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Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems

Concrete

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Slide 1. Concrete Industry Efforts and Capabilities to Support PBES Deployment

Speaker Notes:

This Module will discuss your concrete choices for PBES.

 

Slide 2. Learning Outcomes

  • All Elements of a Typical Bridge Can Be Prefabricated.
  • Concrete Offers Myriad of Sections for Owners to Use
  • Numerous Connections Developed and Proven.
  • Multiple Resources Available to Assist Agencies/Consultants/Contractors with PBES Implementation.
 

Slide 3. National Concrete Bridge Council

  • American Coal Ash Association
  • American Segmental Bridge Institute
  • Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
  • Expanded Shale, Clay, and Slate Institute
  • National Ready Mixed Concrete Association
  • Portland Cement Association
  • Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute
  • Post-Tensioning Institute
  • Slag Cement Association
  • Silica Fume Association
  • Wire Reinforcement Institute

Speaker Notes:

These are the members of the National Concrete Bridge Council. Resources to help State DOTs, FHWA Division Offices, Consultants, Professors, and Contractors with the design and construction of prefabricated bridge elements and systems are available from these organizations.

American Coal Ash Association (ACAA):
Contact = Tom Adams, thadams@acaa-usa.org,
http://www.acaa-usa.org/

American Segmental Bridge Institute (ASBI):
Contact = Randy Cox, wrcox@asbi-assoc.org,
http://www.asbi-assoc.org/index.cfm

Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI):
Contact = Neal Anderson, nanderson@crsi.org,
http://www.crsi.org/

Expanded Shale, Clay, and Slate Institute (ESCSI):
Contact = Reid Castrodale, rcastrodale@staalite.com, http://www.escsi.org/Default.aspx

National Ready Mix Concrete Association (NRMCA): Contact = Lionel Lemay, LLemay@nrmca.org,
http://www.nrmca.org/

Portland Cement Association (PCA):
Contact = Sue Lane, SLane@cement.org,
http://www.cement.org/bridges/br_abc.asp

Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI):
Contact = William Nickas, WNickas@pci.org,
http://www.pci.org/intro.cfm

Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI):
Contact = Ted Neff, TedNeff@post-tensioning.org,
http://www.post-tensioning.org/

Slag Cement Association (SCA):
Contact = Tony Fiorato, tony@slagcement.org,
http://www.slagcement.org/

Silica Fume Association (SFA):
Contact = Tony Kojundic, tony.kojundic@elkem.com,
http://www.silicafume.org/

Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI):
Contact = Todd Hawkinson,
todd@hawkinsonassociates.com,
http://www.wirereinforcementinstitute.org/

 

Slide 4. Presentation Outline

  • Prefabricated Concrete Bridge Elements
  • Standard Sections and Details
  • Connections Between Prefabricated Concrete Elements
  • Assuring Excellent Quality of Concrete Elements
  • Conclusions

Speaker Notes:

This module will cover 5 major topics:

  1. The Concrete Elements in PBES;
  2. What Standard Sections and Details are available to Owners, Designers, and Contractors;
  3. Viable Options for Connecting the Elements;
  4. Making Sure that Owners, Consultants, and Contractors Have the Best Quality Concrete Elements;
  5. Some Summary Thoughts;
 

Slide 5. Prefabricated Concrete Bridge Elements

Speaker Notes:

Let’s first discuss the Concrete Elements that make up PBES. These have all been used successfully on State DOT bridge projects.

 

Slide 6. What are Prefabricated Bridge Elements & Systems?

  • Superstructures
    • Deck Panels: Partial & Full-Depth
    • Prefabricated Beams: Optimized for ABC, Optimized Shape, or Best Selected Section
    • Total Superstructure Systems:
    • Composite Units, Truss Spans
  • Substructures
    • Pier Caps, Columns, & Footings
    • Abutment Walls, Wing Walls, & Footings
    • Total Substructure Systems
  • Totally Prefabricated Bridges

Speaker Notes:

While prefabricated elements such as precast, prestressed concrete beams have been used in bridges for more than half a century, the current prefabricated bridges initiative also includes newer systems, such as full-depth deck panels and whole superstructure and substructure systems, that are fabricated offsite or near-site and then quickly installed at the site.

PBES Superstructures include:

  • Precast, Prestressed Deck – These can partial depth panels (Sub-deck panels) which function as stay-in-place forms as the remaining cast-in-place portion of the deck is constructed or be full depth precast deck panels.
  • Many shapes of Prefabricated Beams – When coupled with High-Strength High Performance Concrete, these beams can span longer distances (possibly eliminating the need for an additional pier), can be of reduced depth (improving underclearances), or a fewer number of these beams can be used for a given cross-section and span length.
  • Total Superstructures Fabricated Off-site and moved into place – These can include the beams and deck already fabricated, sometimes coming with a sidewalk or bridge rails.
  • Prefabricated Decks can be Precast and Pre-attached to Steel Beams – These form Composite Units;

PBES Substructures Include:

  • Precast Concrete Pier Caps, Columns or Piers, and Footings;
  • Precast Concrete Abutments, Wing Walls, and Footings;
  • Total Substructure Systems – Precast Pier Caps, Columns, Abutments, Wing Walls, and Footings or Prestressed Concrete Piles;

PBES Totally Prefabricated Bridges:

  • Precast Concrete Deck;
  • Prestressed Concrete Beams;
  • Precast Concrete Pier Caps;
  • Precast Concrete Columns/Piers;
  • Precast Abutment;
  • Precast Wing Walls;
  • Precast Footing and/or Prestressed Concrete Piles;
 

Slide 7. Precast Deck on Precast Concrete Girders

This diagram shows shows Precast Deck Panels on Precast Prestressed Concrete Girders.


