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HERS-ST Highway Economic Requirements System - State Version: Technical Report

Appendix A Default Deficiency Criteria Tables

Suggested default values for the ULs, SDLs, and DLs for the eight section characteristics are presented in Table A-5, and Table A-7 through Table A-11 (These values were used in processing for the 2002 C&P Report). As indicated in the exhibits, for rural sections HERS allows separate values to be specified for three terrain types and eight combinations of functional system and average daily traffic (AADT). For urban sections, HERS allows separate values for each of five functional systems.

In the case of pavement condition (Table A-1, "Default Pavement Condition Criteria (PSR)"), SDLs are not shown, but a set of "reconstruction levels" (RLs) are. SDLs for pavement condition are not needed because all improvements involve either resurfacing or reconstruction, and, in HERS, only one of these two improvement options is considered for a section in any funding period. The pavement option considered is resurfacing unless PSR is below the RL or certain surface-type deficiencies (specified in Figure 4-2 "Identification of Aggressive Pavement Option" on page 4-12) exist.1

Tables A-5 through Table A-9 also show the User Specified Thresholds (USTs) and, in several of the tables, the design standards (DS) for rural sections used by HERS. Table A-2, "Default Pavement Condition Thresholds (IRI)," consists entirely of USTs. The design standards used for median width and for curves and grades are shown in Table A-10, "Default Design Standards for Median Width (Feet)," and Table A-11, "Default Design Standards for Curves and Grades." The design standards used for urban sections are shown in Table A-12, "Default Design Standards for Urban Sections."

The USTs are not used by HERS in selecting improvements; however the shoulder type USTs are used as design standards when shoulders are improved and the lane width USTs are used to specify the lane width following reconstruction of an unpaved section. HERS uses the USTs to develop some summary statistics.


1. For medium and high-type pavement, PSR is the sole determinant of whether a section should be reconstructed; and for low-type pavement, it is the primary determinant. HERS is unable to take into account other influences on the reconstruction decision (e.g., height of the pavement crown), because they are not currently described in the HPMS database.


