Skip to content U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway AdministrationU.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration
Office of Planning, Environment, & Realty (HEP)

Megaregions: Literature Review of the Implications for U.S. Infrastructure Investment and Transportation Planning

Section IV. Conclusion

Aitch, I. 2007. Megacity mix and match. Forum For The Future. Last accessed June 30, 2008, from

Amekudzi, A., L. Thomas-Mobley & C. Ross. 2007. Transportation Planning and Infrastructure Delivery in Major Cities and Megacities. Transportation Research Record, 17-23.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2007. Transportation Invest in Our Future: Future Needs of the U.S. Surface Transportation System.

American Lung Association. 2004. State of the Air: 2004. Last accessed March 26, 2008, from

Appalachian Regional Commission (a). ARC Members, Partners, and Staff. Retrieved February 7, 2008, from

Appalachian Regional Commission (b). Local Development Districts. Retrieved February 7, 2008, from

Appalachian Regional Commission (c). Moving Appalachia Forward: ARC Strategic Plan, 2005-2010. Retrieved February 7, 2008, from

Arizona State University. 2006. The Sun Corridor Seminar.

Arroyo, G. M. 2006. State of the Nation Address.

Arroyo, G. M. 2007. State of the Nation Address.

Longworth, R.C.. 2008. Can the Midwest regain its economic clout? Chicago Tribune January 6, 2008.

Baker, N. F. 1927. The Problem of the Metropolitan Area or Region. The University Journal of Business, 5(1), 35-52.

Banister, D. 2005. Unsustainable Transport: City transport in the new century. New York: Routledge.

Barnes, W.R. & L.C. Ledebur. 1998. The New Regional Economies: The U.S. Common Market and the Global Economy. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications, Inc.

Benedict, M.A. & E.T. McMahon. 2002. Green Infrastructure: Smart Conservation for the 21st Century. Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse Monograph Series. 31 pp. Washington, D.C.

Bressi, T. 1991, June. Round Three at the RPA. Planning, 57, 18-21.

Brown, L. A. & J. Holmes. 1971. The Delimitation of Functional Regions, Nodal Regions, and Hierarchies by Functional Distance Approaches. Journal of Regional Science, 11, 57-72.

Bullard, K. 2007. Economic Development Opportunities For U.S. Mega-Regions. (last accessed Feb. 28, 2008).

Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS). 2007. National Transportation Atlas Database. U.S. Department of Transportation.

Calthorpe, P. & W. Fulton. 2001. The Regional City: Planning for the End of Sprawl. Washington: Island Press.

Camagni, R., M.C. Gibelli & P. Rigamonti. 2002. Urban mobility and urban form: the social and environmental costs of different patterns of urban expansion. Ecological Economics, 40(2), 199-216.

Cambridge Systematics. 2005. Multistate Corridor Planning. NCHRP 8-36, Task 45.

Campbell, J. 1972. Growth Pole Theory, Digraph Analysis and Interindustry Relationships. Tijdschrift voor Econ. en Soc. Geografie, MAART/APRIL, 79-87.

Center for Quality Growth and Regional Development. 2006. Emerging MegaRegion Efforts.

China Automotive Industry Yearbook. 1985-2003. China Statistics Press.

Choe, S.-C. 1996. The Evolving Urban System in North-East Asia. In Emerging World Cities in Pacific Asia, eds. F.-c. Lo & Y.-m. Yeung. Tokyo-New York-Paris: United Nations University Press.

Chu, D. K. Y. 1996. The Hong Kong-Zhujiang Delta and the World City System. In Emerging World Cities in Pacific Asia, eds. F.-c. Lo & Y.-m. Yeung. Tokyo-New York-Paris: United Nations University Press.

Cisneros, H. 1996, December. Regionalism: The New Geography of Opportunity. Cityscape, 35-53.

Civic Alliance to Rebuild Downtown New York. Civic Alliance to Rebuild Downtown New York. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from

Clayton, C. 1974. Communication and Spatial Structure. Tijdschrift voor Econ. en Soc. Geografie, 65, 221-227.

Collier, C. R. 2007. River Basin Commissions: An Alternative to Interstate Water Wars. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from

Commission of the European Communities (CEC). 2006. Keep Europe moving--Sustainable mobility for our continent: Mid-term review of the European Commission's 2001 White Paper. Brussels: European Commission.