Speaker Notes:

This slide shows Precast Deck Panels on Precast Prestressed Concrete Girders.

 

Slide 8. Utah DOT MP200 Bridge

Photo of Utah DOT MP200 Bridge
Photo Courtesy of Utah DOT

Speaker Notes:

This slide shows prefabricated concrete deck panels on top of concrete girders.

The MP200 Bridge is on US-6 between Spanish Fork and Price, Utah. This 93-foot long bridge was completed in June 2009. Prefabricated AASHTO Type VI Prestressed Concrete Beams were used; their 28-day compressive strength was 7500 psi. The abutment, deck, and parapets were all constructed with 4000 psi concrete.

 

Slide 9. Utah DOT Beaver Creek Bridge

GFRP Rebar in Deck Panels

Photo of Rebar in Deck Panels
Photo Courtesy of Utah DOT

Speaker Notes:

The Beaver Creek Bridge also was constructed with prefabricated deck panels on prefabricated concrete beams.

The Beaver Creek Bridge used precast, prestressed AASHTO Type IV concrete beams, with a compressive strength of 6000 psi. This 88-foot-2-in long bridge is located on US-6 between Spanish Fork and Price, Utah, and in addition to crossing the Beaver Creek also provides a wildlife passage. The deck, parapet, approach slabs and abutment are all constructed with 400 psi concrete. The precast concrete substructure was assembled onsite. The bridge was completed in October 2009.

Note that the reinforcement for this bridge was two mats (upper and lower) of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) rebar. The deck panels were post-tensioned longitudinally with steel strands.

 

Slide 10. Precast Decks on Steel Framing

Precast Decks on Steel Framing


Speaker Notes:

Precast Concrete Deck Panels can also be used with Steel Girders.

 

Slide 11. Utah DOT Eagle Canyon Bridge

Photo of Utah DOT Eagle Canyon Bridge
Photo Courtesy of Utah DOT

Speaker Notes:

The Eagle Canyon Bridge was a deck replacement project consisting of prefabricated concrete deck panels placed on top of the existing steel girders.

This bridge is located on I-70 between Salina, Utah and Green River, Colorado. It has a span of 484-feet-6-1/2-inches.

 

Slide 12. Utah DOT Eagle Canyon Bridge

Photo of Utah DOT Eagle Canyon Bridge
Photo Courtesy of Utah DOT and FHWA-Utah Division

Speaker Notes:

The Eagle Canyon bridge was constructed with full depth, full width concrete deck panels. The concrete strength of the deck panels and parapet was 4000 psi.

 

Slide 13. PBES Concrete Elements

Superstructure:

  • Adjacent Slab and Box Beams without CIP Deck
    • With or Without Overlay;
  • Deck Bulb Tee Beams Without CIP Deck
    • With or Without Overlay;
  • Precast Segmental Box Segments
  • Precast Arch Spans

Speaker Notes:

There are a plethora of options when it comes to prefabricated concrete beams/girders.  Many standard shapes already exist across the U.S. In some instances, regional beam shapes are in use. The following slides will show many of these options.

 

Slide 14. FDOT Graves Avenue Over I-4 Bridge Replacement – 2006

Half-Hour Rolling Roadblocks

Half-Hour Rolling Roadblocks on I-4 to
Remove 71-ft Long, 30-ft Wide, 250-ton Spans

143-ft Long, 59-ft Wide

143-ft Long, 59-ft Wide 1,300-ton Replacement
Spans Built in Adjacent Staging Area

Speaker Notes:

The Florida Department of Transportation’s (FDOT)

Graves Avenue over Interstate Four (I-4) Bridge Replacement Project was the first use of Self-Propelled Modular Transporters (SPMTs) to move bridge spans that crossed a U.S. Interstate highway.

Information about this project:

  • Precast Prestressed 78-inch Deep Florida Bulb-Tee Girders in Replacement Superstructure;
  • 8-inch Cast-in-Place Reinforced Concrete Deck in Replacement Bridge;
  • Existing Spans Removed By SPMTs;
  • New Girders and Deck Pre-Assembled Adjacent to Bridge Site;
  • SPMTs Moved New Girders and Deck into Place;
  • Each new span installed in few hours overnight;
  • I-4 closed two partial nights for installations;

Old Bridge:

  • 215-ft long, 30-ft wide
  • 4 spans: 37’–70.5’–70.5’–37’
  • AASHTO Type III beams
  • 250 tons per 70.5-ft span
  • Two 6-axle SPMTs

New Bridge:

  • 286-ft long, 59-ft wide
  • 2 spans: 143’–143’
  • Florida 78" Bulb-T beams
  • 1,300 tons per span
  • Eight 6-axle SPMTs

Costs:

  • Supplemental Agreement for Change Order to existing contract – $570,000;

Benefits:

  • Graves Avenue detour reduced from 12 to 8 months, in time for start of school;
  • I-4 lane closures decreased from 32 nights to 4 nights;
  • Delay-related user cost savings of $2.2M;
 

Slide 15. Utah DOT Lambs Canyon Bridge

Photo of Utah DOT Lambs Canyon Bridge
Photo Courtesy Utah DOT

Speaker Notes:

This slide shows a prefabricated superstructure being transported to the bridge site using SPMTs. The superstructure consists of AASHTO Type IV Prestressed Concrete Beams (6000 psi compressive strength) with 4000 psi deck and parapets.

