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Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels - Civil Elements
Chapter 8 - Tunneling in Difficult Ground
Engineers like to work with materials having defined characteristics that do not change from one location or application to another. Unfortunately, geology seldom if ever cooperates with this natural desire but instead tends to present new and challenging conditions throughout the length of a tunnel. Some of these conditions approach the "ideal" closely enough that they can be approached as presented for rock and soft ground in Chapters 6 and 7. However, in many cases special approaches or arrangements must be made to safely and efficiently drive and stabilize the tunnel as it passes through this "Difficult Ground".
The factors that make tunneling difficult are generally related to instability, which inhibits timely placement or maintenance of adequate support at or behind the working face; heavy loading from the ground which creates problems of design as well as installation and maintenance of a suitable support system; natural and man-made obstacles or constraints; and physical conditions which make the work place untenable unless they can be modified.
This chapter is an update of the Chapter 8 "Tunneling in Difficult Ground" of the 2nd Edition Tunnel Engineering Handbook authored by Terrence G. McCusker (Brickel, et al., 1996) and emphasizes on creating and maintaining stable openings by mining or boring in difficult ground which actively resists such efforts. Chapters 6 through 10 presents design recommendations and requirements for mined and bored road tunnels. Mining sequentially based on the sequential excavation method (SEM) principles is discussed in Chapter 9. Chapter 10 addresses the design of various types of permanent lining applicable for rock tunnels.
Instability can arise from: lack of stand-up time, as in non-cohesive sands and gravels (especially below the water table) and weak cohesive soils with high water content or in blocky and seamy rock; adverse orientation of joint and fracture planes; or the effects of water. The major problems with mixed face tunneling can also be ascribed to the potential for instability and this class of tunneling will be discussed under this heading.
8.1.2 Heavy Loading
When a tunnel is driven at depth in relatively weak rock, a range of effects may be encountered, from squeezing through popping to explosive failure of the rock mass. Heavy loading may also result from the effects of tunneling in swelling clays or chemically active materials such as anhydrite. Adverse orientation of weak zones such as joints and shears can also result in heavy loading, but this is usually dealt with as a problem of instability rather than loading. Combinations of parallel and intersecting tunnels are a special case in which loadings have to be evaluated carefully.
8.1.3 Obstacles and Constraints
Natural obstacles such as boulder beds in association with running silt and caverns in limestone are just two examples of natural obstacles that demand special consideration when tunneling is contemplated. In urban areas, abandoned foundations and piles present manmade obstructions to straightforward tunneling while support systems for existing buildings and for future developments present constraints which may limit the tunnel builder's options. In urban settings, interference conflicts, public convenience or the constraints imposed by the need or desire for connection to existing facilities will sometimes result in the need to construct shallow tunnels, which have a range of problems from working in confined spaces, avoiding subsidence and uneven ground loading and support.
8.1.4 Physical Conditions
In areas affected by relatively recent tectonic activity or by ongoing geothermal activity, both high temperatures and noxious, explosive or deadly gases may be encountered. Noxious gases are also commonly present in rock of organic origin; and elevated temperatures are commonly associated with tunneling at depth. In an urban setting, contaminated ground may be encountered and will be especially troublesome when found in association with other difficult conditions.
Where appropriate, some information is provided as to the reasons why the condition under discussion creates problems for construction. Some examples of each of the conditions referred to above are discussed briefly to yield insight into the problems and to define the range of solutions available.
8.2.1 Non-Cohesive Sand and Gravel
Cohesion in sands is more than a matter of grain size distribution. For instance, beach-derived sands normally contain salt (unless it has been leached out), which aids in making sand somewhat cohesive regardless of grain size. The moisture content then becomes a determining factor.
The age and geologic history of the deposit is also important since compacted dune sands with "frosted" grain surfaces may develop a purely mechanical bond; and leaching and redeposit of minerals from overlying strata may also provide weak to strong chemical bonding.
As discussed in Chapter 7, a very low water content amounting to less than complete saturation will provide temporary apparent cohesion as a fresh surface is exposed in tunnel excavation because of capillary forces or "negative pore pressure." This disappears as the sand dries and raveling begins. Nevertheless, some unlooked-for stand up time may be available. In this case, it is important not to overrate the stability of the soil. As it dries out, the cohesion will disappear and it cannot be restored by rewetting the ground.
