subway, bus, rail, or air.
Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCS) The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) was established as a separate administration within the U.S. Department of Transportation on January 1, 2000, pursuant to the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999. The primary mission of FMCS is to reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving large trucks and buses . FMCSA is headquartered in Washington, DC. We employ more than 1,000 individuals, in all 50 States and the District of Columbia, dedicated to improving bus and truck safety and saving lives.
Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget The portion of the total allowable emissions defined in the submitted or approved control strategy implementation plan revision or maintenance plan for a certain date for the purpose of meeting reasonable further progress milestones or demonstrating attainment or maintenance of the NAAQS, for any criteria pollutant or its precursors, allocated to highway and transit vehicle use and emissions.
Motorbus (Transit) A rubber-tired, self-propelled, manually steered bus with a fuel supply onboard the vehicle. Motorbus types include intercity, school, and transit.
Motorcycle A two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle designed to transport one or two people, including motor scooters, minibikes, and mopeds.
Motorized Vehicle Includes all vehicles that are licensed for highway driving. Specifically excluded are snow mobiles and minibikes. (FHWA3)
Multimodal The availability of transportation options using different modes within a system or corridor.
Multimodal Transportation Often used as a synonym for intermodalism. Congress and others frequently use the term intermodalism in its broadest interpretation as a synonym for multimodal transportation. Most precisely, multimodal transportation covers all modes without necessarily including a holistic or integrated approach. (BTS2)
National Airspace System (NAS) The common network of U.S. airspace; air navigation facilities, equipment, and services; airports or landing areas; aeronautical charts, information, and services; rules, regulations, and procedures; technical information, manpower, and material. Included are system components shared jointly with the military. (FAA4) (FAA8)
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Federal standards that set allowable concentrations and exposure limits for various pollutants. The EPA developed the standards in response to a requirement of the CAA. Air quality standards have been established for the following six criteria pollutants: ozone (or smog), carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and sulfur dioxide.
National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) The cooperative research, development, and technology transfer (RD&T) program directed toward solving problems of national or regional significance identified by States and the FHWA, and administered by the Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences. (23CFR420)
National Cooperative Transit Research and Development Program A program established under Section 6a) of the Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964, as amended, to provide a mechanism by which the principal client groups of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration can join cooperatively in an attempt to resolve near-term public transportation problems through applied research, development, testing, and evaluation. NCTRP is administered by the Transportation Research Board. (TRB1)
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) Established a national environmental policy requiring that any project using federal funding or requiring federal approval, including transportation projects, examine the effects of proposed and alternative choices on the environment before a federal decision is made.
National Highway System (NHS) This system of highways designated and approved in accordance with the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 103b). (23CFR500)
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) The Administration was established by the Highway Safety Act of 1970 (23 U.S.C. 401 note). The Administration was established to carry out a congressional mandate to reduce the mounting number of deaths, injuries, and economic losses resulting from motor vehicle crashes on the Nation's highways and to provide motor vehicle damage susceptibility and ease of repair information, motor vehicle inspection demonstrations and protection of purchasers of motor vehicles having altered odometers, and to provide average standards for greater vehicle mileage per gallon of fuel for vehicles under 10,000 pounds (gross vehicle weight). (OFR1)
National Historic Trail (NHT) A historic or prehistoric route of travel of significance to the entire Nation. It must meet three criteria listed in Section 5(b)(11) of the National Trails System Act, and be established by Act of Congress. 16 U.S.C. 1241-51.
National ITS Architecture A systems framework to guide the planning and deployment of ITS infrastructure. The national ITS architecture is a blueprint for the coordinated development of ITS technologies in the U.S. It is unlikely that any single metropolitan area or state would plan to implement the entire national ITS architecture.
National Scenic Byways Program (NSBP) Designates roads that have outstanding scenic, historic, cultural, natural, recreational, and archaeological qualities as All-American Roads or National Scenic Byways, and provides grants for scenic byway projects. 23 U.S.C. 162
National Scenic Trail (NST) A continuous, primarily nonmotorized route of outstanding recreation opportunity, established by Act of Congress. 16 U.S.C. 1241-51.
National Trails System (NTS) The network of scenic, historic, and recreation trails created by the National Trails System Act of 1968. These trails provide for outdoor recreation needs, promote the enjoyment, appreciation, and preservation of open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources, and encourage public access and citizen involvement. 16 U.S.C. 1241-51.
Native American Local Technical Assistance Programs Primarily responsible for transportation related technology transfer to Native Americans through Tribal Technical Assistance Program (TTAP) Centers.
Natural Gas A naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface, often in association with petroleum. The principal constituent is methane.
Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) Section 311 Construction, allows an interstate pipeline company to transport gas "on behalf of" any intrastate pipeline or local distribution company. Pipeline companies may expand or construct facilities used solely to enable this transportation service, subject to certain conditions and reporting requirements. (DOE1)
Nitrogen Oxide Emissions Nitrogen oxides (NOx), the term used to describe the sum of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (N02) and other oxides of nitrogen, play a major role in the formation of ozone. The major sources of man﷓made NOx emissions are high﷓temperature combustion processes, such as those occurring in automobiles and power plants.
Nitrogen Oxides A product of combustion of fossil fuels whose production increases with the temperature of the process. It can become an air pollutant if concentrations are excessive. (DOE6)
Noise Standards 23 U.S.C. 109(i)
Nonattainment Area (NAA) Any geographic area that has not met the requirements for clean air as set out in the Clean Air Act of 1990.
Noncompliance Failure to comply with a standard or regulation issued under 46 U.S.C. Chapter 43, or with a section of the statutes. (USCG1)
Noncurrent Liabilities Non-current portion of long-term debt and of capital leases, advances to associated companies and other liabilities not due during the normal business cycle. (BTS4)
Nonoccupant (Automobile) Any person who is not an occupant of a motor vehicle in transport (e.g., bystanders, pedestrians, pedalcyclists, or an occupant of a parked motor vehicle).
Nonresident Commercial Driver's License A commercial driver's license (CDL) issued by a State to an individual domiciled in a foreign country. (49CFR383)
Notice of Funding Availability Written notice to the respective area tribes that the BIA area office has received contractible program funds.
Objectives Specific, measurable statements related to the attainment of goals.
Obligation The Federal government's legal commitment (promise) to pay or reimburse the States or other entities for the Federal share of a project's eligible costs.
Obligation Limitation A restriction, or "ceiling" on the amount of Federal assistance that may be promised (obligated) during a specified time period. This is a statuatory budgetary control that does not affect the apportionment or allocation of funds. Rather, it controls the rate at which these funds may be used.
Obligational Authority (OA) The total amount of funds that may be obligated in a year. For the Federal-Aid Highway Program this is comprised of the obligation limitation amount plus amounts for programs exempt from the limitation.
Occupancy The number of persons, including driver and passenger(s) in a vehicle. Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) occupancy rates are generally calculated as person miles divided by vehicle miles. (FHWA3)
Occupant Any person who is in or upon a motor vehicle in transport. Includes the driver, passengers, and persons riding on the exterior of a motor vehicle (e.g., a skateboard rider who is set in motion by holding onto a vehicle). (NHTSA3)
Occupant (Highway) Any person in or on a motor vehicle in transport. Includes the driver, passengers, and persons riding on the exterior of a motor vehicle (e.g., a skateboard rider holding onto a moving vehicle). Excludes occupants of parked cars unless they are double parked or motionless on the roadway.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) OMB's predominant mission is to assist the President in overseeing the preparation of the federal budget and to supervise its administration in Executive Branch agencies. In helping to formulate the President's spending plans, OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, and sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules, testimony, and proposed legislation are consistent with the President's Budget and with Administration policies. In addition, OMB oversees and coordinates the Administration's procurement, financial management, information, and regulatory policies. In each of these areas, OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, and to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public.
Other 2-Axle 4-Tire Vehicles (Truck) Includes vans, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles.
Other Freeways And Expressways (Highway) All urban principal arterials with limited access but not part of the Interstate system.
Other Principal Arterials (Highway) Major streets or highways, many of multi-lane or freeway design, serving high-volume traffic corridor movements that connect major generators of travel.
Other Revenue Vehicles (Transit) Other revenue-generating modes of transit service, such as cable cars, personal rapid transit systems, monorail vehicles, inclined and railway cars, not covered otherwise.
Outlays Actual cash (or electronic transfer) payments made to the States or other entities. Outlays are provided as reimbursement for the Federal share for approved highway program activities.
Oxygenated gasoline Gasoline enriched with oxygen bearing liquids to reduce CO production by permitting more complete combustion.
Oxygenates Any substance that when added to motor gasoline increases the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Includes oxygen-bearing compounds such as ethanol, methanol, and methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether. Oxygenated fuel tends to give a more complete combustion of carbon into carbon dioxide (rather than monoxide), thereby reducing air pollution from exhaust emissions.
Ozone 03 Ozone is a colorless gas with a sweet odor. Ozone is not a direct emission from transportation sources. It is a secondary pollutant formed when VOCs and NOx combine in the presence of sunlight. Ozone is associated with smog or haze conditions. Although the ozone in the upper atmosphere protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays, ground-level ozone produces an unhealthy environment in which to live. Ozone is created by human and natural sources.
P.L. 93-638 - Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, as amended The response by Congress, in recognition of the unique obligation of the United States, to the strong expression of the Indian people for self-determination, assuring maximum Indian participation in the direction of education as well as other Federal services for Indian communities so as to render such programs and services more responsive to the needs and desires of Indian communities.
