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The research that addresses the possible safety and distraction effects of outdoor advertising billboards has been extensive and long standing. Dating back to the 1930s, this research reached a peak in the 1950s and 1960s. Research continued at low ebb through the 1980s, and then all but ceased. With the advent of newer billboard technologies (e.g., lamp matrix, rotating disc, tri-vision, and, most recently, LED) and with the corresponding questions raised by regulators, safety researchers, and the public, research has increased again since the turn of the century. These newer billboard technologies, especially the LED technology, ushered in the increasing use of CEVMS for on-premise and off-premise advertising. The current research focuses on information that has become available since the publication of the most recent FHWA report, but it also includes earlier relevant studies not previously identified.(1) The present review is organized into five major categories according to the research context for the study: post-hoc crash studies, field investigations, laboratory investigations, previous literature reviews, and reviews of practice. The categories that contain empirical data have a brief discussion of potential methodological problems inherent in the types of studies characteristic of that category.
Post-hoc crash studies review police traffic collision reports or statistical summaries of such reports to understand the causes of crashes that have taken place in the vicinity of some change to the roadside environment. In the present case, the change of concern is the introduction of CEVMS to the roadside or the replacement of conventional billboards with CEVMS.
A number of studies have been conducted over the years using the crash methodology. Three such studies were not reviewed in prior FHWA studies. In a study similar to that conducted in the 1970s in Massachusetts, the Freeway Operations Unit of the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) analyzed bidirectional crashes on I-94 near an electronic billboard with a 5.0 s message dwell time.(3,4) Crash rate data were collected for 3 years prior to and 3 years after sign operation began. For eastbound traffic, total crashes increased 36 percent over the 3 year post operational period compared to the baseline preoperational condition. In addition, side-swipe crashes increased 8 percent, and rear-end crashes increased 21 percent. For westbound traffic, total crashes increased 21 percent, sideswipe crashes increased 35 percent, and rear-end crashes increased 35 percent. The authors of the WisDOT study concluded that, "it is obvious that the variable message sign has had an effect on traffic, most notably in the increase of the side-swipe rate" (p. 3).(4)
Stutts et al. conducted an analysis of several crash data reporting systems to identify major sources of driver distraction and the relative importance of different types of distraction as contributing factors in motor vehicle crashes.(5) Distraction was described as one form of inattention, and it has been implicated as a factor in more than half of the police reported inattention crashes identified by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration.(6) In this study, 8.3 percent of drivers involved in police-reported crashes were identified as distracted, but 35.9 percent of these crashes were coded as "unknown." For this and other reasons, it is believed that the reported percentage of distraction-related crashes substantially under-represents the true statistics.(5) Among the types of distractions coded in the database, the largest contributor (29.4 percent) was "outside person, object, or event," and the second largest (25.6 percent) was "other."
Smiley et al. studied the relationship between video advertising signs and motor vehicle crashes at downtown intersections and on the freeway.(7) Crash data were analyzed from three intersections before and after the introduction of video advertising signs. When the three intersections were evaluated individually, two demonstrated increases in both total and rear-end crashes; the third showed no significant increase in such crashes. The authors believe that the lack of statistical significance may be due to the small number of crashes identified. For the freeway environment, crash data on the video approach was compared to crash data for three non-video approaches, one of which was deemed the most comparable (control) segment. For this comparison, the authors report a negligible increase in injury collision crash frequencies on the video approach.
Following the design of their earlier study on conventional billboards, Tantala and Tantala analyzed police accident reports in the vicinity of seven digital billboards on interstate highways near Cleveland, OH.(8) Both their current and earlier studies were sponsored by the outdoor advertising industry. Reported crashes were analyzed for a period of 18 months prior to and after the conversion of these billboards from conventional to digital. They found essentially no statistically significant differences in crash rates before and after the conversion.