If groundwater is actually flowing through the working face, any amount may be sufficient to permit the start of a run which can develop into total collapse as shown in Figure 8-1.
There is no such thing as a predictably safe rate of flow in clean sands. Uncontrolled water flows affect more than the face of the excavation. If the initial support system of the tunnel is pervious, water flowing behind the working face will carry fines into the tunnel and may create substantial cavities--sometimes large enough to imperil the integrity of the structural supports. This phenomenon occurred in Los Angeles where a ruptured water main caused sufficient flow through a tunnel support system to cause a failure and resulting large sink hole in the street.
While factors such as compaction or chemical bonding may permit some flow without immediate loss of stability, this is not a reliable predictor. Soil deposits are hardly ever of a truly uniform nature. It has been observed in soft ground tunnels in recent deposits that all that is necessary to trigger collapse may be the presence of sufficient water to result in a film on the working face; i.e., there is no negative pore pressure to assist in stabilizing the working face. Of course, there is never a safety factor arising from surface tension (capillary action) in coarse sand or gravel.
|B:||Sand at Normal Angle of Repose|
Figure 8-1 Flowing Sand in Tunnel
The cleaner the sand, the more liable it is to run or flow when exposed in an unsupported vertical face during tunnel construction. Single sized fine grained sands (UCS classification SP) are the most troublesome, closely followed by SP-SM sands containing less than about 7% of silt and clay binder. Saturated sands in these classes have been observed to flow freely through sheet piles and to settle into fans having an angle of repose of less than 5. Unconfined SP sands will run freely, as in an hourglass, whether wet or dry, having some stability only when damp but less than saturated (no piezometric head). The large proportion of the sand particles of the same size allow the sand to move almost as freely over one another as would glass marbles.
Silt, intermediate in grain size between sand and clay, may behave as either a cohesive or non-cohesive material. In some areas it is common to find thin seams of saturated fine sandy silt trapped between clay beds in glacial deposits. In general, unless the seams are thicker than about 9-12 inches, when the silt layer is exposed in the wall of an excavation, the soil slumps out at intervals leaving a series of small shallow caves like entrances to burrows. The water appears to drain fast enough from the increased surface area exposed so that the remainder of the exposed material stabilizes.
The usual problem encountered with running sand is settlement and cratering at the surface with damage to structures or utilities in the area. If the ground is permeable, consolidation grouting of the entire sensitive area can be undertaken to stabilize the soil before tunneling. If dewatering is successful in depressing the water table below the tunnel invert, it may be found that the sand is just as unstable dry as wet. The alternative of using compressed air is attractive, provided the working pressure is very carefully controlled; but even so, the ground may be too dried out for stability.
If the face is a full face of sand and similarly weak materials, a slurry machine or an earth pressure balance machine, will be required. In general, rotary head tunneling machines for soft ground tunnels require very similar physical properties over the entire working face and the entire job. If these conditions do not prevail, then weaker ground, and running sands in particular, must be prevented from entering the shield more rapidly than is proper for the rate of advance. Slurry shields have the best opportunity of controlling variable conditions where running sands are present; but they will prove difficult to keep on line and grade in mixed face conditions if one of the beds present is even a strong clay. If the sand and clay beds are more or less evenly distributed (e.g., a varved clay), then this problem may not arise. Of the digger type shields, neither extensible poling plates nor orange peel breasting have proved to be generally successful, hence these machines are now rarely used.
A problem with all shield construction is the necessary difference in diameter between the shield and the lining. If the soil has no stand-up capability by the time it is exposed in the upper part of the tunnel before expansion of a primary lining or introduction of pea gravel or more commonly, grout into the annular space for non-expanded linings, then there will be loss of ground. If the unfilled annular space averages one inch in a 20 ft tunnel, the lost ground from this single cause is approximately 1.7% shown in Table 7.2 as "poor" practice. Even if only local ravelling takes place, it may choke off the flow of grout before the void can be filled with a continuous supporting fill material. This loss of ground results in a contribution to settlement.
