
Effects Of Geosynthetic Reinforcement Spacing On The Behavior Of Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls
FHWARD03048
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
 INTRODUCTION
 BACKGROUND
 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
 RESULTS
 COMPARISON WITH EXISTING DESIGN PRACTICE
 IMPLICATIONS TO DESIGN
 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
LIST OF FIGURES
 3.1 Numerical Model Components.
 3.2 Schematic of Modeling of Construction Sequence of Wall with Reinforcement Spacing Equal to 0.4 m.
 3.3 Definition of: (a) Failure State; (b) Critical State; (c) Stable State
 3.4 Typical Numerical Grid.
 3.5 Grid Definition: (a) Model Zones with Respect to Grid Generation; (b) Grid of Modular Blocks in the Current Model; (c) Grid of Modular Blocks in Early Versions of the Model.
 3.6 Boundary Effects on Model Response: Horizontal Displacements along Vertical Section A Located 0.1 m behind the Facing.
 3.7 Boundary Effects on Model Response: Stress Distributions along Vertical Section A Located 0.15 m behind the Facing.
 3.8 Types of Interfaces at the Blocks.
 3.9 Baseline Cases: (a) Number of Calculation Steps Necessary to Equilibrate Each Layer; (b) Maximum Cumulative Displacement during Wall Construction
 3.10 Effects of FLAC Equilibrium Ratio Limit on Model Response of Case 1 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Number of Calculation Steps; (b) Maximum Cumulative Displacement.
 3.11 Effects of FLAC Step Limit on Model Response of Case 12 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Number of Calculation Steps; (b) Maximum Cumulative Displacement.
 3.12 Reinforcement Layout with Primary and Secondary Layers for Case 7 (s=0.6/0.2 m).
 3.13 Some of the Executed Numerical Runs.
 4.1 Critical Wall Height and Prevailing Mode of Failure: (a) Cases with Very Stiff Foundation; (b) Cases with Baseline Foundation.
 4.2 Change of Critical Wall Height with Respect to Soil Strength: (a) Cases with Very Stiff Foundation; (b) Cases with Baseline Foundation.
 4.3 Slip Surface Types: (a) External Slip Surface; (b) DeepSeated Slip Surface; (c) Compound Slip Surface; (d) Internal Slip Surface
 4.4 Definition of Vertical Sections A, B, and C along which Stress and Displacement Distributions Were Investigated.
 4.5 State of Soil for Case 1 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.6 m, l/h=0.17); (b) Critical State (h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23).
 4.6 Displacement Vectors for Case 1 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.6 m, l/h=0.17); (b) Critical State (h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23).
 4.7 Distorted Grid for Case 1 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.6 m, l/h=0.17); (b) Critical State (h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23).
 4.8 Cumulative Horizontal Displacements for Case 1 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.6 m, l/h=0.17); (b) Critical State (h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23).
 4.9 Axial Force Distribution in Reinforcement for Case 1 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.6 m, l/h=0.17); (b) Critical State (h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23).
 4.10 State of Soil for Case 1 (s=0.4 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.2 m, l/h=0.18); (b) Critical State (h=6.0 m, l/h=0.25).
 4.11 State of Soil for Case 4 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=7.0 m, l/h=0.21); (b) Critical State (h=5.6 m, l/h=0.27).
 4.12 State of Soil for Case 9 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.2 m, l/h=0.18); (b) Critical State (h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23).
 4.13 State of Soil for Case 11 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=7.2 m, l/h=0.21); (b) Critical State (h=6.0 m, l/h=0.25).
 4.14 State of Soil for Case 12 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=9.4 m, l/h=0.16); (b) Critical State (h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23).
 4.15 State of Soil for Case 10 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=4.4 m, l/h=0.34); (b) Critical State (h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47).
 4.16 Displacement Vectors for Case 10 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=4.4 m, l/h=0.34); (b) Critical State (h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47).
 4.17 Distorted Grid for Case 10 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=4.4 m, l/h=0.34); (b) Critical State (h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47).
 4.18 Horizontal Displacements for Case 10 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m) at Failure State (h=4.4 m, l/h=0.34) and Critical State (h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47).
 4.19 Axial Force Distribution in Reinforcement for Case 10 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=4.4 m, l/h=0.34); (b) Critical State (h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47).
 4.20 State of Soil for Case 5 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=5.4 m, l/h=0.28); (b) Critical State (h=4.2 m, l/h=0.36).
 4.21 State of Soil for Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.0 m, l/h=0.19); (b) Critical State (h=5.0 m, l/h=0.30).
 4.22 Displacement Vectors for Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.0 m, l/h=0.19); (b) Critical State (h=5.0 m, l/h=0.30).
 4.23 Distorted Grid for Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.0 m, l/h=0.19); (b) Critical State (h=5.0 m, l/h=0.30).