Paratransit 1) Comparable transportation service required by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) for individuals with disabilities who are unable to use fixed route transportation systems. (49CFR37) (APTA1) 2) A variety of smaller, often flexibly scheduled-and-routed transportation services using low-capacity vehicles, such as vans, to operate within normal urban transit corridors or rural areas. These services usually serve the needs of persons that standard mass-transit services would serve with difficulty, or not at all. Often, the patrons include the elderly and persons with disabilities.
Park A place or area set aside for recreation or preservation of a cultural or natural resource. (DOI4)
Parking Area An area set aside for the parking of motor vehicles. (DOI4)
Parkway A highway that has full or partial access control, is usually located within a park or a ribbon of park-like developments, and prohibits commercial vehicles. Buses are not considered commercial vehicles in this case. (FHWA2)
Participating Agency A federal department or agency which transferred (consolidated) vehicles to the Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS). (GSA2)
Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) Particulate matter consists of airborne solid particles and liquid droplets. Particulate matter may be in the form of fly ash, soot, dust, fog, fumes, etc. These particles are classified as "coarse" if they are smaller than 10 microns, or "fine" if they are smaller than 2.5 microns. Coarse airborne particles are produced during grinding operations, or from the physical disturbance of dust by natural air turbulence processes, such as wind. Fine particles can be a by-product of fossil fuel combustion, such as diesel and bus engines. Fine particles can easily reach remote lung areas, and their presence in the lungs is linked to serious respiratory ailments such as asthma, chronic bronchitis and aggravated coughing. Exposure to these particles may aggravate other medical conditions such as heart disease and emphysema and may cause premature death. In the environment, particulate matter contributes to diminished visibility and particle deposition (soiling).
Particulate Matter Emissions (PM) Particulate matter (PM) is the general term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets founclin the air. They originate from many differ­ent stationary and mobile sources as well as from natural sources, including fuel combustion from motor vehicles, power generation, and industrial facilities, as well as from residential fire­places and wood stoves. Fine particles are most closely associated with such health effects as increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits for heart and lung disease, increased respiratory symptoms and disease, decreased lung function, and even premature death.
Parts Per Million (PPM) A measure of air pollutant concentrations.
Passenger Car A motor vehicle designed primarily for carrying passengers on ordinary roads, includes convertibles, sedans, and stations wagons.
Passenger Mile 1) One passenger transported one mile. Total passenger miles are computed by summation of the products of the aircraft miles flown on each inter-airport flight stage multiplied by the number of passengers carried on that flight stage. (AIA1) (FAA11) (NTSB1) 2) The cumulative sum of the distances ridden by each passenger. (FTA1)
Passenger Revenue 1) Rail Revenue from the sale of tickets. 2) Air Revenues from the transport of passengers by air. 3) Transit Fares, transfer, zone, and park-an
Passenger Service Both intercity rail passenger service and commuter rail passenger service. (49CFR245)
Passenger Vessels (Water) A vessel designed for the commercial transport of passengers.
Pavement Management System A systematic process that provides, analyzes, and summarizes pavement information for use in selecting and implementing cost-effective pavement construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance programs. Pavement includes all road surface types including paved, gravel, and improved or unimproved earth.
Pedestrian Any person not in or on a motor vehicle or other vehicle. Excludes people in buildings or sitting at a sidewalk cafe. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration also uses another pedestrian category to refer to pedestrians using conveyances and people in buildings. Examples of pedestrian conveyances include skateboards, nonmotorized wheelchairs, rollerskates, sleds, and transport devices used as equipment.
Pedestrian Walkway (or Walkway) A continuous way designated for pedestrians and separated from the through lanes for motor vehicles by space or barrier. (23CFR217)
Performance Measures Indicators of how well the transportation system is performing with regard to such things as average speed, reliability of travel, and accident rates. Used as feedback in the decisionmaking process.
Person Trip A trip taken by an individual. For example, if three persons from the same household travel together, the trip is counted as one household trip and three person trips.
Person-Miles An estimate of the aggregate distances traveled by all persons on a given trip based on the estimated transportation-network-miles traveled on that trip.
Petroleum (Oil) A generic term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oils, petroleum products, natural gas plant liquids, and nonhydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products.
Planning Funds (PL) Primary source of funding for metropolitan planning designated by the FHWA.
Port 1) Harbor with piers or docks ; 2) left side of ship when facing forward ; 3) opening in a ship's side for handling freight. (MARAD2)
Possible Injury Any injury reported or claimed that is not evident. Includes, among others, momentary unconsciousness, claim of injuries not obvious, limping, complaint of pain, nausea, and hysteria.
Private Carrier A carrier that provides transportation service to the firm that owns or leases the vehicles and does not charge a fee.