The Lambs Canyon Bridge is an 84-foot long bridge located on I-80 between Salt Lake City and Park City, Utah.

 

Slide 16. PBES Element Definitions

Pier Cap, Column, and/or Footing:
Combination of Precast & CIP Concrete Interior Support Elements:

  • Precast Pier Cap with CIP Column(s);
  • Precast Pier Cap and Precast column(s) with CIP Pile Cap Footing;
  • Precast Spread Footing with Precast Column(s); etc.
Diagram of Precast Piers

Precast Piers

Photo of a Precast Pier Cap

Precast Pier Cap


Speaker Notes:

There are also many options when it comes to precast concrete substructure elements. There are no national standard shapes yet for these elements, but many states have developed or are developing their own state standards and details for these elements.

The substructure can be constructed with all precast elements, or can be a combination of precast and cast-in-place (CIP) elements.

 

Slide 17. Precast Piers

Photo of a Precast Pier Cap Details for a Precast Pier Cap

Speaker Notes:

Precast Pier Cap is shown, along with details.

 

Slide 18. Precast Abutments

Diagram of a Precast Abutments
  • New Hampshire DOT Detail
  • Epping Bridge

Speaker Notes

Precast abutments have also been used for PBES. This detail was used by New Hampshire DOT on their Epping bridge construction.

 

Slide 19. Precast Abutments

Diagram of Precast Abutments
  • Maine DOT used on 3 Bridges

Speaker Notes:

Precast abutments can also be constructed by connecting prefabricated sections as shown.

Maine DOT used this method on the construction of 3 bridges.

 

Slide 20. Precast Approach Slab

Photos of a prefabricated concrete approach slab being set in place for the Upton-Andover Dam Bridge Replacement in Maine.
Photo Courtesy of PCI Northeast

Speaker Notes

Concrete Approach Slabs can also be prefabricated. This slide shows a prefabricated concrete approach slab being set in place for the Upton-Andover Dam Bridge Replacement in Maine. Maine DOT removed the old steel bridge and replaced it with a total precast concrete bridge, including approach slabs, with only 96 hours of roadway closure. The bridge replacement was done using conventional equipment, not SPMTs.

 

Slide 21. Total Bridge Prefabrication

Diagram of a Total Bridge Prefabrication

Speaker Notes

As was seen in the previous slide with Maine DOT, a total precast concrete bridge can be fabricated and then constructed in a very short time.

 

Slide 22. Colorado DOT SH 86 over Mitchell Gulch Bridge Replacement – 2002

Features:

  • Precast Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders, Post-Tensioned Together
  • Bridge Railing Precast into Outside Girders
  • Precast Reinforced Concrete Abutments
  • Precast Reinforced Concrete Wingwalls

Speaker Notes:

Colorado DOT’s State Highway 86 Bridge over Mitchell Gulch is located between Castle Rock and Franktown in Douglas County southeast of Denver, CO. The original timber bridge was built in 1953 and rated in 2002 as one of Colorado’s ten worst bridges. The existing 40-ft long 2-span timber bridge was 26-ft wide with two 11-ft lanes and two 1.5-ft shoulders. The new 40-ft long concrete bridge, with 35-ft-clear single span, was 43-ft wide to accommodate two 12-ft lanes and two 8-ft shoulders.

Colorado DOT awarded the construction contract to Lawrence Construction Company to replace the deteriorated bridge with a conventional 3-cell cast-in-place concrete box culvert. However, the contractor was concerned about the steep downgrade of one of the approaches and a nearby curve, and how this would affect the safety of his construction crews. The contractor teamed with a local design firm, Wilson & Company, to design and submit a value engineering change proposal to build the single-span totally prefabricated bridge over a weekend to improve the safety of his crew.

 

Slide 23. State Highway 86 Bridge over Mitchell Gulch, Colorado – 2002

State Highway 86 Bridge over Mitchell Gulch, Colorado – 2002. Photo of a wingwall. State Highway 86 Bridge over Mitchell Gulch, Colorado – 2002. Photo of units with railing.

  • Precast Concrete Abutments
  • Wingwalls
  • Superstructure
  • Units with Railing

State Highway 86 Bridge over Mitchell Gulch, Colorado – 2002. Photo of a precasted concrete abutment.

Speaker Notes:

Prior to the bridge closure, the contractor constructed a short detour to divert traffic for the weekend, and also drove 40-ft deep steel H piles at the abutments in the stream banks just outside the existing roadway width. The precast concrete abutments, wingwalls, and superstructure units were fabricated at Plum Creek Products Company in Littleton and shipped to the site just before being installed.

At 7 p.m. on a Friday in August 2002, the bridge was closed and traffic diverted to the detour. The existing timber bridge was demolished. Early Saturday morning, 44-ft wide precast abutments and 23-ft long precast wingwalls with embedded steel plates were erected with a crane and welded to the steel H piles and to each other prior to placing flowable fill behind the abutments. On Saturday afternoon, the eight 38’-4" long, 5’-4" wide, and 1’-6" deep precast superstructure units were erected, including the edge units complete with precast railing. The units were then transversely post-tensioned and grouted. Work stopped at 11 p.m. on Saturday and resumed Sunday morning at 7 a.m. to complete the earthwork and asphalt overlay.