Unfortunately, all post-hoc crash studies are subject to certain weaknesses, most of which are difficult to overcome. For example, the vast majority - more than 80 percent in one study - of accidents are never reported to police; thus, such studies are likely to underreport crashes. Also, when crashes are caused by factors such as driver distraction or inattention, the involved driver may be unwilling or unable to report these factors to a police investigator. Another weakness is that police, under time pressure, are rarely able to investigate the true root causes of crashes unless they involve serious injury, death, or extensive property damage. Furthermore, to have confidence in the results, researchers need to collect comparable data in such studies before and after the change and in the after phase at equivalent but unaffected roadway sections. Last, since crashes are infrequent events, data collection needs to span extended periods of time, both before and after introduction of the change. Few studies are able to obtain such extensive data. For a more specific analysis of some possible design and methodological concerns with the study by Tantala and Tantala, see Wachtel.(8,9)
The spectrum of field investigations related to roadway safety is broad. It includes unobtrusive observation, naturalistic driving studies, on-road instrumented vehicle investigations, test track experiments, driver interviews, surveys, and questionnaires. Klauer et al., in one of several papers to emerge from a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) project known as the "100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study," provides preliminary information about the role of driver inattention in crashes and near-crashes.(10) Although the study did not specifically address CEVMS, it represents an important methodology for investigating driver distraction. Their results show that 78 percent of crashes and 65 percent of near-crashes included driver inattention and/or distraction as a contributing factor. This contribution from inattention and distraction is larger, by a factor of three, than previous research has indicated. The authors believe that the "100-Car Study" provides the first direct link (i.e., without reliance on crash surrogate measures) showing distraction/inattention as a contributing factor to motor vehicle crashes. In another variant of the "100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study," Klauer et al. identifies four specific unsafe behaviors that contributed to crashes and near-crashes.(11) One of these, inattention and/or distraction, is of direct relevance to the present project. This term is operationally defined by Klauer et al. as a driver looking away from the forward roadway for greater than 2.0 s. Under these conditions, the odds of a crash or near-crash are nearly twice those than when the driver attends to the forward roadway. The study stresses the importance of including near-crashes in the database for two reasons. First, the kinematics of crashes and near-crashes are similar, meaning they involved comparable levels of driver emergency actions, such as swerving and hard braking. Second, 83 percent of the crashes in this study were not reported to the police. Thus, the study indicates that relying on crash statistics alone will substantially underreport crashes due to inattention and/or distraction.
Lee, McElheny, and Gibbons undertook an on-road instrumented vehicle study on interstate and local roads near Cleveland, OH.(12) The project, conducted on behalf of the outdoor advertising industry, looked at driver eye glance behavior toward digital billboards, conventional billboards, comparison sites (sites with buildings and other signs, including digital signs), and control sites (those without similar signage). Performance measures, such as speed maintenance and lane keeping, were also recorded. Although the major data collection was done in daylight, a small pilot study was conducted at night. One of the key questions that the study sought to answer was whether longer glances consisting of over 1.6 s were associated more with any of the event types.(12) This question is based on findings from various studies, including the "100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study," which indicates that longer glances away from the road are associated with higher crash rates.(13) In discussing their results, the authors state, "...the distributions of glance duration were similar across all event types, and there was no obvious pattern of longer glances being associated with any of the event types" (p. 59).(13) The findings from the nighttime pilot study led to, "the overall conclusion, supported by both the eye glance results and the questionnaire results, that the digital billboards seem to attract more attention than the conventional billboards and baseline sites (as shown by a greater number of spontaneous comments regarding the digital billboards and by longer glances in the direction of these billboards" (p. 10).(13) However, in view of the small number of participants, these data were not analyzed. The authors suggest that at least some of these findings, "would show statistical significance" if a larger study were to be conducted (p. 64).(13)
Beijer, Smiley, and Eizenman, working on behalf of the Government of Toronto, Canada, evaluated driver eye glances toward four different types of roadside advertising signs on roads in the Toronto, Canada area.(14) The study employed an on-road instrumented vehicle approach with a head-mounted eye-tracking device. Active signs - all but traditional billboards - consistently received longer glances and more total glances than fixed signs. The study found that 22 percent of all glances were defined as long or greater than 0.75 s. Since 22 of the 25 subjects made at least one long glance at an advertising sign, the authors conclude that, "distraction...was not just an isolated incidence" (p. 101).(14) The authors suggest that active signs may result in greater distraction than past studies of the effects of commercial signing might indicate.
