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Portrait of a General: General Roy Stone

End Notes

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1. Obituary, The New York Times, August 7, 1905.

2. Glover, Edwin A., Bucktailed Wildcats: A Regiment of Civil War Volunteers, Thomas Yseloff, 1960, p. 86-87, 104.

3. Pension records.

4. Writer's Note: I am not an expert on the Civil War. I have, however, tried to convey in this section a sense of Roy Stone's military experience-I hope accurately. I would appreciate receiving corrections that I can incorporate in a revised edition: Richard.weingroff@dot.gov. RW.

5. McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, Oxford University Press, 1988, p. 274-275.

6. Thomson, O.R. Howard, and Rauch, William H., History of the "Bucktails": Kane Rifle Regiment of the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, Electric Printing Company, 1906, p. 21.

7. Glover, p. 24.

8. Dougherty, James J., Stone's Brigade and the Fight for the McPherson Farm, Combined Publishing, 2001, p. 11.

9. Glover, p. 18.

10. Thomson/Rauch, p. 31.

11. Thomson/Rauch, p. 42-43.

12. Glover, p. 112.

13. Glover, p. 65.

14. Dougherty, p. 11

15. Glover,p. 86-88.

16. Thomson/Rauch, p. 113-114.

17. Thomson/Rauch, p. 114.

18. Thomson/Rauch, p. 115.

19. Thomson/Rauch, p.115.

20. Thomson/Rauch, p. 118.

21. Thomson/Rauch, p. 120.

22. Thomson/Rauch, p. 130.

23. Glover, p. 105.

24. Thomson/Rauch, p. 131.

25. Thomson/Rauch, p. 132-133.

26. Glover, p. 109.

27. Glover, p. 107.

28. Pennsylvania at Gettysburg, Volume 1, 1904, p. 759.

29. Dougherty, p. 12.

30. Matthews, Richard E., The 149th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Unit in the Civil War, McFarland and Company, 1994, p. 3.

31. Matthews, p. 3-4, and quoted in full on p. 14.

32. Dougherty, p. 13.

33. Dougherty, p. 15.

34. Matthews, p. 22.

35. Matthews, p. 24-25, Dougherty, p. 16.

36. McPherson, p. 557.36.

37. Matthews, p. 34.

38. Dougherty, p. 14.

39. Chamberlin, Lt.-Colonel Thomas, History of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Second Regiment, Bucktail Brigade, F. McManus, Jr. & Company, 1905, p. 46.

40. Dougherty, p. 17-19.

41. Glover, p. 136.

42. Glover, p. 110.

43. Matthews, p. 41.

44. Chamberlin, p. 64.

45. Chamberlin, p. 69.

46. Military records.

47. Chamberlin, p. 79.

48. McPherson, p. 645.

49. Dougherty, p. 21.

50. Doubleday, Abner, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, Campaigns of the Civil War Series, Jack Brussel Publisher, p. 55.

51. Matthews, p. 59-60.

52. Chamberlin, p. 94-95.

53. Doubleday, p. 55-56.

54. Dougherty, p. 22.

55. Chamberlin, p. 98.

56. Sauers, Richard A., Advance the Colors! Pennsylvania Civil War Battle Flags, Capitol Preservation Committee, 1987, p. 113.

57. Chamberlin, p. 249.

58. Sauers, p. 114.In 1905, the War Department returned the flag to Pennsylvania and it is now preserved in the State Capitol along with other Bucktails banners.

59. Dougherty, p. 37. He cited research by Tim Smith, Licensed Battlefield Guide at Gettysburg National Military Park.

60. Chamberlin, p. 117-118.

61. Hartwig, D. Scott, "The Defense of McPherson's Ridge," Gettysburg: Historical Articles of Lasting Interest, July 1989, p. 16.

62. Chamberlin, p. 118.

63. Dougherty, p. 37.

64. Hartwig, p. 16.

65. Dougherty, p. 31.

66. Hartwig, p. 16.

67. Hartwig, p. 17.

68. Stone, Col. Roy, Undated Report to General Doubleday, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records, Series I, Volume XXVII, Part I, Government Printing Office, 1889, p. 329.

69. Hartwig, p. 19.

70. Stone, p. 329.

71. Hartwig, p. 20.

72. Stone, p. 330.

73. Hartwig, p. 21.

74. Stone, p. 330.

75. Dougherty, p. 58.

76. Matthews, p. 87.

77. Chamberlin, p. 124.

78. Basler, J. H., "The Color Episode of the One Hundred and Forty-Ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers in the First Day's Fight at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863," Paper Read Before the Lebanon County Historical Society, October 18th, 1907, p. 21.