The bridge was reopened to traffic at 5 p.m. on Sunday, 46 hours after closure of the existing bridge. Only 38 hours of construction work were required for the replacement. The bridge is expected to see at least a 75-year service life due to the quality of its prefabricated components and the attention given to connection details.

 

Slide 24. Mill Street Bridge over Lamprey River, New Hampshire – 2004

Features:

  • Precast Pretensioned HPC Adjacent Box Beams, Post-Tensioned Together
  • Precast Reinforced HP-SCC Abutments
  • Precast Reinforced HP-SCC Wingwalls
  • Precast Reinforced HP-SCC Spread Footings
  • 75-yr life for plant-produced HPC components

Speaker Notes:

In 2003 the town of Epping’s existing 28-ft wide 2-lane Mill Street Bridge over the Lamprey River consisted of two 30-ft long spans separated by a 60-ft long center pier causeway. The spans were deteriorated and required replacement. The low traffic volume crossing the bridge in combination with a short half-mile detour allowed complete closure of this bridge during its replacement.

The site was selected for the New Hampshire Department of Transportation’s (NHDOT) first use of totally prefabricated cantilevered substructure construction. The location minimized the overall risk of using the precast abutment system that was newly developed by a team with members from the NHDOT, FHWA, University of New Hampshire, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute’s Northeast Region Technical Committee, and local general bridge contractors and precasters.

In August 2004 the existing bridge was replaced with a 115-ft long and 28-ft wide 2-lane single-span pretensioned concrete adjacent box beam superstructure on full-height cantilevered precast concrete abutments founded on precast concrete spread footings. Thirty-two precast concrete segments were used to construct the bridge.

 

Slide 25. Mill Street Bridge over Lamprey River, New Hampshire – 2004

Mill Street Bridge over Lamprey River, New Hampshire – 2004. Photo of construction workers placing spread footing segments.

10 Footing Segments

Mill Street Bridge over Lamprey River, New Hampshire – 2004. Photo of construction workers placing abutment wall on footing.

11 Abutment and Wingwall Segments

Totally Prefabricated HPC Abutments

Speaker Notes:

The 32.4-ft wide 5,000 psi precast reinforced high performance self-consolidating concrete abutments consisted of 10 spread footing segments and 11 abutment wall and wingwall segments. All precast segments were fabricated at the J. P. Carrara & Sons plant in Middlebury, Vermont and shipped 170 miles to the jobsite.

Spread footings provided significant speed and simplicity to bridge construction when soil conditions permitted their use as in this project and in many other New Hampshire bridge projects. The spread footings and other substructure components were fabricated in segments as determined by the contractor and precaster to facilitate shipping and handling, and were standardized to reduce fabrication costs. The precaster used a template in the plant fabrication to ensure adequate tolerances between the abutments, wingwalls, and footing segments. The contractor developed the assembly plan.

Following placement of the footings, a minimum 3-inch thick flowable grout bed was injected through grout tubes in the footings to provide a sound bearing surface for the roughened bottom surfaces of the footings. Proper grading was assured by using leveling screws cast in the corners of each footing segment. The abutment walls and wingwalls had splice sleeve connections to accommodate the reinforcing bars protruding from the tops of the footings. The walls were lowered into place, and the splice sleeves were then grouted to complete the bar splices. All horizontal joints were full-moment connections with grouted reinforcing bars, and vertical joints had grouted shear keys.

The erection of the abutments took 2 days, plus a third day to cure the grout and prepare for the backfill. Similar conventional cast-in-place abutments would have required 6 separate concrete placements and two months to construct.

 

Slide 26. Mill Street Bridge over Lamprey River, New Hampshire – 2004, cont’d.

Mill Street Bridge over Lamprey River – 2004. Photo of a precast reinforced concrete substructure after erection, prior to placing backfill.
  • 7 Pretensioned HPC Box Beams, Each 115-ft Long
    x 4-ft Wide x 3-ft Deep
  • 4 Pilasters

Mill Street Bridge over Lamprey River – 2004. Photo of a pretensioned concrete box beams being erected.


Speaker Notes:

The 115-ft long and 28-ft wide superstructure consisted of seven 4-ft wide adjacent box beams. The beams were fabricated with 8,000 psi pretensioned high performance concrete (HPC). The use of HPC in combination with 0.6-inch diameter pretensioned strands stretched the span of the 3-ft deep box beams to 115 ft, allowing the use of a single span.

Following erection of the beams, a precast concrete pilaster was set along the top of the stem wall on each side of the outside box beams to provide lateral load transfer between the superstructure and substructure and to improve aesthetics. Full-depth shear keys were then cast between each box beam, and the span was transversely post-tensioned in 6 locations to complete the connection between beams. A 3-bar aluminum railing was then installed. A waterproofing membrane was applied to the top surfaces of the box beams, followed by an asphalt overlay.

In spring 2006, the Lamprey River crested 1 to 2 ft above the bridge deck after heavy rains. Although the area has a significant flooding history, this level was the highest seen by Epping residents. The bridge showed no ill effects from the flood.

The bridge is expected to see a service life of at least 75 years due to the use of HPC, the quality of its prefabricated construction, the attention given to connection details, and an aggressive NHDOT maintenance and preservation program.

 

Slide 27. Mill Street Bridge overLamprey River, Epping, NH – 2004

Mill Street Bridge over Lamprey River, Epping, NW – 2004. This shows the completed Mill Street Bridge.  The erection of the bridge, from start of footing placement to opening to traffic, required 8 days. The bridge was closed to traffic for a total of 2 months, compared to 5 months that would have been required for conventional construction.
Totally Prefabricated Bridge, Constructed in Just 8 days!