After a previous study raised concerns about the number and duration of glances made to video advertising signs along an expressway in Toronto, Canada, Smiley et al. conducted another study at the request of the city government.(7,15) Five different measures were taken, including eye movements, traffic conflicts, traffic speed and headway, crash data, and public surveys. The crash data results were described earlier. The results from the other measures were mixed. All of the video signs attracted attention; the probability of a driver's looking at such a sign upon approach was nearly 50 percent. The average glance duration was 0.5 s, similar to those for official traffic signs. However, one-fifth of the video sign glances lasted longer than 0.75 s, and some lasted as long as 1.47 s, which were considered unsafe amounts of time. About 38 percent of glances at the video billboards were made when headways were 1.0 s or less, and 25 percent of the glances took place when the signs were more than 20º off the line-of-sight. These glances were also considered to be unsafe. According to the study, glances at static billboards and bus shelter ads were made at even greater angles and shorter headways.
It is noteworthy that the earlier study that led to this research, also evaluating a video billboard on an expressway in Toronto, Canada, produced dramatically different results. This study found five times the number of glances per subject and three times the glance duration than did the later 2004 study.(15) Smiley et al. attribute these differences to the longer sight distance available for the sign in the earlier study, the uninterrupted view, and the location of this sign on a curve.(7)
Smiley et al. also employed safety surrogate measures of conditions which might be precursors of a possible crash.(7) The study measured these safety surrogate indicators by means of the unobtrusive observation method. The drivers of the vehicles were not aware that they were being observed. In this context, the study measured traffic conflicts, vehicle speed, and vehicle headway. When comparing video and non-video approaches at the same intersection, at one intersection the authors found no differences in traffic conflicts; however, at the other, they found a significant increase in drivers who applied their brakes without cause on the video approach. Given the comparability of sites, they concluded, "the only reason that could be found for increased braking...was the presence of the video sign" (p. 108).(7) The speed and headway data were inconclusive.
In addition, Smiley et al. employed a "public" survey method to determine whether video advertising might be considered to have "a negative effect on traffic safety" (p. 110).(7) Participants in the survey were approached at three intersection sites which had video advertising. Of the 152 persons surveyed at the 3 locations, 65 percent felt that video advertising signs had a negative effect on the ability of a driver to attend to pedestrians and cyclists. Furthermore, 59 percent of the people said that as drivers, their attention was drawn to such signs, while 49 percent of those felt that such signs had a negative effect on traffic safety. A surprisingly large number of people - 9 out of 152 - stated that they personally had experienced near-crashes, and 2 had experienced actual rear-end crashes that they associated with video advertising signs. In addition, 86 percent of the respondents suggested that restrictions should be placed on those types of signs, such as their locations and brightness.
Three of the field investigations of CEVMS effects mentioned earlier employ indirect measures of driver attention (eye glances) in the context of an on-road instrumented vehicle experimental approach. Although CEVMS stimuli are real, the experimental approach suffers from a degree of artificiality in its implementation. The research participants usually drive in an experimental vehicle along a route which is contrived for experimental purposes, and the route does not serve a useful purpose in their daily lives. The research participants sometimes drive with an experimenter present in the instrumented vehicle, and they sometimes wear a head-mounted eye-tracking device. Two of the three studies cited used a somewhat intrusive but more accurate head-mounted eye-tracking device. One study used a less obtrusive but also less accurate vehicle-mounted eye-tracking device, where cameras were mounted in the vehicle cab. Although the research participants were not told the purpose of the investigation, the participants were definitely aware that they were participating in a driving experiment of some kind, and they may not have exhibited entirely natural behaviors as a result. Furthermore, eye glance behavior is difficult to measure, and it is not easy to relate directly to attention and distraction. For a more specific analysis of some further design and methodological concerns with the Lee et al. study cited above, see Wachtel.(12,9)
The unobtrusive observation method employed in the field by Smiley et al. to collect safety surrogate measures of potential crashes (e.g., sudden braking, inadequate headway, etc.) does not create an artificial environment for the driver.(7) Usually, the sensing devices (loop detectors, remote cameras, or posted human observers) are hidden in the environment, and they are not noticed by the drivers. There is no problem of artificiality; the drivers in the study are not even aware that they are part of a study. However, the safety surrogate variables being measured are usually infrequent, often multicausal, comparatively subtle, and difficult to measure. For CEVMS, these variables can also occur over great distances, adding to the difficulty in accurately and reliably capturing data relating to these variables.