Table A-1. Default Pavement Condition Criteria (PSR)
  UL RL UST1 UST2 DL
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 1.8 2.3 1.0 3.0 3.2
Rolling 1.8 2.3 1.0 3.0 3.2
Mountainous 1.8 2.3 1.0 3.0 3.2
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 1.8 2.3 1.0 3.0 3.2
Rolling 1.8 2.3 1.0 3.0 3.2
Mountainous 1.8 2.3 1.0 3.0 3.2
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 1.5 2.3 1.0 2.8 3.0
Rolling 1.5 2.3 1.0 2.8 3.0
Mountainous 1.5 2.3 1.0 2.8 3.0
MA AADT>2000: Flat 1.2 2.0 1.0 2.4 2.6
Rolling 1.2 2.0 1.0 2.4 2.6
Mountainous 1.2 2.0 1.0 2.4 2.6
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 1.2 2.0 1.0 2.4 2.6
Rolling 1.2 2.0 1.0 2.4 2.6
Mountainous 1.2 2.0 1.0 2.4 2.6
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 1.0 1.5 1.0 2.0 2.4
Rolling 1.0 1.5 1.0 2.0 2.4
Mountainous 1.0 1.5 1.0 2.0 2.4
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 0.8 1.5 1.0 2.0 2.4
Rolling 0.8 1.5 1.0 2.0 2.4
Mountainous 0.8 1.5 1.0 2.0 2.4
Coll.'s AADT<400: Flat 0.6 1.5 1.0 1.8 2.2
Rolling 0.6 1.5 1.0 1.8 2.2
Mountainous 0.6 1.5 1.0 1.8 2.2
Urban:
                     Interstate 2.0 2.3 1.0 3.2 3.4
Other Freeway & Expressway 1.8 2.3 1.0 3.0 3.2
Other Principal Arterial 1.6 2.3 1.0 2.8 3.0
Minor Arterial 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.4 2.6
Collector 0.8 1.5 1.0 2.0 2.4
Table A-2. Default Pavement Condition Thresholds (IRI)
  UST1 UST2 UST3 UST4 UST5
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 268.9 241.1 134.4 95.0 170.0
Rolling 268.9 241.1 134.4 95.0 170.0
Mountainous 268.9 241.1 134.4 95.0 170.0
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 268.9 241.1 134.4 95.0 170.0
Rolling 268.9 241.1 134.4 95.0 170.0
Mountainous 268.9 241.1 134.4 95.0 170.0
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 316.8 241.1 152.6 95.0 170.0
Rolling 316.8 241.1 152.6 95.0 170.0
Mountainous 316.8 241.1 152.6 95.0 170.0
MA AADT>2000: Flat 375.6 316.8 193.1 95.0 170.0
Rolling 375.6 316.8 193.1 95.0 170.0
Mountainous 375.6 316.8 193.1 95.0 170.0
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 375.6 316.8 193.1 95.0 170.0
Rolling 375.6 316.8 193.1 95.0 170.0
Mountainous 375.6 316.8 193.1 95.0 170.0
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 423.5 398.5 241.1 95.0 170.0
Rolling 423.5 398.5 241.1 95.0 170.0
Mountainous 423.5 398.5 241.1 95.0 170.0
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 482.3 398.5 241.1 95.0 170.0
Rolling 482.3 398.5 241.1 95.0 170.0
Mountainous 482.3 398.5 241.1 95.0 170.0
Coll.'s AADT<400: Flat 558.0 482.3 268.9 95.0 170.0
Rolling 558.0 482.3 268.9 95.0 170.0
Mountainous 558.0 482.3 268.9 95.0 170.0
Urban:
                     Interstate 241.1 216.0 117.4 95.0 170.0
Other Freeway & Expressway 268.9 241.1 134.4 95.0 170.0
Other Principal Arterial 299.9 268.9 152.6 95.0 170.0
Minor Arterial 423.5 398.5 193.1 95.0 170.0
Collector 482.3 423.5 241.1 95.0 170.0
Table A-3. Default Surface Type Criteria and Standardsa
  UL SDL UST1 DL DSb
a. Surface Type Codes: 1 = High flexible; 2 = High rigid; 3 = Intermediate; 4 = Low; 5 = Unpaved.
b. HERS does not allow design standard of 5 (unpaved), substituting 4 if a standard of 5 is specified.
c. Design standard is high type. HERS actually uses flexible pavement for all resurfacing and for reconstruction of flexible pavements; rigid pavement is used for reconstruction of rigid and composite pavements
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 2 2 2 2 2c
Rolling 2 2 2 2 2
Mountainous 2 2 2 2 2
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 2 2 2 2 2
Rolling 2 2 2 2 2
Mountainous 2 2 2 2 2
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 3 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 3 2 2 2
MA AADT>2000: Flat 3 3 3 3 2
Rolling 3 3 3 3 2
Mountainous 3 3 3 3 2
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 4 4 3 3 3
Rolling 4 4 3 3 3
Mountainous 4 4 3 3 3
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 4 4 3 3 3
Rolling 4 4 3 3 3
Mountainous 4 4 3 3 3
