Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels - Civil Elements
This is an updated version of FHWA Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels â€“ Civil Elements.
This update is necessary to add section 16.10 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUPPORTED CEILINGS/HANGERS that was unintentionally omitted in the previous version.
The FHWA Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels – Civil Elements has been published to provide guidelines and recommendations for planning, design, construction and structural rehabilitation and repair of the civil elements of road tunnels, including cut-and-cover tunnels, mined and bored tunnels, immersed tunnels and jacked box tunnels. The latest edition of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design and Construction Specifications are used to the greatest extent applicable in the design examples. This manual focuses primarily on the civil elements of design and construction of road tunnels. It is the intent of FHWA to collaborate with AASHTO to further develop manuals for the design and construction of other key tunnel elements, such as, ventilation, lighting, fire life safety, mechanical, electrical and control systems.
FHWA intends to work with road tunnel owners in developing a manual on the maintenance, operation and inspection of road tunnels. This manual is expected to expand on the two currently available FHWA publications: (1) Highway and Rail Transit Tunnel Inspection Manual and (2) Highway and Rail Transit Tunnel Maintenance and Rehabilitation Manual.
M. Myint Lwin, Director
Office of Bridge Technology
|1. Report No.
|2. Government Accession No.||3. Recipient's Catalog No.|
|4. Title and Subtitle
TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROAD TUNNELS - CIVIL ELEMENTS
|5. Report Date|
|6. Performing Organization Code|
|8. Performing Organization Report No.|
C. Jeremy Hung, PE, James Monsees, PhD, PE, Nasri Munfah, PE, and John Wisniewski, PE
|9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc.
One Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10119
|10. Work Unit ( TRAIS)|
|11. Contract or Grant No.|
|13. Type of Report and Period Covered|
|12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address|
National Highway Institute
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. 20590
|14. Sponsoring Agency Code|
|15. Supplementary Notes|
FHWA COTR - Louisa Ward/ Larry Jones
FHWA Task Manager - Firas I. Sheikh Ibrahim, PhD, PE
FHWA Technical Reviewers - Jesús M. Rohena y Correa, PE; Jerry A. DiMaggio, PE; Steven Ernst, PE; and Peter Osborn, PE.
See Acknowledgement for List of Authors and Additional Technical Reviewers
The increased use of underground space for transportation systems and the increasing complexity and constraints of constructing and maintaining above ground transportation infrastructure have prompted the need to develop this technical manual. This FHWA manual is intended to be a single-source technical manual providing guidelines for planning, design, construction and rehabilitation of road tunnels, and encompasses various types of road tunnels including mined, bored, cut-and-cover, immersed, and jacked box tunnels. The scope of the manual is primarily limited to the civil elements of road tunnels.
The development of this technical manual has been funded by the National Highway Institute, and supported by Parsons Brinckerhoff, as well as numerous authors and reviewers.
|17. Key Words
Road tunnel, highway tunnel, geotechnical investigation, geotechnical baseline report, cut-and-cover tunnel, drill-and-blast, mined tunnel, bored tunnel, rock tunneling, soft ground tunneling, sequential excavation method (SEM), immersed tunnel, jacked box tunnel, seismic consideration, instrumentation, risk management, rehabilitation.
|18. Distribution Statement|
|19. Security Classif. (of this report) Unclassified||20. Security Classif. (of this page)
|21. No. of Pages
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized
|Approximate Conversions to SI Units||Approximate Conversions from SI Units|
|When you know||Multiply by||To find||When you know||Multiply by||To find|
|square inches||645.2||square millimeters||square millimeters||0.0016||square inches|
|square feet||0.093||square meters||square meters||10.764||square feet|
|square miles||2.59||square kilometers||square kilometers||0.386||square miles|
|fluid ounces||29.57||milliliters||milliliters||0.034||fluid ounces|
|cubic feet||0.028||cubic meters||cubic meters||35.32||cubic feet|
|cubic yards||0.765||cubic meters||cubic meters||1.308||cubic yards|
|short tons (2000 lb)||0.907||megagrams (tonne)||megagrams (tonne)||1.102||short tons (2000 lb)|
|(f) Pressure, Stress, Modulus of Elasticity|
|pounds per square foot||47.88||Pascals||Pascals||0.021||pounds per square foot|
|pounds per square inch||6.895||kiloPascals||kiloPascals||0.145||pounds per square inch|
|pounds per cubic foot||16.019||kilograms per cubic meter||kilograms per cubic meter||0.0624||pounds per cubic feet|
|Fahrenheit temperature(°F)||5/9(°F- 32)||Celsius temperature(°C)||Celsius temperature(°C)||9/5(°C)+ 32||Fahrenheit temperature(°F)|
The increased use of underground space for transportation systems and the increasing complexity and constraints of constructing and maintaining above ground transportation infrastructure have prompted the need to develop this technical manual. This FHWA manual is intended to be a single-source technical manual providing guidelines for planning, design, construction and rehabilitation of road tunnels, and encompasses various types of tunnels including mined and bored tunnels (Chapters 6-10), cut-and-cover tunnels (Chapter 5), immersed tunnels (Chapter 11), and jacked box tunnels (Chapter 12).