Privately Owned Vehicle (POV) 1) A privately-owned vehicle or privately-operated vehicle. 2) Employee's own vehicle used on official business for which the employee is reimbursed by the government on the basis of mileage. (GSA1)
Problem Identification An element in the planning process which represents the gap between the desired vision, goals and objectives and the current or projected performance of the system
Program Development An element in the planning process in which improvements are formalized in the transportation improvement program and provides more detailed strategies.
Programming Priortizing proposed projects and matching those projects with available funds to accomplish agreed upon, stated needs.
Project A locally sponsored, coordinated, and administered program, or any part thereof, to plan, finance, construct, maintain, or improve an intermodal passenger terminal, which may incorporate civic or cultural activities where feasible in an architecturally or historically distinctive railroad passenger terminal. (49CFR256)
Property Damage (Transit) The dollar amount required to repair or replace transit property (including stations, right-of-way, bus stops, and maintenance facilities) damaged during an incident.
Public Authority A Federal, State, county, town or township, Indian tribe, municipal or other local government or instrumentality thereof, with authority to finance, build, operate, or maintain highway facilities, either as toll or toll- free highway facilities. (23CFR460)
Public Crossing A location open to public travel where railroad tracks intersect a roadway that is under the jurisdiction and maintenance of a public authority. (FRA3)
Public Entity 1) Any state or local government; 2) Any department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of one or more state or local governments; and 3) The National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) and any commuter authority. (49CFR37)
Public Hearings 23 U.S.C. 128
Public Liability Liability for bodily injury or property damage and includes liability for environmental restoration. (49CFR387)
Public Meeting or Hearing A public gathering for the express purpose of informing and soliciting input from interested individuals regarding transportation issues.
Public Participation The active and meaningful involvement of the public in the development of transportation plans and programs.
Public Transit Passenger transportation services, usually local in scope, that is available to any person who pays a prescribed fare. It operates on established schedules along designated routes or lines with specific stops and is designed to move relatively large numbers of people at one time. (TRB1)
Public Transit Agencies A public entity responsible for administering and managing transit activities and services. Public transit agencies can directly operate transit service or contract out for all or part of the total transit service provided. (FTA1)
Public Transit System An organization that provides transportation services owned, operated, or subsidized by any municipality, county, regional authority, state, or other governmental agency, including those operated or managed by a private management firm under contract to the government agency owner. (APTA1)
Public Transportation Transportation by bus, rail, or other conveyance, either publicly or privately owned, which provides to the public general or special service on a regular and continuing basis. Also known as "mass transportation", "mass transit" and "transit." (APTA1)
Public Road Any road under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority (federal, state, county, town or township, local government, or instrumentality thereof) and open to public travel.
Rail A rolled steel shape laid in two parallel lines to form a track for carrying vehicles with flanged steel wheels. (TRB1)
Rapid Rail Transit Transit service using railcars driven by electricity usually drawn from a third rail, configured for passenger traffic, and usually operated on exclusive rights-of-way. It generally uses longer trains and has longer station spacing than light rail.
Recreational Trails Program (RTP) Provides funds to the States to develop and maintain recreational trails and trail-related facilities for motorized and nonmotorized recreational trail uses. 23 U.S.C. 206.
Reformulated Gasoline 1) Gasoline whose composition has been changed to meet performance specifications regarding ozone-forming tendencies and release of toxic substances into the air from both evaporation and tailpipe emissions. Reformulated gasoline includes oxygenates and, compared with gasoline sold in 1990, has a lower content of olefins, aromatics, volatile components, and heavy hydrocarbons. 2) Gasoline specifically developed to reduce undesirable combustion products.
Regional Planning Organization (RPO) An organization that performs planning for multi-jurisdictional areas. MPOs, regional councils, economic development associations, rural transportation associations are examples of RPOs.
Regional Railroad Railroad defined as line haul railroad operating at least 350 miles of track and/or earns revenue between $40 million and $266.7 million.
Regionally Significant Project A project that is on a facility which serves regional transportation needs.
Relative Need Formula An allocation formula used by BIADOT to distribute construction funds to the 12 BIA area offices.