79. Matthews, p. 147-148.

80. Basler, p. 20.

81. Dougherty, p. 119.

82. Hartwig, p. 24.

83. Stone, p. 330-331.

84. Chamberlin, p. 155.

85. Military records.

86. Matthews, p. 122.

87. Matthews, p. 134.

88. Mertz, Gregory A., "The General's Tour of the Battle of the Wilderness," Blue and Gray Magazine, April 1995, p. 60-61.

89. Scott, Robert Garth, Into the Wilderness with the Army of the Potomac, Indiana University Press, 1988, p. 61.

90. Matthews, p. 135.

91. Matthews, p. 137.

92. Matthews, p. 138.

93. Matthews, p. 141.

94. Steere, Edward, The Wilderness Campaign, The Stackpole Company, 1960, p. 241-242.

95. Matthews, p. 143-144, 172.

96. Matthews, p. 228.

97. Steere, p. 242.

98. Military records.

99. Military records.

100. Matthews, p. 223.

101. Matthews, "Epilogue," p. 223-229.

102. Hawthorne, Frederick W., Gettysburg: Stories of Men and Monuments as Told by Battlefield Guides, Association of Licensed Battlefield Guides, 1988, p. 82-83.

103. Ingram, J. S., The Centennial Exposition, Described and Illustrated, Hubbard Bros., 1876, p. 692-693.

104. Writers Program of the Work Projects Administration, A Maritime History of New York, Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1941, p. 215.

105. Eldridge, M. O., "General Roy Stone (Biographical Sketch)", p. 3 ("General Stone was the inventor of a cart for spreading rock, a stone boat for moving stone from quarry to crusher, a suction dredge for harbor work, an automobile buss [sic], and various other labor saving devices.")

106. "Great Road Builder,"The Evening Star, August 7, 1905.

107. Goddard, Stephen B., Colonel Albert Pope and His American Dream Machines: The Life and Times of a Bicycle Tycoon Turned Automotive Pioneer, McFarland and Company, 2000, p. 63.

108. Goddard, p. 68-70.

109. For details of the craze, see especially Smith, Robert A., A Social History of the Bicycle: Its Early Life and Times in America, American Heritage Press, 1972; also Kelly, Fred C., "The Great Bicycle Craze," American Heritage, December 1956.

110. Mason, Philip P., The League of American Wheelmen and the Good-Roads Movement, 1880-1905, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1957, p. 36.

111. Mason, p. 51.

112. Mason, p. 90.

113. Mason, p. 125.

114. Brands, H. W., The Reckless Decade: America in the 1890's, St. Martin's Press, 1995, p. 2-5.

115. Brands, p. 1.

116. Mason, p. 126.

117. Mason, p. 127-128. On April 28, 1990, President Benjamin Harrison signed a Joint Resolution of Congress designating Chicago as the host city. See Bolotin, Norman, and Laing, Christine, The World's Columbian Exposition, The Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1992, p. 3.

118. Mason, p. 128-129

119. Mason, p. 129-132.

120. Mason, p. 132-135.

121. Bolotin/Laing, p. 23-26.

122. Mason, p. 137.

123. National League for Good Roads, Vol. I, No. I, November 1892, p. 7.

124. National League, p. 12.

125. National League, p. 14-15.

126. Stone, Roy, "The Necessity of Congressional Action in Road Improvement," speech published in ORI Bulletin No. 25, 1902, p. 23.

127. Mason, P. 138.

128. Colonel Pope submitted the petition, which contained 150,000 signatures, in December 1893. By then, the petitions had been taped together and wound onto two large wooden spools with a rolling mechanism. The entire structure, which measured 67x40x39 inches, was one of the largest petitions ever submitted to the Federal Government. In February 1989, the National Archives included the petition in an exhibit called "American Voices: 200 Years of Speaking Out," which ran through February 1990.

129. The Washington Post, January 18, 1893, p. 6.

130. Olson, James C., J. Sterling Morton, University of Nebraska Press, 1942, p. 353.

131. Mason, p. 142-143.

132. Mason, p. 145-146.

133. Mason, p. 147.

134. Alvord, Henry E., message to Stone in Washington National Record Center, General Correspondence 1893-1916, Record Group 30, Box 31.

135. Agriculture, U.S. Department of, Century of Service: The First 100 Years of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1963, p. 27-30.