The scope of the manual is primarily limited to the civil elements of design and construction of road tunnels. FHWA intended to develop a separate manual to address in details the design and construction issues of the system elements of road tunnels including fire life safety, ventilation, lighting, drainage, finishes, etc. This manual therefore only provides limited guidance on the system elements when appropriate.
Accordingly, the manual is organized as presented below.
Chapter 1 is an introductory chapter and provides general overview of the planning process of a road tunnel project including alternative route study, tunnel type study, operation and financial planning, and risk analysis and management.
Chapter 2 provides the geometrical requirements and recommendations of new road tunnels including horizontal and vertical alignments and tunnel cross section requirements.
Chapter 3 covers the geotechnical investigative techniques and parameters required for planning, design and construction of road tunnels. In addition to subsurface investigations, this chapter also addresses in brief information study; survey; site reconnaissance, geologic mapping, instrumentation, and other investigations made during and after construction.
Chapter 4 discusses the common types of geotechnical reports required for planning, design and construction of road tunnels including: Geotechnical Data Report (GDR) which presents all the factual geotechnical data; Geotechnical Design Memorandum (GDM) which presents interpretations of the geotechnical data and other information used to develop the designs; and Geotechnical Baseline Report (GBR) which defines the baseline conditions on which contractors will base their bids upon.
Chapter 5 presents the construction methodology and excavation support systems for cut-and-cover road tunnels, describes the structural design in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, and discusses various other design issues. A design example is included in Appendix C.
Chapters 6 through 10 present design recommendations and requirements for mined and bored road tunnels.
Chapters 6 and 7 present mined/bored tunneling issues in rock and soft ground, respectively. They present various excavation methods and temporary support elements and focus on the selection of temporary support of excavation and input for permanent lining design. Appendix D presents common types of rock and soft ground tunnel boring machines (TBM).
Chapter 8 addresses the investigation, design, construction and instrumentation concerns and issues for mining and boring in difficult ground conditions including: mixed face tunneling; high groundwater pressure and inflow; unstable ground such as running sands, sensitive clays, faults and shear zones, etc.; squeezing ground; swelling ground; and gassy ground.
Chapter 9 introduces the history, principles, and recent development of mined tunneling using Sequential Excavation Method (SEM), as commonly known as the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM). This chapter focuses on the analysis, design and construction issues for SEM tunneling.
Chapter 10 discusses permanent lining structural design and detailing for mined and bored tunnels based on LRFD methodology, and presents overall processes for design and construction of permanent tunnel lining. It encompasses various structural systems used for permanent linings including cast-in-place concrete lining, precast concrete segmental lining, steel line plate lining and shotcrete lining. A design example is presented in Appendix G.
Chapter 11 discusses immersed tunnel design and construction. It identifies various immersed tunnel types and their construction techniques. It also addresses the structural design approach and provides insights on the construction methodologies including fabrication, transportation, placement, joining and backfilling. It addresses the tunnel elements water tightness and the trench stability and foundation preparation requirements.
Chapter 12 presents jacked box tunneling, a unique tunneling method for constructing shallow rectangular road tunnels beneath critical facilities such as operating railways, major highways and airport runways without disruption of the services provided by these surface facilities or having to relocate them temporarily to accommodate open excavations for cut and cover construction.
Chapter 13 provides general procedure for seismic design and analysis of tunnel structures, which are based primarily on the ground deformation approach (as opposed to the inertial force approach); i.e., the structures should be designed to accommodate the deformations imposed by the ground.
Chapter 14 discusses tunnel construction engineering issues, i.e., the engineering that must go into a road tunnel project to make it constructible. This chapter examines various issues that need be engineered during the design process including project cost drivers; construction staging and sequencing; health and safety issues; muck transportation and disposal; and risk management and dispute resolution.