8.2.2 Soft Clay
For the purposes of this discussion, soft clay includes any plastic material that will close around a tunnel excavation if free to do so. This will be the case if the overburden pressure at spring line exceeds the shear strength of the clay by a factor of about three or more. However, if the clay is sensitive and loses strength when remolded, the remolded strength will govern some of the clay behavior during tunnel construction. The phenomenon of sensitivity is mediated by several factors that cannot be fully discussed here but, in general, sensitivity may be suspected in clays with a high moisture content. Particularly at risk are marine clays from which the salt has been leached. The loss of strength may lie within a wide range, the ratio of undisturbed to remolded strength sensitivity being from 2 to 1,000. Moderate sensitivity of 2 to 4 is quite common. During remolding, the void ratio in the clay is reduced and free water is released. When this free water has access to a drainage path such as a sand bed or the tunnel itself, there will be a volume change in the soil mass which will result in surface settlement.
As discussed in Chapter 7, Equation 7-1 is used to calculate a Stability Number to estimate ground behavior in tunneling. Table 7-2 summarizes the behavior of cohesive soils during excavation. As shown in Table 7-2, if the cohesive soil is to be stabilized so that closure around the tunnel lining is minimized and stable control of line and grade are maintained, the critical number must be reduced below about 5; this will enable reasonable control of alignment and grade. Equation 7-1 can be writem to the following equation:
|Pa = Pz - (Ncrit x Su)||8-1|
where Ncrit is the critical number, Pz is the overburden pressure at tunnel spring line, Pa is the working pressure in a compressed air tunnel or the equivalent average pressure provided by the initial support system, and Su is the undrained shear strength of the soil in compatible units. As an example, if N is to be maintained at a value of 5, the overburden pressure is 40 psi and the unconfined shear strength of the soil is 1,000 psf = 7 psi, then from Equation 8-1, the required working pressure in the tunnel will be (40 - 5 7) = 5 psi. From this same equation, it can be seen that if the shear strength of the soil is reduced by remolding caused by passage of the shield through the ground to a value of 250 psf, then the required air pressure for stability increases to over 30 psi, transforming the project from a relatively straightforward one to a difficult one.
Attempting to calculate the required volume of grout injection into the annular void between shield excavation and lining in clays often is not a fruitful exercise. It will certainly be possible to inject the requisite volume of grout, but it may be difficult to make it flow around the tunnel perimeter in an even layer. The best results are obtained by establishing multiple simultaneous injection points permanently fixed within the shield tail and passing through the tail seals. Grout is injected throughout the time the shield is in motion. For this system to work, the lining must be a bolted segmented lining with built-in gashets between segments. It must be expected that for simultaneous injection through multiple ports while the shield is in motion there will be a substantial learning curve before all elements of the system are functioning smoothly to achieve the desired result.
It is generally difficult to use any mechanical excavation equipment in this type of ground except for a slurry shield or earth pressure balance shield (EPB). These days, the two types of machine are approaching interchangeability with the continuing development of chemical additives (conditioners). The edge goes to slurry machines in coarse geology and/or where the rock crusher may be needed to reduce rock or boulders to a size that will pass the machine.
The EPB is preferred as being somewhat more flexible in varying conditions and somewhat less expensive than a slurry shield. In order to control pressure in the plenum chamber behind the cutterhead, a screw conveyor is required. The rotational speed of the screw is matched to the advance rate of the EPB and pressure in the plenum is monitored using multiple sensors. If boulders are likely to be encountered, especially if they will be larger than can pass through the screw conveyor, the cutterhead must be fitted with disk cutters in addition to the drag bits normally associated with this type of machine. This topic is covered in more detail below in Section 8.4.1 dealing with boulders.
8.2.3 Blocky Rock
As discussed in Chapter 6, rock is a basically strong material which requires little or no structural support when intact; although it may require protection from exposure to air, water or from fluids conveyed in the tunnel. However, when the rock joints and fractures are open sufficiently that the natural rugosity of the block surfaces will not prevent movement of rock blocks or substantial fragments, the rock is said to be "blocky." If the joints and fractures contain clay-like material resulting from weathering or light shearing, then the rock is described as "blocky and seamy." As can be seen from Table 6-7, this may raise the rock load by a factor of approximately three. In zones where the rock has small folds, but is open along the direction of the folds, it may be free to move in only one direction. Such rock is still blocky.