Finally, the public survey method employed by Smiley et al. collected the opinions, attitudes, and feelings of passersby at intersections with video advertising signs.(7) The results, while interesting as a measure of public sentiment, are difficult to relate to the basic research question of determining whether there are any significant distraction effects or concrete safety concerns with regards to CEVMS used for outdoor advertising.
Laboratory investigations related to roadway safety can be classified into several categories: driving simulations, non-driving simulator laboratory testing, and focus groups.
For one such investigation, a non-driving simulator laboratory testing environment was used.(16) For this study, researchers filmed a 27 minute drive and had 200 licensed drivers view the film while their eye movements were recorded. Billboards generated greater levels of visual attention than suggested by measures of recall. Billboards were viewed by individuals whether they were in the "target" audience or not and regardless of whether the billboard was of high or low interest. In addition, billboards located close to official highway signs received more attention than those that were farther away.
In a driving simulation laboratory, Crundall et al. compared street level advertisements (SLAs), such as those on bus shelters, to raised level advertisements (RLAs), which include elevated ads on poles or streetlights.(17) The study was based on the understanding that, in undemanding situations, drivers have spare attentional capacity; however, when cognitive demands increase, spare capacity diminishes. As a result, eye movements must focus on the driving task at hand. Based on their prior research, Crundall et al. believe that if an advertisement is within the driver's visual field during a search for hazards, it will attract visual fixations and distract attention needed to safely perform the driving task.(17) Because the most relevant information for hazard detection is distributed along a horizontal plane, the authors believe that the majority of visual fixations will fall within this plane when the driver is looking for driving-relevant information. Thus, if an advertisement is located within this window, it will receive more fixations than will advertisements located outside this window. The principal research hypotheses tested were that during conditions when drivers were looking for hazards, SLAs would receive the most attention. When spare capacity was greater, the attention given to RLAs would increase. The results supported these hypotheses. A post-drive survey showed that SLAs were judged more hazardous than RLAs.
Young and Mahfoud used a driving simulator in which subjects drove three routes in the presence and absence of billboards.(18) The presence of billboards adversely affected driving performance in terms of lateral control and crashes. Billboards also had an adverse impact on driver attention in terms of the number of glances made to them, and they were associated with a higher subjective mental workload. In addition, the recall of official road signs was adversely affected by billboards, which the authors interpreted to mean that drivers were attending to billboards instead of relevant road signs. The authors reached a "persuasive overall conclusion that advertising has adverse effects on driving performance and driver attention" (p. 18).(18)
In a recent study using a driving simulator, Chan and her colleagues compared the impacts of in-vehicle versus external-to-vehicle distractors on performance of inexperienced versus experienced drivers.(19) The authors were particularly concerned with young, novice drivers because of the elevated crash risk for this segment of the driving population. They were also concerned because the researchers believed that distraction could adversely affect the novice drivers' poorly developed hazard detection and avoidance skills. Chan et al. theorized that external distraction may be more harmful than internal distraction because when drivers are looking within the vehicle, it should be obvious to them that they are not processing relevant roadway information. However, when drivers are looking at sources outside the vehicle, it is likely that the forward roadway is still somewhere within the field of view. Thus, it may not be obvious to drivers (particularly inexperienced drivers) that this important information is not being fully processed since it is peripheral, unattended, or both.