Contant, C., C. L. Ross, J. Barringer, C. Blengini, K. L. d. Nie, L. Lyman, E. Sundquist, K. Smith-Davids, L. Valletti, J. McQueen, K. Royal, E. Keysar & J. Lombard. 2005. The Piedmont Atlantic Megalopolis (PAM). In Working Paper Series. College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology.

Council of Europe. 1984. European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter (Torremolinos Charter), Strausbourg.

Cox, W. 2000. The Anti-Sprawl War on the Suburbs: False Diagnosis, Hopeless Policies. A Quarterly Publication of Public Policy in Texas, 1, 18-31.

Davoudi, S. 2003. Polycentricity in European Spatial Planning: From an Analytical Tool to a Normative Agenda. European Planning Studies, 11, 979-999.

Delgado, E., D. Epstein, Y. Joo, R. Mann, S. Moon, C. Raleigh, E. Rhodes & D. Rutzick. 2006a. Methods for Planning the Great Lakes MegaRegion. Ann Arbor: Urban and Regional Planning Program, University of Michigan.

Delgado, E., D. Epstein, Y. Joo, R. Mann, S. Moon, C. Raleigh, E. Rhodes & D. Rutzick. 2006b. Through a Wider Lens: Re-envisioning the Great Lakes MegaRegion. Ann Arbor: Urban and Regional Planning Program, The University of Michigan.

Démurger, S. 2001. Infrastructure Development and Economic Growth: An Explanation for Regional Disparities in China? Journal of Comparative Economics, 29, 95-117.

Derthick, M. 1974. Between State and Nation: Regional Organizations of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Dewar, M. & D. Epstein. 2007. Planning for "Megaregions" in the United States. Journal of Planning Literature, 22, 108-124.

Dietvorst, A. G. J. & E. Wever. 1977. Changes in The Pattern of Information Exchange in The Netherlands, 1967-1974. Tijdschrift voor Econ. en Soc. Geografie, 68, 72-82.

Douglass, M. 2000. Mega-urban Regions and World City Formation: Globalisation, the Economic Crisis and Urban Policy Issues in Pacific Asia. Urban Studies, 37, 2315-2335.

Dreier, P., J. Mollenkopf, & T. Swanstrom. 2001. Place Matters, Metropolitics for the Twenty-first Century. Kansas: University of Kansas Press. 2007, October 3. Asia. view: Credibility deficit. Retrieved February 26, 2008, from

Edgington, D., A. Fernandez, & V. Hoshino. 2001. New Regional Paradigms. Greenwood Press.

England, R. W. 2007. Motor fuel taxation, energy conservation, and economic development: A regional approach. Ecological Economics, 61(2-3), 409-416.

Ekbladh, D. 2002. "Mr. TVA": Grass-Roots Development, David Lilienthal, and the Rise and Fall of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a Symbol for U.S. Overseas Development, 1933-1973. Diplomatic History, 26(3), 335-374.

ESPON (European Spatial Planning Observation Network) 2006. Governance of Territorial and Urban Policies from EU to Local Level. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from .

ESRI. 2006. ESRI Data & Maps (GIS data).

European Commission. 2001. White paper -- European transport policy for 2010: time to decide. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

European Commission. 2005. Trans-European transport network: TEN-T priority axes and projects 2005. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Commission.

European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT). 2005. Trends in the Transport Sector 1970-2003.

Federal Highway Administration. 2008. The National Highway System. U.S. Department of Transportation. Last accessed April 17, 2008, from

Federal Highway Administration. 2007. NHS High Priority Corridors. U.S. Department of Transportation. Last accessed April 17, 2008, from

Federal Highway Administration. 2006a. Map: Congressional High Priority Corridors on the National Highway System. U.S. Department of Transportation.

Federal Highway Administration. 2006b. Map: Future Interstates on the National Highway System Designated by Section 1105 of ISTEA as amended (Congressional High Priority Corridors). U.S. Department of Transportation.

Federal Highway Administration. 2006c. Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) Version 2.2, User Guide: Commodity Origin-Destination Database: 2002-2035. U.S. Department of Transportation.

Federal Highway Administration. 2006d. The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) Commodity Origin-Destination Database.

Federal Highway Administration. 2001. Highway Statistics 2001. U.S. Department of Transportation.

Federal Highway Administration. 2000. Our Nation's Highways. U.S. Department of Transportation.

Federal Railroad Administration. 2005. Chronology of High-Speed Rail Corridors. Last accessed April 17, 2008, from

Federal Railroad Administration. 1997. High-Speed Ground Transportation for America. U.S. Department of Transportation.