Reliability Refers to the degree of certainty and predictability in travel times on the transportation system. Reliable transportation systems offer some assurance of attaining a given desti­nation within a reasonable range of an expected time. An unreliable transportation system is subject to unexpected delays, increasing costs for system users
Remote Areas Sparsely populated areas such as mountains, swamps, and large bodies of water. (FAA8)
Research Investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery of new theories or laws and the discovery and interpretation of facts or revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts. (49CFR171)
Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) The Administration was established formally on September 23, 1977. It is responsible for hazardous materials transportation and pipeline safety, transportation emergency preparedness, safety training, multimodal transportation research and development activities, and collection and dissemination of air carrier economic data. It includes the Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; the Office of Pipeline Safety; the Office of Research Technology, and Analysis; the Office of University Research and Education; the Office of Automated Tariffs; the Office of Research Policy and Technology Transfer; the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center; and the Transportation Safety Institute. (OFR1)
Restricted Area Airspace designated under Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), Part 73, within which the flight of aircraft, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restriction. Most restricted areas are designated joint use and Intermediate Fix/Visual Flight Rules IF/VFR operations in the area may be authorized by the controlling Air Traffic Control (ATC) facility when it is not being utilized by the using agency. Restricted areas are depicted on en route charts. Where joint use is authorized, the name of the ATC controlling facility is also shown. (FAA8)
Restricted Road Public road with restricted public use. (DOI3)
Revenue Remuneration received by carriers for transportation activities.
Revenue Aligned Budget Authority (RABA) The adjustment in funding made annually to the highway program, beginning in FY 2000, as a result of the adjustment in the firewall level for highways. The firewall level is adjusted to reflect revised receipt estimates for the Highway Account of the Highway Trust Fund. Then, adjustments equal to the firewall adjustment-are made to Federal-Aid highway authorizations and obligation limitation for the fiscal year.
Revenue Passenger-Mile One revenue passenger transported one mile.
Revenue Ton-Mile One short ton of freight transported one mile.
Revenue Vehicle-Miles (Transit) One vehicle (bus, trolley bus, or streetcar) traveling one mile, while revenue passengers are on board, generates one revenue vehicle-mile. Revenue vehicle-miles reported represent the total mileage traveled by vehicles in scheduled or unscheduled revenue-producing services.
Right of Way The land (usually a strip) acquired for or devoted to highway transportation purposes. (FHWA2)
Road An open way for the passage of vehicles, persons, or animals on land. (DOI4)
Road Class The category of roads based on design, weatherability, their governmental designation, and the Department of Transportation functional classification system. (DOI3)
Road Functional Classification The classification of a road in accordance with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) 9113.16. Code as follows C-collector, L-local, R-resource. (DOI2)
Rural Highway Any highway, road, or street that is not an urban highway.
Rural Mileage (Highway) Roads outside city, municipal district, or urban boundaries.
Safety Management System A systematic process that has the goal of reducing the number and severity of transportation related accidents by ensuring that all opportunities to improve safety are identified, considered and implemented as appropriate.
School Bus A passenger motor vehicle that is designed or used to carry more than 10 passengers, in addition to the driver, and, as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, is likely to be significantly used for the purpose of transporting pre-primary, primary, or secondary school students between home and school.
Self-Propelled Vessel A vessel that has its own means of propulsion. Includes tankers, containerships, dry bulk cargo ships, and general cargo vessels.
Serious Injury (Air Carrier/General Aviation) An injury that requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within 7 days from the date when the injury was received; results in a bone fracture (except simple fractures of fingers, toes, or nose); involves lacerations that cause severe hemorrhages, or nerve, muscle, or tendon damage; involves injury to any internal organ; or involves second- or third-degree burns or any burns affecting more than 5 percent of the body surface.
Shortline Railroad Freight railroads which are not Class I or Regional Railroads, that operate less than 350 miles of track and earn less than $40 million.
Small Particulate Matter (PM-10) Particulate matter which is less than 10 microns in size. A micron is one millionth of a meter. Particulate matter this size is too small to be filtered by the nose and lungs.
Smart Growth A set of policies and programs design to protect, preserve, and economically develop established communities and valuable natural and cultural resources.
Sources Refers to the origin of air contaminants. Can be point (coming from a defined site) or non-point (coming from many diffuse sources).[Stationary sources include relatively large, fixed facilities such as power plants, chemical process industries, and petroleum refineries. Area sources are small, stationary, non-transportation sources that collectively contribute to air pollution, and include such sources as dry cleaners and bakeries, surface coating operations, home furnaces, and crop burning. Mobile sources include on-road vehicles such as cars, trucks, and buses; and off-road sources such as trains, ships, airplanes, boats, lawnmowers, and construction equipment.
Sponsor Any private owner of a public-use airport or any public agency (either individually or jointly with other public agencies) that submit to the Secretary of Transportation, in accordance with the Airport & Airway Improvement Act of 1982, an application for financial assistance. (FAA2)
Sprawl Urban form that connotatively depicts the movement of people from the central city to the suburbs. Concerns associated with sprawl include loss of farmland and open space due to low-density land development, increased public service costs, and environmental degradation as well as other concerns associated with transportation.
Stakeholder Person or goup affected by a transportation plan, program or project. Person or group believing that are affected by a transportation plan, program or project. Residents of affected geographical areas.
Stakeholders Individuals and organizations involved in or affected by the transportation planning process. Include federal/state/local officials, MPOs, transit operators, freight companies, shippers, and the general public.