Chapter 15 presents the typical geotechnical and structural instrumentation for monitoring: 1), ground movement away from the tunnel; 2), building movement for structures within the zone of influence; 3), tunnel movement of the tunnel being constructed or adjacent tubes; 4), dynamic ground motion from drill & blast operation, and 5), groundwater movement due to changes in the water percolation pattern.
Lastly, Chapter 16 focuses on the identification, characterization and rehabilitation of structural defects in a tunnel system.
The development of this manual has been funded by the National Highway Institute, and supported by Parsons Brinckerhoff, as well as numerous authors and reviewers acknowledged hereafter including the following primary authors from Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB), and Gall Zeidler Consultants, LLC:
|Chapter 1||Planning - Nasri Munfah/ Christian Ingerslev|
|Chapter 2||Geometrical Configuration - Christian Ingerslev/ Jeremy Hung|
|Chapter 3||Geotechnical Investigation - Jeremy Hung/ Raymond Castelli|
|Chapter 4||Geotechnical Report - Raymond Castelli/ Jeremy Hung|
|Chapter 5||Cut-and-Cover Tunnels - John Wisniewski/ Nasri Munfah|
|Chapter 6||Rock Tunneling - James Monsees/ Sunghoon Choi|
|Chapter 7||Soft Ground Tunneling - James Monsees|
|Chapter 8||Difficult Ground Tunneling - James Monsees/ Terrence McCusker (Consultant)|
|Chapter 9||Sequential Excavation Method - Vojtech Gall/Kurt Zeidler|
|Chapter 10||Tunneling Lining - John Wisniewski|
|Chapter 11||Immersed Tunnels - Christian Ingerslev/Nasri Munfah|
|Chapter 12||Jacked Box Tunneling - Philip Rice/ Jeremy Hung|
|Chapter 13||Seismic Considerations - Jaw-Nan (Joe) Wang|
|Chapter 14||Construction Engineering - Thomas Peyton|
|Chapter 15||Geotechnical and Structural Instrumentation - Charles Daugherty, and|
|Chapter 16||Tunnel Rehabilitation - Henry Russell|
The Principal Investigators would like to especially acknowledge the support of the FHWA Task Manger, Firas Ibrahim, and the reviews and recommendations provided by the FHWA technical reviewers including Jesus Rohena, Jerry DiMaggio, Steven Ernst and Peter Osborn. Furthermore, the reviews and contributions of the following members of AASHTO T-20 Tunnel Committee are also acknowledged:
- Kevin Thompson, Chair, Caltrans
- Bruce Johnson, Vice Chair, Oregon DOT
- Donald Dwyer, New York State DOT
- Louis Ruzzi, Pennsylvania DOT
- Prasad Nallapaneni, Virginia DOT
- Michael Salamon, Colorado DOT
- Bijan Khaleghi, Washington DOT
- Alexander Bardow, Massachusetts Highway Department
- Dharam Pal, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
- Moe Amini, Caltrans, and
- Harry Capers, Arora and Associates, P.C.
The Principal Investigators and authors would like to express our special thanks to Dr. George Munfakh of PB for his continuing support, advice and encouragement.
We further acknowledge the support of Gene McCormick of PB, and the contributions and reviews from Sunghoon Choi, Joe O'Carroll, Doug Anderson, Kyle Ott, Frank Pepe, and Bill Hansmire of PB, Dr. Andrzej Nowak of University of Nebraska, and Tony Ricci and Nabil Hourani of MassHighway.
Chapter 8 is an update of the Chapter 8 "Tunneling in Difficult Ground" of the 2nd Edition Tunnel Engineering Handbook authored by Terrence G. McCusker (Bickel, et al., 1996). The Principal Investigators appreciate PB for providing the original manuscript for the chapter.
In addition, we appreciate the information provided by Herrenknecht AG, the Robbins Company, and several other manufacturers and contractors from the tunneling industry.
Lastly, the Principal Investigators and authors would like to extend our gratitude to the supports provided by a number of professionals from PB and Gall Zeidler Consultants, LLC. including Taehyun Moon, Kevin Doherty, Mitchell Fong, Rudy Holley, Benny Louie, Tim O'Brien and Dominic Reda for their assistance; Jose Morales and Jeff Waclawski for graphic support, and finally Amy Pavlakovich, Lauren Chu, Alejandra Morales, Mary Halliburton, and Maria Roberts for their assistance and overall word processing and compiling.
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