When rock is subjected to the action of explosives, high-pressure gases flow into any fissures in the rock before they have finished their explosive and rock-fracturing expansion. Even in hard granite, a result of blasting is the creation of micro-fissures extending well outside the blasted perimeter. In blocky rock, the effect may well extend more than a tunnel diameter outside the desired finished surface; a good deal of overbreak and potential loosening and movement of blocks is likely to result.
Another problem with this type of rock is that it is highly susceptible to the destabilizing effects of water flowing through the fracture system with sufficient energy to dislodge successively more rock. This action is dealt with more fully in a later section. Finally, it is quite likely when blocky and seamy rock is encountered in a tunnel excavation, especially in heavily folded strata, that there will be zones where the weathering has proceeded to a conclusion resulting in the presence of weak earth-like material with little capacity to sustain loads or to preserve the tunnel outline.
All of the rock conditions described require early and carefully placed primary support to preserve ground stability and to provide a safe workplace. Even before support installation, it is necessary to minimize surprises by scaling off any loose rock which will present a hazard to the crews installing the support system. Many still prefer to use steel ribs and wood lagging in this type of rock. It provides positive support and is quickly installed in tunnels less than about 5 meters in diameter. Unfortunately, crews still have to work under the unsupported rock to install the ribs and lagging; the material costs are high; the presence of timber results in the possibility of future uneven loading on the permanent tunnel lining as wood rots out and steel corrodes; and it becomes relatively difficult to ensure good contact between the lining concrete and the rock even after contact grouting.
For these reasons the use of shotcrete and rock bolts has become popular. In rock known to be blocky and therefore to need support, an initial layer of shotcrete about 5 cm thick should be applied as soon as possible in the tunnel crown. This is followed by the installation of pattern rock bolts whose length and diameter are governed principally by the tunnel diameter. (See Chapter 6 for more details)
8.2.4 Adverse Combinations of Joints and Shears
Jointing systems in rock arise from many causes, some of which are noted here. Sedimentary rocks, and particularly limestone, typically have three more or less orthogonal joint sets arising from the modes of deposition and induration which formed them. Not all joints are continuous, but those in any set are parallel. There may be many sets or, in weak, massive sandstone, for instance, only one or two. Joints and fracture systems combine to break up the rock mass into interlocking fragments of varying sizes and degrees of stability.
In the absence of direct evidence to the contrary, it should be assumed that shears and faults are continuous throughout their intersection with the tunnel excavation. In schistose materials, weathering usually follows a foliation plane to great depths, even in temperate climates when a weak zone has been formed by slippage along that plane. Other faulting may cause the development of extensive fracture systems in any direction. A section through the project area perpendicular to the strike of the exposed surfaces in schistose materials will generally reveal a saw-tooth profile with one of the surfaces parallel to the foliation. Continuation of the plane thus defined to tunnel elevation will be a preliminary indicator of the presence of sheared and weathered rock in the excavation.
Continuous joints and shears can define large blocks with little or nothing to hold them in place once the tunnel excavation has been completed. It is important to identify the locations of blocks with the potential for falling out in order to provide support during cautious excavation. For large diameter tunnels in particular, this requires an assessment of the potential before construction begins, mapping during construction, and control of drift size and round length to ensure against complete exposure of an unstable block in a single round. Readers are referred to Chapter 6 for details.
The difficulty of controlling the correct placement of steel sets in multiple drift headings works against the use of this kind of support. Initial rock bolting followed by reinforced shotcrete is a reasonable approach. In all cases where rock bolts have to be located to take direct and reasonably predictable loads, it is better that they be installed ahead of the shotcrete while the joint locations are still visible. If mechanical rock bolt installers cannot be used, then the crews must be protected by overhead cages.