Federal Register: February 14, 2007 (Volume 72, Number 30) / Rules and Regulations.

Forkenbrock, D. J. 2001. Comparison of external costs of rail and truck freight transportation. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 35(4), 321-337.

Fujita, M, P. Krugman, & A. Venables. 1999. The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade. Cambridge, MA. MIT Press.

Garreau, J. 1981. The Nine Nations of North America. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin.

Gauthier, H. L. 1973. The Appalachian Development Highway System: Development for Whom? Economic Geography, 49(2), 103-108.

Giuliano, G. & K. Small. 1991. Sub-centers in the Los Angeles Region. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 21, 163-182.

Glaeser, E. 2007. Do Regional Economies Need Regional Coordination? In The Economic Geography of Megaregions, ed. K. S. Goldfeld. The Policy Research Institute for the Region, Princeton University.

Glassman, H. 2005. MPOs: A Primer: Metroplan Orlando.

Goldman, T. & E. Deakin. 2000. Regionalism Through Partnerships? Metropolitan Planning Since ISTEA. Berkeley Planning Journal, 14, 46-75.

Gottmann, J. 1957. Megalopolis or the Urbanization of the Northeastern Seaboard. Economic Geography, 33, 189-200.

Government of the Philippines. 2006. Formation of the "Super" Regions and Mandate of the Superregional Development Champions, Executive Order No. 561.

Graham, J., B. Amos, T. Plumptre. 2003. Governance Policy Brief: Institute of Principles for Good Governance in the 21st century, Institute of Governance, Ottawa, No.15 .

Grant, D. R. 1955. The Government of Interstate Metropolitan Areas. The Western Political Quarterly, 8(1), 90-107.

Grazi, F. & J.C.J.M. van den Bergh. 2008. Spatial organization, transport, and climate change: Comparing instruments of spatial planning and policy. Ecological Economics, In Press, Corrected Proof.

Green, N. 2005. Towards a definition of polycentricity in terms of network theory, and the visualization of polycentricity using a GIS. Paper presented at the Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management conference, London, June 29—July 1. Retrieved on February 2, 2008. from

Green Highways Partnerships.

Gyourko, J., 1997. Regionalism: The Feasible Options — National Implications. [Online] Philadelphia, PA. Zell/Lurie Real Estate Center Working Paper Series. Available from:

Harding, A., S. Marvin, B. Robson. 2006. A Framework for City-Regions. London [e-book]. ODPM Publications. Available from: [cited: 16 October 2006]

Healey, P. 2004. The Treatment of Space and Place in the New Strategic Spatial Planning in Europe. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28.1, 45-67.

Hoover, E.M., 1971. An Introduction to Regional Economics. New York, NY. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Valencia, Spain.

Isard, W.,I. Azis,,R. Drennan, R.E. Miller, S. Saltzman, & E. Thorbecke. 1998. Methods of Interregional and Regional Analysis. Brookfiled USA : Ashgate Press.

Isserman, A. & T. Rephann. 1995. The Economic Effects of the Appalachian Regional Commission: An Empirical Assessment of 26 Years of Regional Development Planning. Journal of the American Planning Association, 61(3), 345-364.

Jensen, O. B. & T. Richardson. 2001. Nested Visions: New Rationalities of Space in European Spatial Planning. Regional Studies, Vol. 35.8, pp. 703-717.

Jones, C. 2007. Perspective on Freight Congestion. Public Roads, 71(1), Available from:

Kern County Council of Governments, San Diego Association of Governments & Southern California Association of Governments. 2005. The Southern California Mega-region: A Case Study of Global Gateway Regions: America's Third Century Strategy.

Kim, C. S. & M. Woo. 2000. The Hierarchy of Centers and Their Characteristics in Seoul. The Journal of Korea Planners Association, 35, 17-29.

Kipnis, B. A. 1985. Graph Analysis of Metropolitan Residential Mobility: Methodology and Theoretical Implications. Urban Studies, 22, 179-187.

Krizek, K., & Power, J. 1996. A Planners Guide to Sustainable Development: Planning Advisory Service Report 467. Chicago: American Planning Association.

Lambregts, B. 2002. Global city-region ambitions in the Netherlands: from Randstad to Deltametropolis. Paper presented at the ERSA 2002 Congress.

Lang, R. & P. K. Knox. 2008. The New Metropolis: Rethinking Megalopolis. Regional Studies, 41.