Chan et al. were primarily interested in the longest glances away from the forward roadway since these have been implicated in prior studies (e.g., Horrey and Wickens(20)) as major contributors to crashes. Thus, they used as their dependent measure the maximum time that drivers spent continuously looking away from the forward roadway during a specific distraction task. In terms of in-vehicle distractors, as hypothesized, inexperienced drivers showed a consistent pattern of looking away from the roadway for longer periods of time than experienced drivers. However, the findings about external distractions were quite different and unexpected in two key ways. There was very little difference in the duration of distraction episodes between the experienced and inexperienced drivers, and the maximum distraction durations were significantly longer for the out-of-vehicle tasks than for the in-vehicle tasks. The two experience groups showed little differences in the percentage of distraction episodes longer than 2.0 s, 2.5 s, and 3.0 s, in all cases longer for the external than for the in-vehicle distractors. The study also demonstrated that, "drivers are more willing to make extended glances external to the vehicle than internal to the vehicle" (p. 17).(19) Chan et al. conclude that, "it is likely that our out-of-vehicle tasks (which not only engage attention but also draw the eyes and visual attention away from in front of the vehicle) would have quite significant detrimental effects on processing the roadway in front of the vehicle" (p. 22).(19)
Three of the laboratory investigations of possible distraction effects mentioned above employ indirect measures of driver attention (eye glances) in the context of a driving simulation experimental approach. The interactive driving simulator approach offers considerable experimental control over stimulus parameters, like the size, number, proximity, and change rate of CEVMS or other advertising display. The simulator is also well suited for executing parametric studies of the effects of these variables on possible driver distraction. However, the approach suffers from all of the sources of artificiality found in the on-road instrumented vehicle approach for conducting field research mentioned earlier. Also, the approach adds the important source of virtual driving as opposed to real driving. Although the vehicle cab of the driving simulator may have certain degrees of motion (pitch, roll, heave, etc.) to enhance the sense of virtual driving, the vehicle cab does not move down the roadway. The visual scene passes by while the driver and vehicle remain stationary. This degree of artificiality requires considerable adaptation on the part of the research participants, most of whom need some amount of training to become accustomed to the differences between driving in a simulator and driving on a real road. Moreover, in the case of CEVMS, present driving simulators do not have sufficient visual dynamic range, image resolution, and contrast ratio capability to produce the compelling visual effect of a bright, photo-realistic LED-based CEVMS on a natural background scene.
One laboratory investigation had research participants watch films of driving scenes containing billboards while their eye movements were being recorded.(16) This study represents an example of a non-driving simulator laboratory method. It suffers from all of the aforementioned limitations of laboratory CEVMS or billboard research. In addition, it does not measure the participants' response while engaged in a driving task.
Garvey summarizes the literature on sign visibility, legibility, and conspicuity on behalf of the advertising industry.(21) One of his recommendations bears on the issue of distraction from billboards. He suggests that signs need not be detectable at distances greater than the minimum required legibility distance. Specifically, he states, "if a sign is detected before it is legible, the driver will take numerous glances at the sign in attempts to read it" before it becomes legible, and "these momentary diversions are inefficient and potentially dangerous" (p. 1).(21)
Cairney and Gunatillake, working on behalf of the Government of Victoria, Australia, undertook a review of the literature with the goal of generating recommendations for guidelines for the control of outdoor advertising in that State.(22) They cited two prior reviews by Wachtel and Netherton in the United States and by Andreassen in Australia as the basis of their review.(2,23) Since these earlier studies, the technology used for the display of roadside advertising and the addition of in-vehicle distractors has changed. Cairney and Gunatillake conclude that the principal concern remains the effects that a sign may have on a driver's visibility of other road users, the roadway, and traffic control devices, particularly at high-demand locations, such as interchanges. They suggest several research approaches, including case studies, site investigations, and laboratory simulations to address these newer technologies. They conclude that the best of the studies conducted to date demonstrate that when all confounding variables are controlled statistically, sites with advertising signs have higher crash rates than sites without them. However, large, well-controlled studies will be required to detect significant effects because the effect size is small. They further conclude that changeable message signs may have a more direct bearing on crash rate than static signs. The findings of the study suggest that unregulated roadside advertising has the capability of creating a significant safety problem. The conclusions from their review run counter to Andreassen's conclusion that, "there is no current evidence to say that advertising signs, in general, are causing accidents" (p. 4).(23)
On behalf of the Scottish government, Wallace undertook the most extensive and critical review of the literature since the two earlier FHWA studies.(24) The study concludes that driver distraction from attention-getting sources can occur even when the driver is concentrating on the driving task. Furthermore, there is abundant evidence that billboards can function as distractors, particularly in areas of visual clutter. Billboards can distract in "low information" settings, and distraction from external factors is likely to be underreported and underrepresented in crash databases.