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 4 4 4 4 4
Rolling 4 4 4 4 4
Mountainous 4 4 4 4 4
Coll.'s AADT<400: Flat 5 5 5 5 4
Rolling 5 5 5 5 4
Mountainous 5 5 5 5 4
Urban:
                     Interstate 2 2 2 2  
Other Freeway & Expressway 2 2 2 2  
Other Principal Arterial 3 3 2 2  
Minor Arterial 4 4 3 3  
Collectors 5 5 4 4  
Table A-4. Default Volume/Capacity Ratio Criteria
  UL SDL UST1 DL WS
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.70 0.70
Rolling 0.95 0.90 0.80 0.80 0.80
Mountainous 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.70 0.70
Rolling 0.95 0.90 0.80 0.80 0.80
Mountainous 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.70 0.70
Rolling 0.95 0.90 0.80 0.80 0.80
Mountainous 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
MA AADT>2000: Flat 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.70 0.70
Rolling 0.95 0.90 0.80 0.80 0.80
Mountainous 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.70 0.70
Rolling 0.95 0.90 0.80 0.80 0.80
Mountainous 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.70 0.70
Rolling 0.95 0.90 0.80 0.80 0.80
Mountainous 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.95 0.95
Rolling 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.95 0.95
Mountainous 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.95 0.95
Coll.'s AADT<400: Flat 1.00 1.00 0.80 1.00 1.00
Rolling 1.00 1.00 0.80 1.00 1.00
Mountainous 1.00 1.00 0.80 1.00 1.00
Urban:
                     Interstate 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
Other Freeway 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
Other Principal Arterial 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
Minor Arterial 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
Collectors 0.98 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.90
Table A-5. Default Lane Width Criteria and Standards (Feet)a
  UL SDL UST1 DL DS
a. For sections for which the database contains roadway width instead of lane width, HERS treats lane width as one-half the roadway width.
b. For unpaved collectors in this volume category, HERS applies these criteria to the sum of lane width and shoulder width.
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 11 11 12 12 12
Rolling 11 11 12 12 12
Mountainous 11 11 12 12 12
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 10 11 11 12 12
Rolling 10 11 11 12 12
Mountainous 10 11 11 12 12
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 10 11 11 12 12
Rolling 10 11 11 12 12
Mountainous 10 11 11 12 12
MA AADT>2000: Flat 8 9 10 12 12
Rolling 8 9 10 12 12
Mountainous 8 9 10 12 12
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 8 9 10 12 12
Rolling 8 9 10 12 12
Mountainous 8 9 10 12 12
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 8 9 10 12 12
Rolling 8 9 10 12 12
Mountainous 8 9 10 12 12
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 8 8 8 11 11
Rolling 8 8 8 11 11
Mountainous 8 8 8 11 11
Coll.'s AADT<400:b Flat 8 8 8 10 10
Rolling 8 8 8 10 10
Mountainous 8 8 8 10 10
Urban:
                     Interstate 11 11 12 12  
Other Freeway & Expressway 10 11 11 12  
Other Principal Arterial 9 10 10 12  
Minor Arterial 8 8 8 12  
Collectors 8 8 8 12  
Table A-6. Default Right-Shoulder Width Criteria and Standards (Feet)
  UL SDL UST1 DL DS
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 6 7 8 10 12
Rolling 6 7 8 9 10
Mountainous 6 6 6 7 8
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 6 7 8 9 10
Rolling 6 7 8 9 10
Mountainous 6 6 6 7 8
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 6 7 8 9 10
Rolling 6 7 8 9 10
Mountainous 6 6 6 7 8
MA AADT>2000: Flat 6 6 6 7 8
Rolling 6 6 6 7 8
Mountainous 4 4 4 6 8
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 4 5 6 7 8
Rolling 4 5 6 7 8
Mountainous 4 4 4 6 6
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 2 3 4 6 8
Rolling 2 3 4 6 8
Mountainous 2 3 4 6 6
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 0 0 2 4 4
Rolling 0 0 2 4 4
Mountainous 0 0 2 4 4
