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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
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This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information

Publication Number: FHWA-RD-03-048
Date: September 2003

Effects of Geosynthetic Reinforcement Spacing on The Behavior of Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

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Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, 1998.

Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls (MSEW), Version 1.1, ADAMA Engineering, Inc., Newark, DE, 1998.

Bathurst, R.J. and Hatami, K., Seismic Response Analysis of a Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Retaining Wall, Geosynthetic International, 1998, Vol. 5, No. 1–2, pp. 127–166.

Bathurst, R.J. and Hatami, K., Earthquake Response Analysis of Reinforced-Soil Walls Using FLAC, FLAC and Numerical Modeling in Geomechanics, Detournay, C. and Hart, R., Eds., Proceedings of the International FLAC Symposium on Numerical Modeling in Geomechanics, Minneapolis, MN, 1999, pp. 407–415.

Bathurst, R.J. and Cai, Z., Pseudo-Static Seismic Analysis of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Retaining Walls, Geosynthetics International, 1995, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 787–831.

Clark, I., personal communications, 1999–2000.

Das, B.M., 1999, Principles of Foundation Engineering, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 862 pp.

Elias, V. and Christopher, B.R., Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Steep Slopes, Design and Construction Guidelines, Federal Highway Administration Demonstration Project 82, Report No. FHWA–SA–96–071, Washington, DC, 1997.

Hatami, K. and Bathurst, R.J., Frequency Response Analysis of Reinforced-Soil Retaining Walls, Proceedings of the 8th Canadian Conference of Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, 1999, pp. 341–346.

Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC), Version 3.40, Itasca Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, 1998.

Lee, W.F., Distributions of Lateral Earth Pressure and Reinforcement Tension Inside the Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Retaining Walls, Conference Proceedings of Geosynthetics 1999, Boston, MA, 1999, Volume 2, pp. 651–660.

Lee, W.F., personal communications, 1999.

Leshchinsky, D., Kaliakin, V., Bose, P., and Collin, J., Failure Mechanism in Geogrid-Reinforced Segmental Walls: Experimental Implications, Soils and Foundations, (Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering), 1994, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 33–41.

Leshchinsky, D., Design Procedures for Geosynthetic Reinforced Steep Slopes, Technical Report REMR–GT–23, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC, 1997.

Leshchinsky, D., Stability of Geosynthetic Reinforced Steep Slopes, Keynote lecture, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Slope Stability Engineering IS-Shikoku 1999, Japan, 1999, Volume I, Yagi, N., Yamagami, T., and Jiang, J.C., Eds., Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 49–66.

Ling, H.I., Cardany, C.P., Sun, L-X., and Hashimoto, H., Finite Element Study of a Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Retaining Wall with Concrete-Block Facing,Geosynthetics International, 2000, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 137–162.

Earth Retaining Structures, Reference Manual, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-NHI-99-015, Washington, DC, 1999.

Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 2, Earth Retaining Systems, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-SA-96-038, Washington, DC, 1996.

Wong, K.S., and Duncan, J.M., 1974, Hyperbolic Stress-Strain Parameters for Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Stresses and Movements in Soil Masses, National Science Foundation, Report No. TE–74–3, 1974, 90 p.



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