State As defined in chapter 1 of Title 23 of the United States Code, any of the 50 States, comprising the United States, plus the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. However, for some purposes (e.g., highway safety programs under 23 U.S.C. 402), the term may also include the Territories (the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands) and the Secretary of the Interior (for Indian Reservations). For the purposes of apportioning funds under sections 104, 105, 144, and 206 of Title 23, United States Code, the term "State" is defined by section 1103(n) of the TEA-21 to mean any of the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
State Implementation Plan (SIP) Produced by the state environmental agency, not the MPO. A plan mandated by the CAA that contains procedures to monitor, control, maintain, and enforce compliance with the NAAQS. Must be taken into account in the transportation planning process.
State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) A revolving fund mechanism for financing a wide variety of highway and transit projects through loans and credit enhancement. SIBs are designed to complement traditional Federal-aid highway and transit grants by providing States increased flexibility for financing infrastructure investments.
State Planning and Research Funds (SPR) Primary source of funding for statewide long-range planning.
State Routing Agency An entity (including a common agency of more than one state such as one established by Interstate compact) which is authorized to use state legal process pursuant to 49 CFR 177.825 to impose routing requirements, enforceable by State agencies, on carriers of radioactive materials without regard to intrastate jurisdictional boundaries. This term also includes Indian tribal authorities which have police powers to regulate and enforce highway routing requirements within their lands. (49CFR171)
State Transportation Agency The State highway department, transportation department, or other State transportation agency to which Federal-aid highway funds are apportioned. (23CFR420)
State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) A staged, multi-year, statewide, intermodal program of transportation projects, consistent with the statewide transportation plan and planning processes as well as metropolitan plans, TIPs, and processes.
State-Designated Route A preferred route selected in accordance with U.S. DOT "Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Highway Route Controlled Quantities of Radioactive Materials" or an equivalent routing analysis which adequately considers overall risk to the public. (49CFR171)
Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) A statewide recreation plan required by the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965. Addresses the demand for and supply of recreation resources (local, State, and Federal) within a State, identifies needs and new opportunities for recreation improvements, and sets forth an implementation program to meet the goals identified by its citizens and elected leaders. [National Park Service] NOTE: Metropolitan and statewide transportation plans plans should be coordinated with SCORPs.
Statewide Transportation Plan The official statewide intermodal transportation plan that is developed through the statewide transportation planning process.
Stationary Source Relatively large, fixed sources of emissions (i.e. chemical process industries, petroleum refining and petrochemical operations, or wood processing).
Streetcars Relatively lightweight passenger railcars operating singly or in short trains, or on fixed rails in rights-of-way that are not always separated from other traffic. Streetcars do not necessarily have the right-of-way at grade crossings with other traffic.
Sub-Allocation An administrative distribution of funds from BIA Central Office down to the BIA area.
Surface Transportation Program (STP) Federal-aid highway funding program that funds a broad range of surface transportation capital needs, including many roads, transit, sea and airport access, vanpool, bike, and pedestrian facilities.
Tanker An oceangoing ship designed to haul liquid bulk cargo in world trade.
Telecommuting Communicating electronically (by telephone, computer, fax, etc.) with an office, either from home or from another site, instead of traveling to it physically.
Third party Logistics (3PL) Provider. A specialist in logistics who may provide a variety of transportation, warehousing, and logistics related services to buyers or sellers. These tasks were previously performed in house by the customer.
Throughput Total amount of freight imported or exported through a seaport measured in tons or TEUs.
Title VI Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Prohibits discrimination in any program receiving federal assistance.
Ton mile A measure of output for freight transportation; reflects weight of shipment and the distance it is hauled; a multiplication of tons hauled by the distance traveled.
Ton-Mile (Water) The movement of one ton of cargo the distance of one statute mile. Domestic ton-miles are calculated by multiplying tons moved by the number of statute miles moved on the water (e.g., 50 short tons moving 200 miles on a waterway would yield 10,000 ton-miles for that waterway). Ton-miles are not computed for ports. For coastwise traffic, the shortest route that safe navigation permits between the port of origin and destination is used to calculate ton-miles.
Total Benefit/Cost Ratio The sum of five categories of quantifiable project benefits divided by the anualized cost of the project.
Trafficway (Highway) Any right-of-way open to the public as a matter of right or custom for moving persons or property from one place to another, including the entire width between property lines or other boundaries.
Train Line Mileage The aggregate length of all line-haul railroads. It does not include the mileage of yard tracks or sidings, nor does it reflect the fact that a mile of railroad may include two or more parallel tracks. Jointly-used track is counted only once.