Lang, R. E. & D. Dhavale. 2005. Beyond Megalopolis: Exploring America's New "Megapolitan" Geography. In Metropolitan Institute Census Report Series.

Lee, B. 2007. "Edge" or "Edgeless" Cities? Urban Spatial Structure in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1980 To 2000. Journal of Regional Science, 47, 479-515.

Lepawsky, A. 1950. Water Resources and American Federalism. The American Political Science Review, 44(3), 631-649.

Levine, J. N. 2001. The Role of Economic Theory in Regional Advocacy. Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 16, No. 2.

Lin, G. C. S. 1999. State Policy and Spatial Restructuring in Post-reform China, 1978-95. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23(4), 670-696.

Luard, T. December 9,2003. Shanghai ends reign of the bicycle. . BBC News Online. . Retrieved February 27, 2008, from

Macleod, S. & T. G. McGee. 1996. The Singapore-Johore-Riau Growth triangle: An emerging extended metropolitan region. In Emerging World Cities in Pacific Asia, eds. F.-c. Lo & Y.-m. Yeung. Tokyo-New York-Paris: United Nations University Press.

McMillen, D. P. & J. F. McDonald. 1997. A Nonparametric Analysis of Employment Density in a Polycentric City. Journal of Regional Science, 37, 591-612.

McMillen, D. P. & J. F. McDonald. 1998. Suburban Subcenters and Employment Density in Metropolitan Chicago. Journal of Urban Economics, 43, 157-180.

McMillen, D. P. 2001. Nonparametric Employment Subcenter Identification. Journal of Urban Economics, 50, 448-473.

McQueen, M. & E.T. McMahon. 2003. Land Conservation Financing. Island Press. Washington, D.C.

Mehlbye, P. 2000. Global integration zones-Neighboring metropolitan regions in metropolitan clusters. Informationen zur Ramentwicklung, 11/12, 755-762.

Mertz, W. L. 2005. Our Cities Their Role in the National Economy. Retrieved from (last accessed February 12, 2008).

Mertz, W. L. 2006. Origins and Construction of the Interstate System. Retrieved from (last accessed January 29, 2008).

Metcalf, G. & E. Terplan. 2007. The Northern California Megaregion. In Urbanist, 4-25. San Francisco Planning & Urban Research (SPUR).

Meyer, M. D. 2007. Toward a Vision for the Nation's Surface Transportation System: Policies to Transcend Boundaries and Transition to a New Era. In The National Roundtable on Surface Transportation, 7-18. Tarrytown, New York: Regional Plan Association & Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Mintek. 2006. Detailed Profiles of Portfolio of Possible SDIs: NEPAD.

Muniz, I., G. Anna & M. A. Garcia. 2003. Cubic Spline Population Density Functions and Satellite City Delimitation: The Case of Barcelona. Urban Studies, 40, 1303-1321.

Nadin, V., 2002. Visions and Visioning in European Spatial Planning. In Faludi, Andreas. Ed., European Spatial Planning, Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Pp. 121-137.

National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission. 2007. Transportation for Tomorrow.

New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). 2006a, April 28. NEPAD in Brief. Retrieved February 26, 2008, from

New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). 2006b. An Indicative Assessment to Determine Prospects for a NEPAD Spatial Development Programme.

Nitoi, A. M. & C. Ilie. 2008. Road test: Romania's absence of motorways has been holding the country back from speeding up its progress. The Diplomat, 4.

NL/EU: from Randstad to Delta Metropolis. A contribution to the discussion of the cooperation in the Delta Metropolis by the Queen's Commissioners of the provinces of South Holland, North Holland, Utrecht and Flevoland and the mayors of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. 2001. Utrecht: Regio Randstad.

Nystuen, J. D. & M. F. Dacey. 1961. A Graph Theory Interpretation of Nodal Regions. Papers and Proceedings of The Regional Science Association, 7, 29-42.

O'Toole, Jr. & J. Laurence. (Ed.). 2000. American Intergovernmental Relations. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Office of the President of the Philippines. 2007. PGMA orders transfer of gov't agencies to super regions where they are needed most. Manila, Philippines.

Orfield, M. 2002a. American Metropolitics: The New Suburban Reality. Brookings Institution Press.

Orfield, M. 2002b. A Comparative Analysis of Segregation, Fiscal Inequality, and Sprawl, American Metropolitics: The New Suburban Reality, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, pp. 49-64.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2007. Randstad Holland, Netherlands: OECD Publishing.

