Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations:
Lessons Learned on the Central Artery/Tunnel Project
Report No. FHWA-HRT-05-159
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The purpose of this report is to document the issues related to the design and construction of driven pile foundations at the Central Artery/Tunnel project. Construction issues that are presented include pile heave and the heave of an adjacent building during pile driving. Mitigation measures, including the installation of wick drains and the use of preaugering, proved to be ineffective. The results of 15 dynamic and static load tests are also presented and suggest that the piles have more capacity than what they were designed for. The information presented in this report will be of interest to geotechnical engineers working with driven pile foundation systems.
Gary L. Henderson
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development
This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.
The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.
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Technical Report Documentation Page
|1. Report No.
||2. Government Accession No.
||3. Recipient's Catalog No.
|4. Title and Subtitle Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations– Lessons Learned on the Central Artery/Tunnel Project
||5. Report Date June 2006
|6. Performing Organization Code
|7. Author(s) Aaron S. Bradshaw and Christopher D.P. Baxter
||8. Performing Organization Report No.
|9. Performing Organization Name and Address University of Rhode Island Narragansett, RI 02882
||10. Work Unit No.
|11. Contract or Grant No. DTFH61-03-P-00174
|12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address Office of Infrastructure Research and Development Federal Highway Administration 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean, VA 22101-2296
13. Type of Report and Period Covered Final Report
January 2003–August 2003
|14. Sponsoring Agency Code
|15. Supplementary Notes Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR): Carl Ealy, HRDS-06
|16. Abstract Five contracts from the Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) project in Boston, MA, were reviewed to document issues related to design and construction of driven pile foundations. Given the soft and compressible marine clays in the Boston area, driven pile foundations were selected to support specific structures, including retaining walls, abutments, roadway slabs, transition structures, and ramps. This report presents the results of a study to assess the lessons learned from pile driving on the CA/T. This study focused on an evaluation of static and dynamic load test data and a case study of significant movement of an adjacent building during pile driving. The load test results showed that the piles have more capacity than what they were designed for. At the site of significant movement of an adjacent building, installation of wick drains and preaugering to mitigate additional movement proved to be ineffective. Detailed settlement, inclinometer, and piezometer data are presented.
|17. Key Words Driven piles, heave, CAPWAP, static load test, Boston tunnel
||18. Distribution Statement No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.
|19. Security Classif. (of this report) Unclassified
||20. Security Classif. (of this page) Unclassified
21. No. of Pages
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized
SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors
Table Of Contents
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
ROLE OF DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATIONS ON THE CA/T PROJECT
CHAPTER 2. Driven PILE DESIGN CRITERIA AND SPECIFICATIONS
DESIGN CRITERIA AND SPECIFICATIONS
Pile Driving Criteria
Axial Load and Pile Load Test Criteria
CHAPTER 3. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT AND METHODS
EQUIPMENT AND METHODS
CHAPTER 4. DYNAMIC AND STATIC PILE LOAD TEST DATA
LOAD TEST METHODS
Dynamic Load Test Methods
Static Load Test Methods
LOAD TEST RESULTS
Dynamic Results and Interpretation
Comparison of CAPWAP Data
Static Load Test Data
Comparison of Dynamic and Static Load Test Data
CHAPTER 5. COST DATA OF DRIVEN PILES
CHAPTER 6. LESSONS LEARNED
List Of Figures
Figure 1. Locations of selected contracts from the CA/T project.
Figure 2. Soil profile at the contract C07D1 site as encountered in Boring EB3-5
Figure 3. Soil profile at the contract C07D2 site as encountered in Boring EB2-149
Figure 4. Soil profile at the contract C08A1 site as encountered in Boring EB6-37
Figure 5. Soil profile at the contract C09A4 site as encountered in Boring IC10-13
Figure 6. Soil profile at the contract C19B1 site as encountered in Boring AN3-101
Figure 7. Typical pile details for a 30-cm-diameter PPC pile
Figure 8. Typical pile details for a 41-cm-diameter PPC pile with stinger
Figure 9. Single-acting diesel hammer
Figure 10. Double-acting diesel hammer
Figure 11. Single-acting hydraulic hammer
Figure 12. Typical pile driving record
Figure 13. Site plan, piling layout for the arrivals tunnel at Logan Airport
Figure 14. Site plan showing locations of piles, building footprint, and geotechnical instrumentation
Figure 15. Settlement data obtained during first phase of pile driving
Figure 16. Settlement data obtained during second phase of pile driving
Figure 17. Multipoint heave gauge data obtained during second phase of pile driving
Figure 18. Pore pressure data obtained during second phase of pile driving
Figure 19. Inclinometer data obtained during second phase of pile driving
Figure 20. Example of CAPWAP signal matching, test pile 16A1-1
Figure 21. Typical static load test arrangement showing instrumentation
Figure 22. Load-displacement curves for pile toe, test pile 16A1-1
Figure 23. CAPWAP capacities at end of initial driving (EOD) and beginning
of restrike (BOR)
Figure 24. Deflection of pile head during static load testing of pile 12A1-1
Figure 25. Distribution of load in pile 12A1-1
Figure 26. Deflection of pile head during static load testing of pile 14
Figure 27. Distribution of load in pile 14
Figure 28. Deflection of pile head during static load testing of pile IPW
Figure 29. Distribution of load in pile IPW
List Of Tables
Table 1. Summary of selected contracts using driven pile foundations
Table 2. Summary of pile types used on the selected CA/T contracts
Table 3. Summary of pile types and axial capacity (requirements identified in the selected contracts)
Table 4. Summary of pile driving equipment used on the selected contracts
Table 5. Summary of pile spacing from selected contracts
Table 6. Maximum building heave observed during pile driving
Table 7. Summary of pile and preauger information
Table 8. Summary of pile driving information
Table 9. Summary of CAPWAP capacity data
Table 10. Summary of CAPWAP soil parameters
Table 11. Summary of static load test data
Table 12. Summary of dynamic and static load test data
Table 13. Summary of contractor's bid costs for pile driving.
Table 14. Summary of contractor's bid costs for preaugering