Train-Mile The movement of a train, which can consist of many cars, the distance of one mile. A train-mile differs from a vehicle-mile, which is the movement of one car (vehicle) the distance of one mile. A 10-car (vehicle) train traveling 1 mile is measured as 1 train-mile and 10 vehicle-miles. Caution should be used when comparing train-miles to vehicle-miles.
Transit Vehicle Includes light, heavy, and commuter rail; motorbus; trolley bus; van pools; automated guideway; and demand responsive vehicles.
Transport Movement of natural, synthetic, and/or supplemental gas between points beyond the immediate vicinity of the field or plant from which produced except 1) For movements through well or field lines to a central point for delivery to a pipeline or processing plant within the same state or 2) Movements from a citygate point of receipt to consumers through distribution mains. (DOE5)
Transportation Administration and Support All activities associated with transportation administration, revenue vehicle movement control and scheduling including supervision and clerical support. (FTA1)
Transportation Agreement Any contractual agreement for the transportation of natural and/or supplemental gas between points for a fee. (DOE5)
Transportation Bill The bill refers to the market value of all purchases of transportation services and facilities; it includes all domestic expenditures made by an economy for transportation purposes. Although the transportation bill does not reflect several significant non-market costs, it is a useful indicator of a country's transportation expenditures, and transportation analysts closely follow changes in the bill and its components. (BTS1)
Transportation Conformity Process to assess the compliance of any transportation plan, program, or project with air quality implementation plans. The conformity process is defined by the Clean Air Act.
Transportation Control Measures (TCM) Transportation strategies that affect traffic patterns or reduce vehicle use to reduce air pollutant emissions. These may include HOV lanes, provision of bicycle facilities, ridesharing, telecommuting, etc. Such actions may be included in a SIP if needed to demonstrate attainment of the NAAQS.
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Programs designed to reduce demand for transportation through various means, such as the use of transit and of alternative work hours.
Transportation Enhancement Activities (TE) Provides funds to the States for safe bicycle and pedestrian facilities, scenic routes, beautification, restoring historic buildings, renovating streetscapes, or providing transportation museums and visitors centers. 23 U.S.C. 101(a) and 133(b)(8).
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) Authorized in 1998, TEA-21 authorized federal funding for transportation investment for fiscal years 1998-2003. Approximately $217 billion in funding was authorized, which was used for highway, transit, and other surface transportation programs.
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) A document prepared by a metropolitan planning organization that lists projects to be funded with FHWA/FTA funds for the next one- to three-year period.
Transportation Infrastructure A federal credit program under which the USDOT may provide three forms of credit assistance - secured (direct) loans, loan guarantees, and standby lines of credit - for surface transportation projects of national or regional significance. The fundamental goal is to leverage federal funds by attracting substantial private and non-federal co-investment in critical improvements to the nation's surface transportation system.
Transportation Management Area (TMA) 1) All urbanized areas over 200,000 in population, and any other area that requests such designation. 2) An urbanized area with a population over 200,000 (as determined by the latest decennial census) or other area when TMA designation is requested by the Governor and the MPO (or affect local officials), and officially designated by the Administrators of the FHWA and the FTA. The TMA designation applies to the entire metropolitan planning area(s). (23CFR500)
Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) The Transportation Research Board-maintained computerized storage and retrieval system for abstracts of ongoing and completed research, development, and technology transfer (RD&T) activities, including abstracts of RD&T reports and articles. (23CFR420)
Travel Advisory Program The Department of State manages a travel advisory program which publicizes 1) Travel warnings which are issued when State decides to recommend that Americans avoid travel to a certain country and 2) Consular information sheets, issued for every country, which advise travelers of health concerns, immigration and currency regulations, crime and security conditions, areas of unrest or instability, and the location of U.S. embassies or consulates. (USTTA1)
Travel Agencies Establishments primarily engaged in furnishing travel information and acting as agents in arranging tours, transportation, rental of cars, and lodging for travelers. (BOC1)
Travel Model Improvement Program (TMIP) TMIP supports and empowers planning agencies through leadership, innovation and support of planning analysis improvements to provide better information to support transportation and planning decisions.
Tribal Control Schedule The implementing document for the Tribal TIP. The ITG may elect to develop the tribal control schedule under Self-Governance compact or Indian Self-Determination contract. The tribal control schedule is an accounting and project management tool that is developed from the tribal TIP. It contains detailed project and tasks information for all projects identified in the tribal TIP. Project information is included in the areawide control schedule without changing the total dollar amounts.
Tribal Lands Land held in trust for Indian people, restricted Indian land which is not subject to fee title alienation without the approval of the Federal Government, and fee lands owned by tribal governments.
Tribal Priority List A list of transportation projects which the ITG considers a high priority.
Tribal Technical Assistance Program Center (TTAP) These centers are responsible for providing transportation assistance to native Americans that includes, but is not limited to, circuit rider programs, providing training on intergovernmental transportation planning and project selection, and tourism recreation travel.