136. Olson, p. 165-166 ("Trees are the monuments . . . ") and 424 ("Other holidays repose . . .").

137. Olson, p. 352.

138. Olson, p. 352.

139. Century of Service, p. 33-34.

140. Brands, p. 63.

141. Century of Service, p. 34.

142. Olson, p. 356.

143. Century of Service, p. 34.

144. Olson, p. 362.

145. Proceedings of a Convention of the National League for Good Roads held at Washington, D.C., January 17 and 18, 1893 and Hearing by the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives, January 19, 1893, Office of Experiment Stations, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 14.

146. Washington National Record Center, General Correspondence 1893-1916, Record Group 30, Box 66.

147. Stone, Roy, "Address Delivered Before the State Board of Agriculture, Augusta, Me., January 21, 1897," Addresses on Road Improvement in Maine, New York, North Carolina, and Illinois, ORI Circular No. 28., p. 2.

148. Stone, Roy, Report of Special Agent and Engineer for Road Inquiry for 1893, Report of the Secretary of Agriculture, p. 585-586.

149. Report, p. 586-587.

150. Proceedings of the Virginia Good Roads Convention held in Richmond, Virginia, October 18, 1894, ORI Bulletin No. 11, 1895, p. 16.

151. Stone, Roy, Report of the Special Agent and Engineer for Road Inquiry, Report of the Secretary of Agriculture, 1894, p. 217-218.

152. America's Highways 1776-1976, Federal Highway Administration, p. 200.

153. Register of Civil Employees, 1895, Department of Agriculture, p. S-16.

154. Seely, Bruce E., Building the American Highway System: Engineers as Policy Makers, Temple University Press, 1987, page 15.

155. Bolotin/Laing, p. 23.

156. Bolotin/Laing, p. 95-96.

157. Washington National Record Center, General Correspondence 1893-1916, Record Group 30, Box 31.

158. Good Roads, September 1892, p. 139.

159. Stone, Roy, "National Aid in Road Building: A Growing Public Opinion in its Favor," Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Missouri State Roads Improvement Association and Road Improvement Convention, January 19-20, 1893, E. W. Stephens, Publisher and Binder, 1893, p. 23.

160. "National Aid in Road Building," p. 140.

161. Stone, Roy, Proceedings of the National Road Conference held at the Westminster Church, Asbury Park, N. J., July 5 and 6, 1894, ORI Bulletin No. 10, p. 8-9.

162. "Good Combination Roads," L.A.W. Bulletin and Good Roads, December 24, 1897, p. 725.

163. "Why State Aid is Necessary," L.A.W. Bulletin and Good Roads, January 28, 1898, p. 89.

164. ORI Bulletin No. 11, p. 15.

165. Stone, Roy, ORI Circular No. 28, p. 8.

166. ORI Circular No. 28, p. 17.

167. Stone, Roy, Addresses on Road Improvement, ORI Circular No. 14, 1894, p. 4.

168. Stone, Roy, "Best Roads for Farms and Farming Districts," Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1894, p. 501-504.

169. ORI Circular No. 14, p. 8.

170. ORI Circular No. 28, p. 14.

171. Stone, Roy, "Good Roads and How to Get Them," Proceedings of the National Good Roads Convention Held at St. Louis, MO., April 27 to 29, 1903, ORI Bulletin No. 26, U.S. Department of Agriculture, p. 46.

172. Mason, p. 201-202.

173. Mason, p. 203-204.

174. Mason, p. 205.

175. Washington National Record Center, Record Group 30, 28 Legislation 1890-1906, Box No. 11.

176. Century of Service, p. 39.

177. Century of Service, p. 41.

178. Dodge, Martin, Report of the Director of the Office of Public Road Inquiries, Report of the Secretary of Agriculture for fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, p. 280.

179. Mason, p. 160.

180. Stone, Roy,Report of Special Agent and Engineer for Road Inquiry for 1897, Report of the Secretary of Agriculture.

181. America's Highways, p. 45. See also, Rose, Albert C., Historic American Roads: From Frontier Trails to Superhighways, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1976, p. 79.

182. Stone, Roy, "Object-Lesson Roads," Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1897.

183. "The Great Road of America," L.A.W. Bulletin and Good Roads, November 19, 1897, p. 605.

184. Stone, Roy, "Work for the Twentieth Century," Good Roads Magazine, November 1902, p. 8.

185. Mason, p. 163.

186. Stone, Roy,"The Grand Problem and Its Solution," Good Roads Magazine, June 1903, p. 233.

187. America's Highways, p. 47 and 67.

188. Mason, p. 166.The initial testing was done by the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Chemistry. In 1905, the bureau was combined with the Office of Public Road Inquiries, as the ORI had been renamed, and the new agency was called the Office of Public Roads. Samples were tested free of charge until 1924, when the practice was discontinued.