The Dutch National Road Safety Research Institute reviewed the recent literature for the Dutch authorities and emphasized some of the stronger, more consistent points made in other studies, such as billboards should not be placed near challenging road settings, especially at or near intersections. Also, they should not resemble official traffic signs in pattern or color.(25) Furthermore, dynamic signs that display motion or include moving parts should not be permitted. A key conclusion was that, "precisely in a dangerous situation it is important for the driver to have his attention on the road; an advertising billboard can slow the driver's reaction time, which increases the chance of a crash" (p. 2).(25)
The WisDOT sponsored a study which summarizes available information about the safety impacts of outdoor electronic billboards and tri-vision signs.(26) Similar to Crundall, et al. and Wallace, the authors of this study determined that greater visual complexity associated with a high-volume location, such as intersections, required drivers to search the environment more than at lower-volume locations.(17,26) The authors stated, "it can be conjectured that additional visual stimuli such as billboards may add additional demand to driver workload in high-volume intersections" (p. 6).(26)
Bergeron, on behalf of the Government of Quebec, Canada, re-reviewed many of the studies originally examined by Wachtel and Netherton and added reviews of several studies conducted subsequent to 1980.(2,27) His findings and conclusions, similar to those of other researchers, indicate that attentional resources needed for the driving task are diverted by the irrelevant information presented on advertising signs. This distraction leads to degradation in oculomotor performance, which adversely affects reaction time and vehicle control capability. The study concludes that when the driving task imposes substantial attentional demands that might occur on a heavily traveled, high-speed urban freeway, billboards can create an attentional overload that can have an impact on micro and macroperformance requirements of the driving task.
Bergeron also performed a site review at a major elevated expressway in Montreal, Canada, which was proposed for two future billboards.(28) By reviewing the scene and considering various parameters such as traffic volumes, road geometry, and traffic control devices, Bergeron concludes that this 1.1 km section was already causing excessive cognitive demands, particularly for the many unfamiliar drivers. He concluded that the billboards would be inadvisable for several reasons. First, the location creates a substantial demand on drivers' mental workloads because of its complex geometry, heavy traffic, high traffic speeds, merging and diverging traffic, and the presence of signs and signals that require drivers to make rapid decisions. Also, at the perceptual level, the billboards would add confusion to the visual environment, thus impairing drivers' visual search, tracking, and reaction time. In addition, at an attention level, billboards could distract drivers. Last, the billboards could add to a driver's mental workload in a setting where workload is already quite high. In a road situation such as this one, Bergeron concludes that the billboard is a "useless drain on limited attentional resources" (p. 5), and it could lead to reduced performance through inattention errors by overloading the driver's information processing abilities.(28) du Toit and Coetzee address the current regulatory process for advertising signs visible from national roads.(29) The authors report that the South African government engages in careful scrutiny of proposed advertising signs before they are approved for use. All applications receive a desktop review followed by a site visit. If a decision cannot be made at this point, the authorities evaluate crash statistics for the proposed location to determine that if it is hazardous. Key questions asked as part of the review include the following:
A clear system exists in South Africa that requires certain spacing between road signs, particularly those that are close to interchanges; proposed advertising signs must fit within the parameters. This system, as codified in the South African Road Traffic Signs Manual (SARTSM), is intended, "to allow adequate time for the driver to read, interpret and react on the information on the road sign" (p. 7).(29) The authors report that for a recent review period, 86.7 percent of all applications were rejected. Of those, 40.8 percent were rejected because the advertisement was too close to existing road signs, 20 percent were rejected because the sign disrupted the flow of information to the driver, and 7.5 percent were rejected because the sign was too close to a ramp gore.