 4.24 Horizontal Displacements for Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, l=1.5 m) at Failure (h=8.0 m, l/h=0.19) and Critical State (h=5.0 m, l/h=0.30).
 4.25 Axial Force Distribution in Reinforcement for Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=8.0 m, l/h=0.19); (b) Critical State (h=5.0 m, l/h=0.30).
 4.26 State of Soil for Case 2 (s=0.4 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=6.0 m, l/h=0.25); (b) Critical State (h=4.4 m, l/h=0.34).
 4.27 State of Soil for Case 3 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=4.2 m, l/h=0.36); (b) Critical State (h=4.0 m, l/h=0.38).
 4.28 State of Soil for Case 7 (s=0.6/0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=6.0 m, l/h=0.25); (b) Critical State (h=5.0 m, l/h=0.30).
 4.29 State of Soil for Case 8–2 (s=0.4 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=5.4 m, l/h=0.28); (b) Critical State (h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47).
 4.30 State of Soil for Case 8–3 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=5.0 m, l/h=0.30); (b) Critical State (h=2.2 m, l/h=0.68).
 4.31 State of Soil for Case 12 (s=0.6 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=6.0 m, l/h=0.25); (b) Critical State (h=4.6 m, l/h=0.33).
 4.32 State of Soil for Case 2 (s=0.6 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=4.6 m, l/h=0.33); (b) Critical State (h=2.6 m, l/h=0.58).
 4.33 Displacement Vectors for Case 2 (s=0.6 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=4.6 m, l/h=0.33); (b) Critical State (h=2.6 m, l/h=0.58).
 4.34 Distorted Grid for Case 2 (s=0.6 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=4.6 m, l/h=0.33); (b) Critical State (h=2.6 m, l/h=0.58).
 4.35 Horizontal Displacements for Case 2 (s=0.6 m, l=1.5 m) at Failure State (h=4.6 m, l/h=0.33) and Critical State (h=2.6 m, l/h=0.58).
 4.36 Axial Force Distribution in Reinforcement for Case 2 (s=0.6 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=4.6 m, l/h=0.33); (b) Critical State (h=2.6 m, l/h=0.58).
 4.37 State of Soil for Case 4 (s=0.6 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Failure State (h=5.4 m, l/h=0.28); (b) Critical State (h=3.8 m, l/h=0.39).
 4.38 Case 1 (s=0.4 m, l=1.5 m, h=5.0 m): (a) State of Soil; (b) Axial Force Distribution in Reinforcement.
 4.39 Connection Force and Maximum Force in Reinforcement for Case 1 (s=0.4 m, h=5.0 m, BR) and Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, h=5.0 m, DR): Effects of Reinforcement Stiffness.
 4.40 Horizontal Displacements along Section A: Comparison with Respect to Reinforcement Stiffness.
 4.41 State of Soil for Cases 2 and 8–2 (s=0.4 m, h=3.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Case 2 (BR); (b) Case 8–2 (DR).
 4.42 Axial Force Distributions in Reinforcement for Cases 2 and 8–2 (s=0.4 m, h=3.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Case 2 (BR); (b) Case 8–2 (DR).
 4.43 Connection Force and Maximum Force in Reinforcement for Case 2 (s=0.4 m, h=3.2 m, BR) and Case 8–2 (s=0.4 m, h=3.2 m, DR): Effects of Reinforcement Stiffness.
 4.44 State of Soil for Cases 3 and 8–3 (s=0.2 m, h=2.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Case 3 (BR); (b) Case 8–3 (DR).
 4.45 Axial Force Distributions in Reinforcement for Cases 3 and 8–3 (s=0.2 m, h=2.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) Case 3 (BR); (b) Case 8–3 (DR).
 4.46 Connection Force and Maximum Force in Reinforcement for Case 3 (s=0.2 m, h=2.2 m, BR) and Case 8–3 (s=0.2 m, h=2.2 m, DR): Effects of Reinforcement Stiffness.
 4.47 Effects of Connection Strength on Connection Force for Cases with Small Reinforcement Spacing (s=0.2 m).
 4.48 Effects of Connection Strength on Maximum Force in Reinforcement for Cases with Small Reinforcement Spacing (s=0.2 m).
 4.49 Effects of Connection Strength on Horizontal Displacements along Section A for Cases with Small Reinforcement Spacing (s=0.2 m).
 4.50 Effects of Connection Strength on Connection Force and Maximum Force in Reinforcement for Cases with Large Reinforcement Spacing (s=0.6 m).
 4.51 Axial Force Distribution in Reinforcement for Case 12 (l=1.5 m): (a) s=0.2 m, h=6.6 m; (b) s=0.6 m, h=2.6 m.
 4.52 Effects of Connection Strength on Horizontal Displacements along Section A for Cases with Large Reinforcement Spacing (s=0.6 m).