189. National League, p. 9.

190. Stone, Roy, "Road-Building to be Taught in the Common Country Schools," L.A.W. Bulletin and Good Roads, August 14, 1896, p. 242-243.

191. "A Course of Instruction in Road-Building," L.A.W. Bulletin and Good Roads, December 17, 1897, p. 701

192. Quoted in "A Course of Instruction in Road-Building."

193. A 1976 U.S. Navy study by Rear Admiral Hyman G. Rickover blamed the explosion of the Maine on spontaneous combustion in the ship's coal bunkers. O'Toole, G. J. A., The Spanish War: An American Epic 1898, W. W. Norton & Company, 1986, p. 400.

194. O'Toole, p. 11-12.

195. Military records.

196. "Military Roads for Cuba," L.A.W. Bulletin and Good Roads, June 3, 1898, p. 596.

197. O'Toole, p. 13, 353.

198. O'Toole, p. 353.

199. O'Toole, p. 353.

200. "Gen. Roy Stone Has Passed Away,"The Washington Times, August 7, 1905.

201. Historia de Adjuntas online at http://members.tripod.com/adjuntas1/guerra3.html. The FHWA's Christopher Douwes and Carlos Gonzalez provided the English translation..

202. Musicant, Ivan, The Spanish-American War and the Dawn of the American Century, A Marian Wood Book, Henry Holt and Company, 1998, p. 532.

203. "Gen. Roy Stone Has Passed Away," The Washington Times, August 7, 1905.

204. Musicant, p. 532-533.

205. Musicant, p. 539.

206. O'Toole, p. 356.

207. Historia de Adjuntas.

208. Historia de Adjuntas.

209. The Evening Star, August 3 dispatch published August 4, 1898.

210. Historia de Adjuntas.

211. Official Report of Captain Hoppin, 2d Cavalry,Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States,34 (1904), p. 309-310.

212. "Desire Annexation," August 4 dispatch published in The Evening Star, August 6, 1898.

213. López Dzur, Carlos, Comevacas y Tiznaos: Partidas Campesinas de 1898 en El Pepino. (Translation by Christopher Douwes.)

214. Historia de Adjuntas.

215. "The Move on Arecibo," August 8 dispatch published in The Evening Star, August 9, 1898.

216. Historia de Adjuntas.

217. Historia de Adjuntas.

218. O'Toole, p. 371.

219. Musicant, p. 539.

220. Military records.

221. Brands, p. 318.

222. Stone, Roy, "Agriculture in Puerto Rico," Yearbook of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1898, p. 505-514.

223. The Washington Times, August 7, 1905.

224. Eldridge, M. O.,affidavit, March 3, 1906, pension records.

225. Price, Harry N., affidavit, March 7, 1906,pension records.

226. Register of Civil Employees, 1899, Department of Agriculture, p. 1066.

227. Seely, p. 13.

228. Description found at http://www.st-barths.com/flowers/treepalm.html.

229. "Roystonea Regia," http://www.floridata.com/ref/r/roys_spp.cfm

230. "Roy Stone," Good Roads Magazine, September 1905, p. 622.

231. "Laying Experimental Steel Rails for Wagons," Good Roads Magazine, December 1902, p. 1-2.

232. Stone, Roy, "Good Roads and How to Get Them," OPRI Bulletin No. 26, p. 47-48.

233. "Plan to Unify Good Roads Systems," Good Roads Magazine, December 1902, p. 12.

234. OPRI Bulletin No. 26, p. 46-49.

235. Roosevelt, President Theodore, "Good Roads as an Element in National Greatness," OPRI Bulletin No. 26, p. 79-80.

236. Stone, Roy, "The Necessity of Congressional Action in Road Improvement," Proceedings of the Jefferson Memorial and Interstate Good Roads Convention," OPRI Bulletin No. 25, p. 27.

237. "Gen Roy Stone Dead After Brief Illness," The New York Times, August 7, 1905.

238. All information on General Stone's pension and Mrs. Stone's widow's pension is from their pension records.

239. Washington's Union Station, designed by Daniel H. Burnham, had not yet been built. It opened in 1907.

240. The grave is in Section 2, Lot 953, on the hill near Arlington House overlooking the cemetery.

241. "Roy Stone, Brigadier General, U.S.A.," Good Roads Magazine September 1905, p. 622.

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