As a result of his work cited immediately above, Coetzee reviewed literature, performed a regulatory analysis, and recommended changes to regulations for outdoor advertising control in South Africa.(30) Although superficially similar to regulations in the United States, billboard control in South Africa goes much further, regulating the design and amount of information (in bits) that can be displayed on a given sign, as well as the proximity of two or more advertising signs to one another and to road features, such as official signs and interchanges. In South Africa, message sequencing, visual clutter, and sign size are restricted for different display technologies. This document includes a description of the terms critical event and critical zone, and it demonstrates how regulations would control advertising signs in these applications. Coetzee finds support from the earlier work of Ogden and the experiments of Johnston and Cole, concluding that, whereas drivers may be able to ignore advertisements when the driving task requires attention, it is possible that an attention-getting sign can assume primary importance and interfere with not only any spare capacity that a driver might have but also the information processing capacity reserved for primary task performance.(31,32) The danger arises, according to Coetzee, when processing the information on the advertisement interferes with the driver's principal vehicle control task in situations that demand attention and rapid reactions.(30) The Coetzee report is the only work in the present review of the literature that has attempted to establish the parameters of billboard location and content based on theories of information processing and cognitive demand.
The basic research question being addressed in the present report is whether the presence of CEVMS used for outdoor advertising is associated with a reduction in driving safety for the public. When regarded from a scientific perspective, the present literature review does not provide an adequate answer to this question. The studies reviewed are inconclusive.
The present literature review reveals a disjointed array of isolated studies revealing sometimes contradictory and inconclusive results. Some studies show statistically significant driver safety concerns or distraction effects, but not all levels of distraction have negative safety impacts. Some studies go one step further and compare a statistically significant distraction with a criterion level of distraction claimed to represent the threshold of negative safety performance. This approach represents a substantial improvement, but it depends heavily upon the veridicality of the chosen criterion level of distraction. Other studies show no statistically significant safety or distraction effects at all, or they show mixed results. Some studies which show no statistically significant safety or distraction effects have been demonstrated to have serious flaws in their experimental and/or statistical designs. These studies are often plagued with two intrinsic methodological problems. First, they may not have sufficient measurement accuracy and precision to distinguish CEVMS distraction from noise in the data. Second, they may not have sufficient statistical power to reveal a small but important distraction effect which may really exist; i.e., they have not sampled enough events, drivers, or conditions to demonstrate an effect which may be obscured by variability due to sampling. In summary, from the perspective of strict statistical hypothesis testing, the present literature review is inconclusive with regard to demonstrating a possible relationship between driver safety and CEVMS exposure. From this perspective, the more stringent restrictions on the placement of billboards found in other countries might be regarded as a conservative precautionary measure, erring on the side of protecting public health from a possible but unproven threat and not as a response to an established driving safety hazard. That is not to say that such a conservative approach is inappropriate, but it should be acknowledged as such.
The present literature review does reveal a preponderance in the number of studies (5:1) which show some driver safety effects due to traditional billboards and CEVMS in comparison with the number of studies that show no driver safety effects at all due to these stimuli. In addition, four other studies show mixed results. Three lists were prepared below to demonstrate this outcome. These lists included only empirical research studies, regardless of the methodology employed. Studies that reviewed literature or practice were not included unless they also contained an original research component. Studies previously reviewed in the earlier FHWA projects were also not included.
The following research studies reported potential adverse safety effects for all dependent measures:
The research study by Tantala and Tantala(8) reported no adverse safety effect on any dependent measure.
The following research studies reported potential adverse safety effects using some dependent measures and no effects using other dependent measures:
Such an outcome could lead one to conclude that there is more evidence for a possibly meaningful negative safety impact than evidence against such an impact. This conclusion is not warranted for at least two reasons. First, a simple tally of the number of studies which support a given research hypothesis compared with the number of studies which do not support the hypothesis may be misleading. Such a tally neglects to weight the various studies for their intrinsic strength of experimental design, statistical power, and care of execution. One strong landmark study with a robust experimental design and a sufficiently large sample of cases or drivers can topple a host of weaker investigations with fewer credentials. Yet, credentialing and weighting studies can become a subtle and subjective matter. It is difficult to judge studies on their relative strengths because it requires experience and judgment. While it may be relatively easy to identify the champion study and give that study a strong weighting, it is more difficult to evaluate the weaker studies at the middle and bottom of the list.