Speaker Notes:

This shows the completed Mill Street Bridge. The erection of the bridge, from start of footing placement to opening to traffic, required 8 days. The bridge was closed to traffic for a total of 2 months, compared to 5 months that would have been required for conventional construction.

 

Slide 28. Standard Sections and Details

Speaker Notes:

Many standard sections (shapes) and details already exist for precast concrete bridge elements.

 

Slide 29. Precast Deck Panels

Photo of precase deck panels Photo of a prestressed concrete panel

Used Between Beams and to Close the Tops of U-Beams


Speaker Notes:

Precast concrete partial depth stay-in-place deck panels can be used between beams and to close the tops of the U-beams. About 85% of Texas bridges use these precast partial-depth deck panels as stay-in-place forms. Normally, about 3 ½ to 4 ½ in. of composite deck concrete will be cast on the panels. The prestressed concrete panels will provide the positive moment reinforcement for the deck.

Full-depth precast concrete deck panels are also available.

 

Slide 30. AASHTO-PCI I-Girders

Photo of AASHTO-PCI I-Girders

Chart depicting six different sized of I-Girders that have been standardized by AASHTO and the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI).


Speaker Notes:

Six different sizes of I-Girders have been standardized by AASHTO and the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI), and are available throughout the U.S.

 

Slide 31. PCI Bulb Tee Girders

Photo of PCI Bulb Tee Girders. Chart of three standard sizes that are available throughout the U.S.


Speaker Notes:

There are also three standard sizes of Bulb-Tee Girders available throughout the U.S.


Slide 32. Mid-Atlantic
PCEF Bulb Tee Shapes

These images show various Mid-Atlantic PCEF Bulb Tee Shapes


Speaker Notes:

The Mid-Atlantic states decided to modify the standard Bulb-Tee shape to create a new regional standard section the PCEF Bulb-Tee. This work was done by the Prestressed Concrete Committee for Economic Fabrication (PCEF) Mid-Atlantic, whose committee members include precasters, State DOT engineers, ready mix concrete producers, FHWA engineers, contractors, and consultants.

 

Slide 33. Northeast Bulb Tee Girders

Photo of a Northeast Bulb Tee Girders

Chart depicting Beam Properties and Basic Dimensions for Northeast Bulb Tee Girders


Speaker Notes:

The Northeast (or New England) states also decided to modify the standard Bulb-Tee shape to create a new regional standard section the Northeast Bulb-Tee. This work was done by the PCI Northeast Technical Committee, whose committee members include precasters, State DOT engineers, ready mix concrete producers, FHWA engineers, contractors, and consultants. Section properties, details, load charts, and a design guide are available on the PCI Northeast website:

http://www.pcine.org/index.cfm/resources/bridge/Northeast_Bulbtee

 

Slide 34. AASHTO-PCI Box Girders

Photo of AASHTO-PCI Box Girders

Chart depicting eight different sizes of Box Beams that have been standardized by AASHTO and PCI.


Speaker Notes:

Eight different sizes of Box Beams have been standardized by AASHTO and PCI, and are available throughout the U.S.

 

Slide 35. U-Beam Bridges

U-Beam Bridges

Sample measurements for a U-Beam bridge


Speaker Notes:

One of the special sections developed especially for aesthetic reasons is the open-topped trapezoidal box beam (or U-Beam). This is the Texas DOT version and one of the first used in a routine fashion for urban locations where visual impact is important. This section was developed to directly replace two Texas 54 in. deep I-Beams at an 8-ft spacing.

 

Slide 36. ABC/PBES Standard Design Drawings and Details

PCI Northeast:

  • Guidelines for Accelerated Bridge Construction Using Precast/Prestressed Concrete Components
  • Northeast Extreme Tee (NEXT) Beam
  • Details for NEXT Beam

http://www.pcine.org/index.cfm/resources/bridge/Northeast_Extreme_Tee_Beam

Speaker Notes

The PCI Northeast Technical Committee has also published Guidelines for ABC Using precast/Prestressed Concrete Components. This helpful guide is available free on their website:

http://www.pcine.org/index.cfm/resources/bridge/Accelerated_Bridge_Construction.

This group has also developed a new section optimized for ABC it is called the Northeast Extreme Tee Beam or NEXT Beam. Standards for this beam are also available for free from the PCI Northeast website:

http://www.pcine.org/index.cfm/resources/bridge/Northeast_Extreme_Tee_Beam

 

Slide 37. NEXT Beam

  • Depth 24" – 36" in 4" increments
  • Width Varies 8’-0" – 12’-0"
  • Works Well for Accelerated Bridge Construction
  • Works Well for Bridges with Utilities

Photo of a NEXT Beam


Speaker Notes:

This slide provides the details concerning the NEXT Beam. This beam was developed to facilitate ABC and to provide options for States with shallow bridges that have a lot of utilities. It works well in the 30-foot to 90-foot span range.

 

Slide 38. Bridge in York, Maine Involved 28 NEXT Beams

Photo of the bridge in York, Maine. The New Bridge over the York River in York, Maine is a 510-foot long, 7-span bridge with integral abutments.  It was constructed with 28 NEXT Beams, either 55-feet or 80-feet long (depending on the span), in the superstructure.  This bridge utilized the Type "F" NEXT Beam which has a partial top flange that serves as a stay-in-place form for the cast-in-place concrete topping.  This particular bridge employed a 7-inch thick cast-in-place concrete topping.