Tribal TIP A multi-year, financially constrained, list of proposed transportation projects to be implemented within or providing access to Indian country during the next 3-5 years. It is developed from the tribal priority list.
Trolley Bus Rubber-tired electric transit vehicle, manually steered and propelled by a motor drawing current, normally through overhead wires, from a central power source.
Truckload (TL) Quantity of freight required to fill a truck, or at a minimum, the amount required to qualify for a truckload rate.
Trust Fund A fund credited with receipts that are held in trust by the government and earmarked by law for use in carrying out specific purposes and programs in accordance with an agreement or a statute.
Trust Funds Accounts that are designated by law to carry out specific purposes and programs. Trust Funds are usually financed with earmarked tax collections.
Tug Boat A powered vessel designed for towing or pushing ships, dumb barges, pushed-towed barges, and rafts, but not for the carriage of goods.
Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) TFHRC provides FHWA and the world highway community with the most advanced research and development related to new highway technologies. The research focuses on providing solutions to complex technical problems through the development of more economical, environmentally sensitive designs; more efficient, quality controlled constructions practices; and more durable materials. The end result is a safer, more reliable highway transportation system.
Twenty foot Equivalent Unit (TEU) The 8 foot by 8 foot by 20 foot intermodal container is used as a basic measure in many statistics and is the standard measure used for containerized cargo.
U.S. Flag Carrier or American Flag Carrier (Air) One of a class of air carriers holding a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity, issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation and approved by the President, authorizing scheduled operations over specified routes between the United States (and/or its territories) and one or more foreign countries.
Unified Planning Work Program (UPWP) The management plan for the (metropolitan) planning program. Its purpose is to coordinate the planning activities of all participants in the planning process.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (U.S.S.R) Consisted of 15 constituent republics Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldava, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. As a political entity, the U.S.S.R. ceased to exist as of December 31, 1991. (DOE3)
United States (U.S.) Territories Include Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. (FHWA2)
United States Code Contains a consolidation and codification of all general and permanent laws of the U.S. (USCG1)
United States Travel and Tourism Administration (USTTA) An agency in the Commerce Department; it's principal mission is to implement broad tourism policy initiatives for the development of international travel to the U.S. as a stimulus for economic stability. (USTTA1)
Unlinked Passenger Trips (Transit) The number of passengers boarding public transportation vehicles. A passenger is counted each time he/she boards a vehicle even if the boarding is part of the same journey from origin to destination.
Unpaved Road Surface Gravel/soil and unimproved roads and streets (Surface/Pavement Type Codes 20, 30 and 40). (FHWA2)
Urban Highway Any road or street within the boundaries of an urban area. An urban area is an area including and adjacent to a municipality or urban place with a population of 5,000 or more. The boundaries of urban areas are fixed by state highway departments, subject to the approval of the Federal Highway Administration, for purposes of the Federal-Aid Highway Program.
Urbanized Area Area that contains a city of 50,000 or more population plus incorporated surrounding areas meeting size or density criteria as defined by the U.S. Census.
Vanpool (Transit) Public-sponsored commuter service operating under prearranged schedules for previously formed groups of riders in 8- to 18-seat vehicles. Drivers are also commuters who receive little or no compensation besides the free ride.
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) A set of about 17 codes, combining letters and numbers, assigned to a vehicle at the factory and inscribed on a small metal label attached to the dashboard and visible through the windshield. The vehicle identification number (VIN) is a unique identifier for the vehicle and therefore is often found on insurance cards, vehicle registrations, vehicle titles, safety or emission certificates, insurance policies, and bills of sale. The coded information in the VIN describes characteristics of the vehicle such as engine size and weight. (DOE4) (DOE5)
Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) The number of miles traveled nationally by vehicles for a period of 1 year. VMT is either calculated using 2 odometer readings or, for vehicles with less than 2 odometer readings, imputed using a regression estimate. (DOE5)
Vehicle-Miles (Highway) Miles of travel by all types of motor vehicles as determined by the states on the basis of actual traffic counts and established estimating procedures.
Vehicle-Miles (Transit) The total number of miles traveled by transit vehicles. Commuter rail, heavy rail, and light rail report individual car-miles, rather than train-miles for vehicle-miles.
Visioning A variety of techniques that can be used to identify goals.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) VOCs come from vehicle exhaust, paint thinners, solvents, and other petroleum-based products. A number of exhaust VOCs are also toxic, with the potential to cause cancer.
Waterborne Transportation Transport of freight and/or people by commercial vessels under U.S. Coast Guard jurisdiction.
Waybill A document that lists goods and shipping instructions relative to a shipment.
Zone The smallest geographically designated area for analysis of transportation activity. A zone can be from one to ten square miles in area. Average zone size depends on the total size of study area.

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