Second, there is a strong propensity in scientific research to search for differences. The current Western model of reductionist scientific inquiry, coupled with its reliance on the paradigm of parametric statistics, is aligned against supporting the null hypothesis. This hypothesis states that there are no observed differences between two or more different treatments, i.e., that matters under scientific scrutiny are due to chance. This propensity to search for differences is so strong that when anticipated results are small or subtle, researchers often seek out conditions in nature that are worst case examples to find any affect at all. This causes the results to suffer from a lack of generalization when the entire population becomes the frame of reference. Thus, the present literature review acknowledges a possible natural and intrinsic bias toward including more studies that show a possible distraction effect of CEVMS exposure than studies that do not. Once these two considerations are recognized - a lack of weightings for comparing studies and a propensity to emphasize differences - the present literature review realigns to its original inconclusive outcome. In summary, present scientific techniques are not adapted to providing proof that CEVMS do not distract drivers; they only afford opportunities to demonstrate that they do distract drivers and possibly to what extent. If the demonstrated extent of distraction is minor and below the accepted criterion to interfere with safe driving, then the safety impact may be considered negligible.
The inconclusive literature review findings suggest the need for carefully controlled and methodologically sound investigations of the relationships between CEVMS, driver distraction, and safety. The review also suggests several factors that need to be considered in future research. One plausible model posits that drivers often have spare attentional capacity, and they can afford to divert their visual attention away from the driving task to look at objects irrelevant to the driving task, such as CEVMS. According to this model, when driving demand increases because of fixed hazards (such as dangerous roadway geometry or complex interchanges) or transient hazards (such as slowing traffic, vehicle path intrusion, or adverse weather), spare capacity is reduced or eliminated, and the driver devotes more capacity to the driving task. In this model, driver workload emerges as an important issue. By applying this model, in some countries, outdoor advertisements are not allowed in areas where known fixed hazards exist. Such locations include, but are not limited to, sharp horizontal or vertical curves and areas where high cognitive demand is imposed by the roadway, traffic, or environment, like intersections, interchanges, and locations of merging or diverging traffic. In some countries, billboards are also not allowed where they might interfere with the processing of important information from official road signs. These prohibitions do not in themselves prove that distraction is worse in high driver workload situations. However, they do point to the need to consider conditions of differing driver workload in an effective future research program on possible safety effects from CEVMS exposure.
When scanning for hazards, drivers' eye movements tend to fall within a horizontal window centered on the focus of expansion in the forward view. This focus of expansion is related to the visual flow of the moving scene where points and objects all emerge from a single point. Because an attention-getting billboard may be able to attract a driver's glance even unintentionally, a CEVMS that falls within this scanning pattern can interrupt the pattern and cause a distraction at an inopportune time. Furthermore, research suggests that the distraction from a roadside billboard may be unconscious. Consequently, drivers may not be aware that they are being distracted, and they are unable to verbalize that any distraction occurred. Although where someone's eyes look may not be the same as where his or her attention is focused, a theoretical connection may be implied. Through this connection, measurements of eye glance behavior permit the researcher to gain potential entrance into this realm of unconscious allocation of attention. This allocation of attention should play an important role in an effective program for future research.
In addition, it cannot be assumed that all CEVMS are equal, even those of the same size, height, and LED technology to display their images. The impact of a CEVMS in an undeveloped area with relatively low levels of nighttime ambient lighting may be quite different from that of a CEVMS in a more urban context among other buildings and structures in an area with high nighttime illumination levels. Furthermore, characteristics of the CEVMS displays may, in and of themselves, lead to measurable differences in distraction, such as information density, colors of figure and background, character size and font, and message content. These characteristics cannot be assumed to be equivalent for purposes of comparisons. One possible solution to this problem may be for future research studies to exercise a certain degree of experimental control over the CEVMS message itself. This may require a deeper level of cooperation with the billboard industry than has been encountered in previous studies. Such increased cooperation could be beneficial in establishing a collaborative research environment among industry, government, and university stakeholders.
Finally, a frequently changing CEVMS, which can generally be seen long before it can be read, raises a particular concern for distraction. This is because drivers may continue to glance at the CEVMS to observe changes in varying content with various sizes of lettering until the sign content can be read. The implication here is that future studies may need to embrace longer viewing distances.