Speaker Notes:

The New Bridge over the York River in York, Maine is a 510-foot long, 7-span bridge with integral abutments. It was constructed with 28 NEXT Beams, either 55-feet or 80-feet long (depending on the span), in the superstructure. This bridge utilized the Type "F" NEXT Beam which has a partial top flange that serves as a stay-in-place form for the cast-in-place concrete topping. This particular bridge employed a 7-inch thick cast-in-place concrete topping.

 

Slide 39. ABC/PBES Standard Design Drawings and Tolerances

Utah DOT:

  • Precast Concrete Full-Depth Deck Panels
  • Pretensioned Deck Bulb-Tee Girders
  • Post-Tensioned Bulb-Tee Girders
  • Precast Abutments
  • Precast Piers
  • Precast Footings
  • Precast Approach Slabs
  • Precast Box Culverts

http://www.udot.utah.gov/main/f?p=100:pg:0:::1:T,V:1991

Speaker Notes:

Utah DOT has standardized many precast concrete elements for use with ABC/PBES. These include precast concrete full-depth deck panels, abutments, piers, footings, approach slabs, and box culverts, as well as pretensioned concrete decked bulb-tee girders and post-tensioned bulb-tee girders.

Design Manuals and Tolerances are Available for:

  • Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck Panels
  • Precast Concrete Bulb-Tee Girders
  • Precast Substructure Elements (Piers, Integral Abutments, Semi-Integral Abutments, Cantilever Abutments, and Cantilever Walls)
  • Precast Concrete Approach Slabs
  • Precast Concrete Box Culvert

Standard Drawings are Available For:

  • Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck Panels
  • Pretensioned Concrete Bulb-Tee Girders
  • Pretensioned Deck Bulb-Tee Girders
  • Post-Tensioned Bulb-Tee Girders
  • Precast Integral Abutments
  • Precast Cantilever Abutments
  • Precast Piers and Footings
  • Precast Approach Slabs
  • Precast Box Culverts
  • Tolerances for Precast Bent Caps, Abutments, Wall Elements, and Approach Slabs
 

Slide 40. Connections Between Prefabricated Concrete Elements

Speaker Notes:

A previous module already discussed connections for PBES elements. That module highlighted Grouted Reinforcing Splice Couplers and Grouted Voids. Those are very valid options for connections. This section will highlight two other options for deck connections, Grouted Post-Tensioning and Cast-in-Place Ultra High Performance Concrete.

 

Slide 41. Connections Details

Publication Cover: Connection Details Manual for Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems
  • General Topics
  • Superstructure Connections
  • Substructure Connections
  • Foundation Connections
  • Connection Design Examples
  • Proprietary Products
  • Sample Construction Specifications
  • Case Studies

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/prefab/if09010/

Speaker Notes:

A great resource is the Connection Details Manual for Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems. It includes connection details used across the US. Sample construction specifications and case studies are also included.

 

Slide 42. Connections of PBES

Prefabricated Decks Can Be Connected Using:

  • Grouted Post-Tensioning
  • CIP Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC)

Speaker Notes:

As was noted earlier, a previous module already discussed connections for PBES elements. That module highlighted Grouted Reinforcing Splice Couplers and Grouted Voids. Those are very valid options for connections. This section will highlight two other options for deck connections, Grouted Post-Tensioning and Cast-in-Place (CIP) Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC).

 

Slide 43. Post-Tensioning for Deck Connections

Speaker Notes:

Let’s discuss one of the options, Post-Tensioning for Deck Connections.

 

Slide 44. Durability and Post-Tensioning

Illustration of the post-tensioning process. As seen here, moisture and the compression of concrete elimates or reduces cracking. The prestressing steel provided multiple levels of protection. The grout in the picture is the third level of protection for the strand.
  • Extremely Durable When Properly Constructed
    • Crack Control
    • Multiple Levels of Protection
  • The Grout is the Third Level of Protection for the Strand

Speaker Notes:

Post-tensioning produces compression of the concrete and eliminates or reduces cracking. The prestressing steel is protected by multiple levels of protection. Proper grouting is extremely important to obtaining a durable post-tensioned bridge.

 

Slide 45. Multi-Layer Protection Of Post-Tensioning Tendons

  • High Quality Concrete
  • Non-Corrosive Duct and Watertight Connections
  • Permanent Anchorage Protection
  • Permanent Grout Cap
  • High Quality Grout

Speaker Notes:

Modern post-tensioning systems provide a multi-layer level of protection for steel post-tensioning tendons. This begins with a high quality concrete such as high performance concrete, with proper curing and cover. The next layer is a non-corrosive (non-metallic) post-tensioning duct with watertight connections. The next level is permanent protection of the post-tensioning anchorage. A permanent grout cap is the next level of protection, so that no water or other materials can enter the member. The final layer is a high quality grout (high performance grout), typically employing anti-bleed and thixotropic admixtures.

 

Slide 46. Plastic Duct

Photo of Plastic Duct


Speaker Notes:

Field performance and research indicated that galvanized metal ducts offered little corrosion protection. Plastic ducts provide an added layer of protection. Plastic Ducts are also air and watertight.

 

Slide 47. New Generation of PT System

Photo of a new Post-Tensioning system: galvanized anchor, plastic duct, heat shrink connection, permanent plastic grout cap, positive grout cut-off valve.


Speaker Notes:

New Post-Tensioning system: galvanized anchor, plastic duct, heat shrink connection, permanent plastic grout cap, positive grout cut-off valve.