8.2.5 Faults and Alteration Zones
Tectonic action, high pressure and high temperatures may metamorphose rock into different structures with unpredictable joint patterns. The uplift and folding of rocks by tectonic action will cause fracturing perpendicular to the fold axis along with faulting where the rock cannot accommodate the displacements involved, so that shears develop parallel to the fold axis. Other types of faults arise as the earth accommodates itself to shifting tectonic forces. Faults or shears may be thin with no more significance than a continuous joint or they may form shear zones over a kilometer wide in which the rock is completely pulverized but with inclusions of native rock, sometimes of large size.
All of the conditions briefly described above may be additionally complicated by the presence of locked-in stress, high overburden loads, or water.
Dealing with the conditions encountered in such fault zones and weathered intrusive zones depends on the excavation method in use, the depth below the ground surface, the strength of the fault gouge, the sheared material or the weathered or altered rock, and the water conditions. Water problems are discussed in general in the next section, including consideration of the difficult water conditions commonly found in association with faults; however, to the extent that they affect the selection of construction methods appropriate to fault crossings, they are referred to here.
Current technology provides other solutions, such as the use of precast concrete lining in the weak ground with supplementary jacking capability to enable the lining to provide the jacking reaction for the thrust of the TBM.
In general, fault crossings offer conditions akin to those of mixed face tunneling and the same methods are available to deal with them. Different circumstances come into play with deeper tunnels, especially if these are of large diameter. Such tunnels are usually long and logistics are important. The comparative lengths of fault zone and normal tunnel dictate that the construction method be efficient for the normal tunnel. Nevertheless, sufficient flexibility is required to permit safe and reasonably expeditious construction through the worst conditions likely to be encountered. Drill and blast excavation is still commonly used in such tunnels. Rock bolts and shotcrete then become the preferred support system, although steel ribs and lagging or steel ribs with shotcrete are also still used. TBM successes in these conditions have been few. There are two principal problems: the loose material in the fault runs into the buckets and around the cutters and stalls the cutterhead; and if the fault contains cohesive material, it squeezes and binds the cutterhead and shield with similar results.
One solution to the problem of loose or loosened ravelling and running material is to establish a grout curtain ahead of the TBM and then to maintain it by continuing a grout and excavation cycle throughout the fault-affected portion of the drive. Even if imperfect--as consolidation grouting tends to be, especially when placed from within the tunnel in conditions providing limited access--it is likely that a properly designed and executed program will add sufficient stability to the ground to permit progress. It should be noted that any such program will be expensive and time-consuming. It is therefore unlikely that any contractor will willingly do the necessary work unless it has already been envisaged in the contract as a priced bid item. It is also important to recognize that if water is running into the tunnel through the working face, a bulkhead will be required to stop the flow while the initial grouting is in progress. Grouting into running water is a slow and expensive way to establish a grout seal.
Within limits, the squeezing problem can be dealt with in part in TBM tunneling by tapering the shield and making its diameter adjustable within limits; and by bevelling the cutterhead itself to the extent that this is possible without interfering with the efficiency of the buckets. Expandable gauge cutters are also used, but this is still a developing technology. One of the problems is that there is a tendency for local shearing of the cutter supports to result in an inability to withdraw the cutter once it has been extended. Also, since such cutters are acting well outside the radius of the buckets, muck which falls to the invert is not collected but provides an obstruction the cutters must pass through repeatedly. This grinds the debris finer and finer and abrades the cutter mounts as well as the cutter disk. This makes it necessary to provide means for eccentric cutterhead rotation so that the invert is properly swept. Unfortunately, squeezing is commonly, if not most often, manifested preferentially in the tunnel invert.
It was Terzaghi's view that the worst problems of tunneling could be traced to the presence of water. Among other things, he considered that (except for circular tunnels) it was prudent to double the design rock load on the tunnel lining when the tunnel was below the water table. This in itself would not be a serious problem, since most tunnel linings are already limited as to their minimum dimensions by problems of placement rather than by design considerations. However, there are many other problems that are associated with the presence of water. Several are discussed below, working in sequence from clay to rock and, within rock, from weak and fractured to strong and intact.