Pabico, A. P. (2005, October 3-4). NIGHTMARE AT NORTH RAIL: Cost of Resettling 40,000 Families Deliberately Hidden. Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism.

Passenger Rail Working Group (PRWG). 2007. Vision for the Future: U.S. Intercity Passenger Rail Network through 2050.

Petit, T. 2002. The Socio-Economic Profile of the Randstad. Cahiers de l'IAURIF(135), 54-58.

Porter, M., 2001. Regions and the New Economics of Competition. In Scott, A.J. (Ed.). Global City-Regions: Trends, Theory, Policy. Oxford. Oxford University Press. Pp. 139-157.

Presidential Management Staff. 2007. 2007 State of the Nation Address: Technical Report. Manila, Philippines: Office of the President, Government of Philippines.

Puebla, J. G. 1987 Spatial Structures of Network Flows: A Graph Theoretical Approach. Transportation Research B, 21B, 489-502.

Puentes, R. 2008. A Bridge to Somewhere: Rethinking American Transportation for The 21st Century. Metropolitan Policy Program at the Brookings Institution.

Regio Randstad. 2004. Economic Strategy Randstad Holland.

Regio Randstad. 2007. Statistics: Randstad Holland in Europe.

Regional Plan Association. 2006. America 2050: A Prospectus. New York.

Regional Plan Association. 2007. Annual Report 2007.

Regional Plan Association. 2007. Northeast Megaregion 2050: A Common Future.

Ross, C. L., A. Amekudzi & J. R. Barringer. 2007. Mobility in the Megaregion. In 2007 Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Conference. Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Ross, J. F. L. 1998. Linking Europe: Transport Policies and Politics in the European Union. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

Salet, W., A. Thornley, & A. Kreukels. 2003a. Institutional and Spatial Coordination in European Metropolitan Regions. In W. Salet, Thornley, A, Kreukels, A. (Ed.). Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Planning Comparative Case Studies of European City-Regions. London. Spon Press. Pp. 3-19.

Salet, W., A. Thornley, A., & Kreukels. 2003b. Practices of Metropolitan Governance in Europe: Experiences and Lessons. In W. Salet, Thornley, A, Kreukels, A. (Ed.). Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Planning Comparative Case Studies of European City-Regions. London. Spon Press. Pp. 377-390.

San Francisco Planning Urban Research Association. 2007. Planning for the Northern California Megaregion.

Sanchez, T. W., & J.F. Wolf. 2005. Environmental Justice and Transportation Equity: A Review of Metropolitan Planning Organizations. Paper presented at the conference Racial Equity in Transportation: Establishing Priorities for Research and Policy.

Sassen, S. 1994. Cities in a World Economy. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Pine Forge Press.

Sassen, S. 2007. Megaregions: Benefits beyond Sharing Trains and Parking Lots? In The Economic Geography of Megaregions, ed. K. S. Goldfeld. The Policy Research Institute for the Region, Princeton University.

Schade, W. 2006. Assessing economic impacts of large-scale transport infrastructure projects: the case of the Lyon-Turin corridor. In Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting.

Schwieterman, J.P. & J. Scheidt. 2007. Survey of Current High-Speed Rail Planning Efforts in the United States. Transportation Research Record. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1995. Railways 2007. 27-34.

Seltzer, E., D. Chi, M. Coffman, S. Gao, D. Hale, T. Johnson, S. LoGiudice, M. Lustig, K. Lyman, L. McTighe, A. Owings, J. Recker, T. Reid & K. Voros. 2006. CASCADIA ECOLOPOLIS 2.0. the Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning, Portland State University.

Seltzer, E., S. Malik, T. Moes, J. Sladek, C. Smith, M. Steele, J. Swae, B. Vanneman, T. Wall, J. Wallace, L. Weigand, A. White & N. Wolters. 2005. Ecolopolis: Making the case for a Cascadian Supercity. Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning, Portland State University.

Shen, Q. 1997. Urban Transportation in Shanghai, China: Problems and Planning Implications. International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 21, 589-606.

Slater, R.E. 1996. The National Highway System: A Commitment to America's Future. Public Roads On-Line (spring 1996) 59 (4).

Smith, R. 2002. Freight Issues and Trends - An Upper Midwest Regional Perspective. Midwest Regional University Transportation Center.