 

Slide 48. Permanent Grout Cap

Photo of a Permanent Grout Cap


Speaker Notes:

Permanent grout caps are used so that no air, water, or other material can enter the grout.

 

Slide 49. Specifications for Grouting Materials

Publication Cover – Specification for Grouting of Post-Tensioned Structures
  • Post-Tensioning Institute
    • PTI Guide Specifications
      • Section 2: Materials

Speaker Notes:

Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) specifications establish requirements for post-tensioning grouts used in aggressive and non-aggressive environments.

 

Slide 50. Long-Term Performance of PT Deck Panels

I-84/Route 8 Interchange – Waterbury, CT

Photo of I-84/Route 8 Interchange – Waterbury, CT


Speaker Notes:

This slide shows the I-84/Route 8 Interchange in Waterbury, Connecticut. It is an example of good long-term performance of deck panels that have been post-tensioned together. This structure was built in 1991.

 

Slide 51. Project Information

Photo of a Curved Structure, 6 Span Bridge with Continuous Span, Deck Panels Prestressed Transversely and Post-Tensioned Longitudinally
  • Curved Structure (Straight Beams)
  • 6 Span Bridge with Continuous Spans
  • Deck Panels Prestressed Transversely and Post-Tensioned Longitudinally
  • 42 Day construction
    • No Construction Problems
  • Built in 1991

Speaker Notes:

This slide provides information about the I-84/Route 8 Interchange. Note that precast prestressed concrete deck panels were used which were pretensioned transversely and post-tensioned longitudinally.

 

Slide 52. After 20 Years of Service

Excellent Condition and No Leakage Through Deck Panel Post-Tensioned Joints

The photos show the underside of the I-84/Route 8 Interchange in 2011 after 20 years of service in Connecticut, which is subject to harsh winters. The left photo displays the underside of the whole superstructure, while the right photo reveals a close-up of the post-tensioned deck panels.  The photos exhibit: Excellent condition of the post-tensioned deck panels after 20 years of service. No leakage through the joints


Speaker Notes:

The photos show the underside of the I-84/Route 8 Interchange in 2011 after 20 years of service in Connecticut, which is subject to harsh winters. The left photo displays the underside of the whole superstructure, while the right photo reveals a close-up of the post-tensioned deck panels. The photos exhibit:

  • Excellent condition of the post-tensioned deck panels after 20 years of service.
  • No leakage through the joints

Note that the deck was constructed with membrane waterproofing and an asphalt wearing surface.

 

Slide 53. UHPC for Deck Connections

Speaker Notes:

Now let’s discuss another option, cast-in-place Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) for deck connections.

 

Slide 54. Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC)

  • Use as Joint Material Between Precast Deck Panels
  • "Joint" Research By FHWA and NYSDOT
  • Used By NYSDOT With Decked Bulb-Tee Girders
The left photo shows the fatigue load being applied on top of the slab, with ponded water on the slab and over the joint. The right photos reveals a close-up of the UHPC joint. After successful performance of the joint, NYSDOT used UHPC in joints between deck bulb-tee girders.
Photos Courtesy of Ben Graybeal, FHWA

Speaker Notes:

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has tested cast-in-place UHPC as a joint material between precast deck panels. This research was conducted at the FHWA’s Structures Laboratory at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, and was a "joint" research study (pun intended) with New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT).

The left photo shows the fatigue load being applied on top of the slab, with ponded water on the slab and over the joint. This was done to see if any water would leak through the joint during fatigue loading none did. The right photos reveals a close-up of the UHPC joint. After successful performance of the joint, NYSDOT used UHPC in joints between deck bulb-tee girders.

 

Slide 55. Route 31 over Canandaigua Outlet, NY

Photo of Route 31 over Canandaigua Outlet, NY

Diagram that shows some facts about Route 31 bridge. 85’-0"(25.91m)Span;42’-9" (13.03 m) width;15° skew; 3"-5" (1.04 m) deep Deck Bulb-Tee girder;5"-4" (1.63 m) Deck Bulb-Tee spacing;


Speaker Notes:

NYSDOT first used cast-in-place UHPC as the joint material between precast deck bulb-tee girders on the Route 31 Bridge over Canandaigua Outlet.

Some facts about the bridge:

  • 85’-0" (25.91 m) Span;
  • 42’-9" (13.03 m) width;
  • 15° skew
  • 3’-5" (1.04 m) deep Deck Bulb-Tee girder;
  • 5’-4" (1.63 m) Deck Bulb-Tee spacing;
 

Slide 56. Route 31 over Canandaigua Outlet, NY, (Cont’d.)

This photo shows a drawing of the UHPC joint between the deck bulb-tee girders.

Speaker Notes:

This slide shows a drawing of the UHPC joint between the deck bulb-tee girders.

 

Slide 57. Route 31 over Canandaigua Outlet, NY, (Cont’d.)

This photo exhibits the deck bulb-tees in place, as well as a close up of the joint, prior to placement of the UHPC.


Speaker Notes:

This slide exhibits the deck bulb-tees in place, as well as a close up of the joint, prior to placement of the UHPC.

 

Slide 58. Route 31 over Canandaigua Outlet, NY, (Cont’d.)

Cast-in-place UHPC being placed in the joints


Speaker Notes:

Cast-in-place UHPC is then placed in the joints.

Slide 59. Route 31 over Canandaigua Outlet, NY, (Cont’d.)