Most clays are at least slightly sensitive. This arises from the microstructure of clay soils which are composed largely of platy minerals. As with a heap of coins, the packing is not perfect, even though the clay is relatively impermeable. Each fragment is held in place by some combination of free body equilibrium forces, ionic interaction and chemical or mechanical bonds at the contact points. The pores of the clay are generally filled with water, which may contain salts in solution. Disturbance of the clay results in disruption of the bonding, migration of water and at least temporary weakening of the clay structure. The free water will be released at any temporary boundaries formed by shearing. As the clay reconsolidates, it is likely to gain strength over the initial condition, but this will be a protracted process.
The immediate effect, and the one that affects tunnel construction, is loss of shear strength throughout the disturbed mass. In organic silty clays, the sensitivity is commonly about 4, indicating a fourfold loss of strength upon remolding. This is associated with an initial water content of about 60%. As shown on Page 8-4, a four fold loss of strength can result in more than a sixfold increase in the required support. In any one material, the sensitivity may vary greatly, depending on the water content. Sensitivities as high as 500 to 1,000 may be found in some clays, such as the Leda clay commonly encountered in previously glaciated areas. Marine clays such those found in Boston lose salt by diffusion when situated below the water table. Such clays are typically highly sensitive.
Tunneling is already sufficiently challenging in moderately sensitive clays as the critical number (Section 8.2.2) suffers a local fourfold or more increase. For shielded tunneling, it is very important to avoid excessive efforts to correct line and grade as it is easily possible to create a situation in which control is lost.
A further effect of disturbance of sensitive clays is directly dependent on the loss of pore water expressed from the clay. The volume change results directly in rapid subterranean and surface settlement. In addition, the clay closes rapidly on to the tunnel lining, resulting in even greater settlement unless sufficient compensation and/or contact grout can be injected promptly.
8.2.7 Mixed Face Tunneling
Tunneling in mixed face conditions is a perennial problem and fraught with the possibility of serious ground loss and consequent damage to utilities and structures as well as the prospect of hazard to traffic. The term "mixed face" usually refers to a situation in which the lower part of the working face is in rock while the upper part is in soil. The reverse is possible, as in basalt flows overlying alluvium encountered in construction of the Melbourne subway system. Also found are hard rock ledges in a generally soft matrix bed of hard rock alternating with soft, decomposed and weathered rock; and non-cohesive granular soil above hard clay (as in Washington D.C.) or above saprolite (as in Baltimore). The definition can also be extended to include boulders in a soft matrix (discussed elsewhere in this chapter) and hard, nodular inclusions distributed in soft rock (e.g., flints beds in chalk or garnet in schist).
The primary problem situation is the presence of a weak stratum above a hard one as clearly illustrated in Figure 8-2 for the construction of the 2.3 km long C line and the 4 km long S line of the Oporto Metro project as a part of the mass transit public transport system of Porto, Portugal (Babendererde et al., 2004). The highly variable nature of the deeply weathered Oporto granite overlying the sound granite posed significant challenges to two 8.7 m diameter EPB Tunnel Boring Machines.
Figure 8-2 Mixed Face Tunneling Example (Babenderede et al., 2004)
There will always be water at the interface which will flow into the tunnel once the mixed face condition is exposed. This increases the hazard because of the destabilization of material already having a short stand-up time. Stabilization therefore calls for groundwater control as well as adequate and continuous support of the weak material. Moreover, this support must be provided where energetic methods, such as drill-and-blast excavation, are required to remove the harder material.
Dewatering can reduce the head of water, but it cannot remove the groundwater completely; nor can it be realistically expected to offer control on an undulating interface with pockets and channels lower than the general elevations established by borehole exploration. Compressed air working will not deal with water in confined lenticular pockets and it is usually inappropriate when the length of the mixed face and soft ground conditions amount to only a few percent of what is otherwise a rock tunnel. Also, recent experience where extensive beds of clean (SP and SP-SM) sands have been major components of the weak ground shows that compressed air alone will not stabilize the ground which becomes free-flowing as soon as it has dried out. Therefore, on the whole, consolidation grouting is to be preferred in this situation.
It is emphasized that the best time to seal off groundwater is before it has started to flow into the tunnel. Once the water is flowing, it is extremely difficult to stop it from within the tunnel except by establishing a bulkhead.
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