 4.53 Effects of Foundation Strength on Critical Wall Height.
 4.54 Effects of Foundation Strength for Cases 1, 4, and 10 (s=0.2 m, l=1.5 m h=3.2 m) on: (a) Horizontal Displacements along Section A; (b) Connection Force and Maximum Axial Force in Reinforcement; (c) Stresses along Section A.
 4.55 Stress Distributions along Section A for Critical and Stable States of Case 1 (s=0.2 m, h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23–0.5).
 4.56 Stress Distributions along Section C for Critical and Stable States of Case 1 (s=0.2 m, h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23–0.5).
 4.57 Horizontal Displacements along Sections A and B for Critical and Stable States of Case 1 (s=0.2 m, h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23–0.5).
 4.58 Maximum Axial Force in Reinforcement for Critical and Stable States of Case 1 (s=0.2 m, h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23–0.5).
 4.59 Connection Force for Critical and Stable States of Case 1 (s=0.2 m, h=6.6 m, l/h=0.23–0.5).
 4.60 Stress Distributions along Section A for Critical and Stable States of Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, h=5.0 m, l/h=0.3–0.5).
 4.61 Stress Distributions along Section C for Critical and Stable States of Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, h=5.0 m, l/h=0.3–0.5).
 4.62 Horizontal Displacements along Sections A and B for Critical and Stable States of Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, h=5.0 m, l/h=0.3–0.5).
 4.63 Connection Force and Maximum Axial Force in Reinforcement for Critical and Stable States of Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, h=5.0 m, l/h=0.3–0.5)
 4.64 Stress Distributions along Section A for Critical and Stable States of Case 10 (s=0.2 m, h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47–0.7).
 4.65 Stress Distributions along Section C for Critical and Stable States of Case 10 (s=0.2 m, h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47–0.7).
 4.66 Horizontal Displacements along Sections A and B for Critical and Stable States of Case 10 (s=0.2 m, h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47–0.7).
 4.67 Connection Force and Maximum Axial Force in Reinforcement for Critical and Stable States of Case 10 (s=0.2 m, h=3.2 m, l/h=0.47–.7).
 4.68 Effects of Secondary Reinforcement: Axial Force Distribution in Reinforcement for Case 7 (s=0.6/0.2 m), (a) h=2.6 m; (b) h=5.0 m.
 4.69 Effects of Secondary Reinforcement: State of Soil for Case 7 (h=2.6 m, s=0.6/0.2 m).
 4.70 Effects of Secondary Reinforcement: Horizontal Displacements along Section A for Cases 2 and 7 (h=2.6 m).
 4.71 Effects of Secondary Reinforcement: Connection Force and Maximum Axial Force in Reinforcement for Cases 2 and 7 (h=2.6 m).
 5.1 Maximum Force in Reinforcement: Comparison of FLAC and AASHTO Results for Case 1 (s=0.4 m) and Case 2 (s=0.6 m).
 5.2 Maximum Force in Reinforcement: Comparison of FLAC and AASHTO Results for Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m) and Case 10 (s=0.2 m).
 5.3 Comparison of FLAC and AASHTO Results for Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, h=5.0 m, l=1.5 m): (a) MSEW 1.1 Analysis: Critical Slip Surface from Compound Stability Analysis; (b) FLAC Analysis: Failure Zones Distribution at the Critical State.
 5.4 Comparison of FLAC and AASHTO Results for Case 10 (s=0.2 m, h=3.2 m, l=1.5 m): (a) MSEW 1.1 Analysis: Critical Slip Surface from DeepSeated Stability Analysis; (b) FLAC Analysis: Failure Zones Distribution at the Critical State.
 5.5 Stress Distributions along Sections A and C for Failure State of Case 1 (s=0.2 m, h=8.6 m, l/h=0.17).
 5.6 Stress Distributions along Sections A and C for Critical State of Case 1 (s=0.2 m, h=8.6 m, l/h=0.17).
 5.7 Stress Distributions along Sections A and C for Failure State of Case 2 (s=0.6 m, h=4.6 m, l/h=0.33).
 5.8 Stress Distributions along Sections A and C for Critical State of Case 2 (s=0.6 m, h=4.6 m, l/h=0.33).
 5.9 Stress Distributions along Sections A and C for Failure State of Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, h=8.0 m, l/h=0.19).
 5.10 Stress Distributions along Sections A and C for Critical State of Case 8–1 (s=0.4 m, h=8.0 m, l/h=0.19).
 5.11 Stress Distributions along Sections A and C for Failure State of Case 10 (s=0.2 m, h=4.4 m, l/h=0.34).
 5.12 Stress Distributions along Sections A and C for Critical State of Case 10 (s=0.2 m, h=4.4 m, l/h=0.34).
LIST OF TABLES
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