Coll.'s AADT<400: Flat 0 0 0 2 2
Rolling 0 0 0 2 2
Mountainous 0 0 0 2 2
Urban:
                     Interstate 6 7 8 9  
Other Freeway & Expressway 6 7 8 9  
Other Principal Arterial 0 5 6 8  
Minor Arterial 0 5 6 8  
Collectors 0 3 6 6  
Table A-7. Default Shoulder Type Criteriaa
  UL SDL UST1 DL
a. Shoulder Type Codes: 1 = Surfaced; 2 - Stabilized; 3 = Earth; 4 = Curbed.
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 2 2 2 2
Rolling 2 2 2 2
Mountainous 2 2 2 2
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 2 2 2 2
Rolling 2 2 2 2
Mountainous 2 2 2 2
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
MA AADT>2000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 3 3 3 3
Rolling 3 3 3 3
Mountainous 3 3 3 3
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 3 3 3 3
Rolling 3 3 3 3
Mountainous 3 3 3 3
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 4 3 3 3
Rolling 4 3 3 3
Mountainous 4 3 3 3
Coll.'s AADT<400: Flat 4 3 3 3
Rolling 4 3 3 3
Mountainous 4 3 3 3
Urban:
    Interstate 1 1 1 1
Other Freeway 1 1 1 1
Other Principal Arterial 4 2 2 2
Minor Arterial 4 3 3 3
Collectors 4 3 3 3
Table A-8. Default Horizontal Alignment Criteriaa
  UL SDL UST1 DL
a. Alignment Codes: 1 = All curves meet design standards; 2 = Some curves below design standards; 3 = Curves with reduced speed; 4 = Several curves unsafe.
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 2 2 2 1
Rolling 2 2 2 1
Mountainous 2 2 2 1
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 2 2 2 1
Rolling 2 2 2 1
Mountainous 2 2 2 1
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
MA AADT>2000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 4 3 3 2
Rolling 4 3 3 2
Mountainous 4 3 3 2
Coll.'s AADT<400: Flat 4 3 3 2
Rolling 4 3 3 2
Mountainous 4 3 3 2
Urban:
    Interstate 2 2 2 1
Other Freeway 2 2 2 1
Other Principal Arterial 3 2 2 1
Table A-9. Default Vertical Alignment Criteriaa
  UL SDL UST1 DL
a. Alignment Codes: 1 = All grades meet design standards; 2 = Some grades below design standards; 3 = Grades with reduced speed; 4 = Significant reduction of speed on grades.
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 2 2 2 1
Rolling 2 2 2 1
Mountainous 2 2 2 1
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 2 2 2 1
Rolling 2 2 2 1
Mountainous 2 2 2 1
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
MA AADT>2000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 3 2 2 2
Rolling 3 2 2 2
Mountainous 3 2 2 2
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 4 3 3 2
Rolling 4 3 3 2
Mountainous 4 3 3 2
Coll.'s AADT<400: Flat 4 3 3 2
Rolling 4 3 3 2
Mountainous 4 3 3 2
Table A-10. Default Design Standards For Median Width (Feet)
  DS
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 64
Rolling 64
Mountainous 16
OPA AADT>6000: Flat 40
Rolling 40
Mountainous 16
OPA AADT<=6000: Flat 40
Rolling 40
Mountainous 16
MA AADT>2000: Flat 40
Rolling 40
Mountainous 16
MA AADT<=2000: Flat 0
Rolling 0
Mountainous 0
Coll.'s AADT>1000: Flat 0
Rolling 0
Mountainous 0
Coll.'s AADT=400-1000: Flat 0
Rolling 0
Mountainous 0
Coll.'s AADT<400: Flat 0
Rolling 0
Mountainous 0
Urban:
                   Freeway/Expressway by design   20
Table A-11. Default Design Standards For Curves and Grades
  Curve Class Grade Class
Rural:
                   Interstate: Flat 1 3
Rolling 1 3
Mountainous 3 5
Other Principal Arterial: Flat 1 3
Rolling 1 3
Mountainous 3 5
Minor Arterial: Flat 1 3
Rolling 2 3
Mountainous 3 5
Major Collectors: Flat 2 4
Rolling 3 5
Mountainous 4 6
Urban:
                     Interstate 3  
Other Freeway 3  
Other Principal Arterial 3  
Table A-12. Default Design Standards for Urban Sections
  Surface Typea Lane Width (Feet) Shoulder Width (Feet)
a. Surface Type Codes: 1 = High flexible; 2 = High rigid; 3 = Intermediate; 4 = Low; 5 = Unpaved
Freeway by design 2 12 10
Other divided 2 12 10
Undivided arterials 2 12 9
Undivided collectors 3 12 8
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Updated: 02/14/2013