South Florida Regional Planning Council. 2006. Demographic and Economic Characteristics of the South-Central Florida Mega-Region.

Southern Growth Policies Board. Regional Objectives. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from

Storm, E. 2004. Managing Randstad Holland. Paper presented at the 40th ISoCaRP Congress.

Swanstrom, T. 2001. What We Argue About When We Argue About Regionalism. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23(5), 479.

Synge, R. 2007. Infrastructure: New Connections. The Africa Report. No. 8, 116-120.

Tennessee Valley Authority. 2007. TVA at a Glance.

Tennessee Valley Authority. TVA Economic Development. Retrieved February 12, 2008, from

The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (2003) Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003 on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) Official Journal L 154, 1 - 41.

The U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Census 2000 Geographic Terms and Concepts.

Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (TRB). 2008. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation (Special Report). Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. (2006, August 27-29). Conference Proceedings 39: The Metropolitan Planning Organization, Present and Future. Washington, D.C.

Transrapid Nederland. Randstadrapid. Retrieved February 21, 2008, from

Taylor, W. R. 1938. Regionalism in Practice. The American Journal of Sociology, 44(3), 379-390.

University of Pennsylvania. 2005. Reinventing Megalopolis: The Northeast Megaregion. School of Design, Department of City and Regional Planning.

University of Pennsylvania. 2006. Uniting People, Places & System: Megalopolis Unbound. School of Design, Department of City and Regional Planning.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Decennial Census.

U.S. Congress. 1995. The Technological Reshaping of Metropolitan America, OTA-ETI-643, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Valley in the shadow of debt. (2003, July 17). The Economist.

van Dijk, T. M. 2005. Public transport for a competitive Randstad. Nyenrode Business University.

van Veen-Groot, D. B. & P. Nijkamp. 1999. Globalisation, transport and the environment: new perspectives for ecological economics. Ecological Economics, 31(3), 331-346.

Vicino, T. J., B. Hanlon & J. R. Short. 2007. Megalopolis 50 Years On: The Transformation of a City Region. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31, 344-367.

Wang, J. J., & B. Slack. 2004. Regional governance of port development in China: A case study of Shanghai International Shipping Center. Maritime Policy & Management, 31(4), 357-373.

Weiner, E. 1997. Urban Transportation Planning in the United States: An Historical Overview. U.S. Department of Transportation.

Weingroff, R. F. 2000. The Genie in the Bottle: The Interstate System and Urban Problems, 1939-1957. Public Roads, September/October.

Weitz, J., & Seltzer, E. 1998. Regional Planning and Regional Governance in the United States 1979-1996. Journal of Planning Literature, 12(3), 361-392.

Wheeler, Stephen M., 2002. The New Regionalism: Key Characteristics of an Emerging Movement. Journal of the American Planning Association. Vol. 68, No. 3.

Williams, R. (1996) European Spatial Policy and Planning. Paul Chapman Publishing, London.

Williamson, K. 2003. Growing With Green Infrastructure. Heritage Conservancy. Doylestown, PA.

Woo, M. 2007. Impacts of Urban Containment Policies on Urban Growth and Structure. In City and Regional Planning. Columbus: The Ohio State University.

Wu, F., & J. Zhang. 2007. Planning the Competitive City-Region: The Emergence of Strategic Development Plan in China. Urban Affairs Review, 42, 714-740.

Xu, J., & A.G.O. Yeh. 2005. City Repositioning and Competitiveness Building in Regional Development: New Development Strategies in Guangzhou, China. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(2), 283-308.

Yang, J. 2006. Transportation Implications of Land Development in a Transitional Economy: Evidence from Housing Relocation in Beijing, China. Journal of Transportation Research Board, 1954, 7-14.

Yang, J., C. Feng & G. Cao. 2007. Land and Transportation Development in China: An Economic Analysis of Government Behavior. Journal of Transportation Research Board, 2038, 78-8.

Yoder, S. 2006. presentation material for Detroit River International Crossing Study. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Resource Center.

Zhang, M., F. Steiner & K. Butler. 2007. Connecting the Texas Triangle: Economic Integration and Transportation Coordination. In The Healdsburg Research Seminar on Megaregions, 21-36. Healdsburg, California: Regional Plan Association & Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Zhang, T. 2006. From Intercity Competition to Collaborative Planning: The Case of the Yangtze River Delta Region of China. Urban Affairs Review, 42(1), 26-56.

Updated: 1/31/2017
HEP Home Planning Environment Real Estate
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000