This photo shows the finished deck of the bridge.


Speaker Notes:

This slide shows the finished deck of the bridge.

 

Slide 60. Assuring Excellent Quality of Concrete Elements

Speaker Notes:

The performance of the bridge is dependent on the performance of its elements. It is worth it in the long run to construct with excellent quality concrete elements.

 

Slide 61. National Ready Mixed Concrete Association

NRMCA Logo


  • Plant Certification—Ready Mixed Concrete
  • Truck Certification—Ready Mixed Concrete
  • Green-Star Plant—Certification Ready Mixed Concrete (Environmental Excellence)
  • Concrete Technologist—Personnel (Levels 2-4)

For more information see:
http://www.nrmca.org/certifications/

Speaker Notes:

The National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA) has a number of certification programs to help ensure that personnel are knowledgeable and able to perform all aspects of mixing and placing ready-mixed concrete.

 

Slide 62. Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute

CRSI Logo

  • Epoxy Coating Plant Certification
    • Quality Control Policies and Procedures
    • Handling and Storage Practices
    • Surface Preparation
    • Curing
    • Holiday Testing
    • Thickness Measurement
    • Adhesion Testing

For more information see: http://www.rmca.org/

Speaker Notes:

The Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute’s (CRSI) fusion-bonded epoxy coating applicator plant certification is a voluntary industry-sponsored program — extremely effective at improving the quality of epoxy-coated rebar.

A certified plant and its employees are trained, equipped, and capable of producing high quality epoxy-coated reinforcing bars. The plants are randomly inspected, a minimum of once a year, by an independent third party. The purpose of CRSI's plant certification program is to:

  • Help plants produce and deliver high quality material
  • Improve plant operations
  • Recognize excellence

The certification program is based on meeting ASTM standard specifications for epoxy-coated reinforcing bar. Components of the CRSI certification program are more stringent than ASTM. Areas evaluated in the program include:

  • Quality control policies and procedures
  • Handling and storage practices
  • Surface preparation
  • Curing
  • Holiday testing
  • Thickness measurement
  • Adhesion testing
 

Slide 63. PCI Personnel Training & Certification

PCI Training Certification Logo

  • Precast/Prestressed Concrete Plant Quality Personnel Certification
    • Level III
    • Level II
    • Level I
  • Field Quality Personnel Certification
    • Certified Field Auditor (CFA)
    • Certified Company Auditor (CCA)

For more information see: http://www.pci.org/about/certification/index.html

Speaker Notes:

For more than 40 years, the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) has certified manufacturers of precast/prestressed concrete products. The certification program also addresses plant personnel. This assures owners, specifiers, and designers that precast concrete products are manufactured by companies that subscribe to nationally accepted standards, have comprehensive quality systems in place and are audited to ensure compliance.

Plants

PCI’s Plant Certification Program ensures that each plant has developed and documented an in-depth, in-house quality system based on time-tested, national industry standards. Each plant undergoes two thorough, unannounced audits each year. The audits are conducted by competent third-party engineers who audit the plant according to requirements specifically developed for the types of products being manufactured.

Personnel

The Plant Quality Personnel Certification Program, started in 1985, provides instruction and evaluation for three levels of trained, knowledgeable, and certified quality-control personnel. PCI also trains Certified Field Auditors (CFAs) and Certified Company Auditors (CCAs), who inspect and qualify precast concrete erectors.

 

Slide 64. PTI Certification Program

Post-Tensioning Institute Logo

  • Certification of Field Personnel Involved with Post-Tensioning
  • Program Administered by Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI)
  • Bonded PT Field Specialist
    • Level 1
    • Level 2

For more information see:http://www.post-tensioning.org/certification_program.php

Speaker Notes:

The Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) offers training and certification workshops for field personnel. Proper training and education of personnel involved in post-tensioning field operations installers, inspectors, engineers, and others are vital to ensuring the performance, serviceability, durability, and safety of post-tensioned concrete construction.

Level 1 & 2 Bonded PT Field Specialist training and certification is specifically aimed at field personnel involved in the installation, stressing, grouting, and inspection of bonded post-tensioning multi-strand and bar systems used in bridge and building construction.

 

Slide 65. ASBI Grouting Certification Program

  • Certification of Technicians Involved with Grouting of PT Tendons
  • Program Administered by American Segmental Bridge Institute (ASBI)
  • 12 Hour Course
  • Laboratory Hands-on

For more information see: http://www.asbi-assoc.org/index.cfm/grouting/training

ADBI Grouting Certification Program Brochure

Speaker Notes:

The purpose of the American Segmental Bridge Institute’s (ASBI) Grouting Certification Training is to provide supervisors and inspectors of grouting operations with the training necessary to understand and successfully implement grouting specifications for post-tensioned structures. The Florida Department of Transportation has accredited the ASBI Grouting Certification Training Course; therefore, individuals who pass the final examination of the ASBI course satisfy one of the requirements for becoming a Qualified Grouting Technician with the Florida Department of Transportation.

 

Conclusions

Speaker Notes:

Now let’s move to conclusions.

 

Slide 67. Module Conclusions

  • All Elements of a Typical Bridge Can Be Prefabricated.
  • Concrete Offers Myriad of Sections for Owners to Use
  • Numerous Connections Developed and Proven.
  • Multiple Resources Available to Assist Agencies/Consultants/Contractors with PBES Implementation.
 

Accelerated Bridge Constructions

Speaker Notes:

Thank you for participating today.

Media

Page last modified on August 14, 2013.
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