Over the last two decades, as revenues have lagged behind investment requirements, Congress and States have sought ways to expand the capacity of the Federal-aid program to deliver projects. Today, States and other project sponsors have available an array of project finance tools to facilitate the delivery of projects. Tolls, user fees, and other project-based revenue sources, in combination with new finance tools, can substantially increase state and local governments' ability to deliver projects. Transportation project finance innovations available to project sponsors include: Section 129 Loans, State Infrastructure Banks, Grant Anticipation Revenue Vehicles, TIFIA Credit Assistance, Private Activity Bonds, and Build America Bonds.
183-A Turnpike - Austin, Texas
The 183-A Turnpike is an 11.6-mile controlled access north-south tolled highway east of the existing US 183 in metropolitan Austin. This regionally significant project connects to the Central Texas Turnpike System, previously funded in part with TIFIA credit assistance. 183-A was developed by the state's first Regional Mobility Authority - CTRMA - which was legislatively authorized in 2001 to form at the county level if a regional toll authority did not already exist to construct, operate, and maintain toll roads. CTRMA opened a northern 5-mile extension of the 183-A in April 2012, fully funded with the sale of toll revenue bonds.
CATS LYNX Blue Line Extension - Charlotte, North Carolina
The LYNX Blue Line Extension is a $1.16 billion extension of the existing 9.6-mile LYNX Blue Line light rail that opened in the South Corridor of Charlotte, North Carolina, in 2007. The 9.3-mile extension includes 11 new stations and associated parking facilities and will provide service north to the campus of UNC Charlotte. Funding comes from a federal capital investment grant, a TIFIA loan, the state and city, the Charlotte Area Transit System, and donated right-of-way.
Central Texas Turnpike System - Austin, Texas
The Central Texas Turnpike System consists of three contiguous toll highways serving the Austin metropolitan region and the Austin-San Antonio corridor: SH 45 North, Loop 1, and SH 130 (Segments 1-4). State and local funding sources were combined with a Federal TIFIA loan to finance the project. SH 130 (Segments 1-4) was delivered via a design-build contract procured through Texas' first application of legislation permitting expanded private sector involvement.
CenterPoint Intermodal Center: Joliet - Joliet, Illinois (Metropolitan Chicago region)
CenterPoint Intermodal Center: Joliet is a 3,600-acre facility housing industrial facilities, Class I rail intermodal centers, and yards for container management. CIC-Joliet is located 40 miles southwest of Chicago, and coupled with its neighbor, CIC-Elmwood, is the largest inland port in the U.S. The Center is currently home to a Union-Pacific Terminal (shown in the photo), a Class I intermodal facility, and has the capacity to accommodate additional facilities. It is partially financed with a private activity bond allocation.
Chicago Transit Authority Rail Fleet Replacement Project - Chicago, Illinois
The Chicago Transit Authority is investing over $772.5 million for the purchase of new rail cars to replace aging rolling stock. The new rail cars will increase the size of the fleet to meet growing ridership demands, provide a smoother ridership experience, and improve passenger security with the inclusion of more up-to-date technology. Agency revenue bonds, a TIFIA loan, and federal formula funds will pay for the new rail cars.
Cooper River Bridge Replacement - Charleston, South Carolina
North America's longest cable stay span replaced the existing truss bridges connecting the City of Charleston and the Town of Mount Pleasant along Highway 17. Financing relied on the state's infrastructure bank, which provided a grant and loan backed by TIFIA.
Crenshaw/LAX Transit Corridor Project - Los Angeles, California
The Crenshaw/LAX Transit Corridor Project is a new 8.5-mile light rail transit line extending from the existing Exposition Line south to LAX, including a minimum of six transit stations (with off-street parking), the procurement of a minimum of 20 light rail vehicles, and the construction of a full service maintenance facility. The project is supported by a TIFIA loan backed by local sales tax revenue, as well as other state funds, including those from general obligation bonds, and additional local sales tax revenue.
Chicago Transit Authority 95th Street Terminal Improvement Project - Chicago, Illinois
Chicago Transit Authority 95th Street Terminal Improvement Project at the terminus of Chicago Transit Authority's Red Line consists of a redesign of the existing terminal building, surrounding sidewalks, and rail platforms. This project also includes the additional construction of a new south terminal building. The existing 95th/Dan Ryan Terminal is a critical intermodal hub connecting downtown commuters to the Far South Side communities and suburbs through bus connections. The project is being delivered through traditional design-bid-build, funded by TIFIA, federal, state, and local funds.
Chicago Transit Authority Blue Line Project - Chicago, Illinois
The Chicago Transit Authority Blue Line Project (Your New Blue improvement program) is a series of modernization projects along a 19-mile section of Chicago Transit Authority's Blue Line O'Hare Branch. It includes track improvements, traction power and signal upgrades, and station renovations to improve service, reliability, and accessibility. The nearly half-billion dollar, four-year program is being funded by a combination of federal, state, and local sources.
Dallas Area Rapid Transit Project Orange Line Extension (I-3) - Dallas, Texas
The DART Orange Line is a partially open, light rail transit line connecting downtown Dallas with the City of Irving and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport northwest of Dallas. The 14.5-mile, $1.3 billion project is being opened in three sections. The TIFIA loan for this project will advance construction on the third phase of its light rail Orange Line extension project.
Delaware U.S. Route 301 - Northern Delaware
U.S. Route 301 in Northern Delaware will be upgraded to a four-lane, limited access toll road on new location, replacing the existing two-lane route. The 12.5-mile toll road will extend from the Maryland/Delaware state line to SR-1 and will eventually include a 4.5-mile Spur Road extending to SR-15/SR-896. The purpose of the project is to improve safety and relieve congestion problems in the corridor. Fatality rates on the existing roadway are significantly higher than statewide and national averages. Funding for the project will mostly come through the sale of bonds (GARVEEs and toll revenue bonds) and a TIFIA loan backed by toll revenues, achieving the state's goal of minimizing any use of funds from the State Transportation Trust Fund.
Denver Union Station - Denver, Colorado
The Denver Union Station project is a public-private development venture located on approximately 50 acres in lower downtown Denver. Redevelopment of the site as an intermodal transit district surrounded by transit-oriented development will include light and commuter rail stations, a regional bus facility, new transit service, and pedestrian improvements. The project is being sponsored by a public benefit corporation formed by the City of Denver and its elements will be transferred to the Regional Transportation District as they are completed. Financing includes TIFIA and RRIF loans, federal grants and stimulus funding, and state, regional, and local contributions.
Dominion Boulevard Improvement Project - Chesapeake, Virginia
The Dominion Boulevard Improvement Project is a series of improvements to 3.8 miles of Dominion Boulevard, including the replacement of Steel Bridge. After construction, the facility will open as an all-electronic tolled highway as part of the newly designated Chesapeake Transportation System, which includes the Chesapeake Expressway. The project is financed in part through toll revenue backed bonds, and a loan from Virginia's state infrastructure bank.
Elizabeth River Tunnels (Downtown Tunnel / Midtown Tunnel / MLK Extension) - Cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia
The Downtown Tunnel / Midtown Tunnel / MLK Extension (Elizabeth River Tunnels) consists of five construction components involving three facilities in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia. The $2.1 billion project is being constructed on a design, build, finance, operate, and maintain (DBFOM) concession basis by Elizabeth River Crossings LLC (ERC) composed of Skanska Infrastructure Development and Macquarie Group. ERC will operate the concession for 58 years. Tolling of the existing Midtown and Downtown Tunnels to help finance the project began in February 2014.
Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project - Northern Virginia
The Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project is the new Silver Line extension of the existing Metrorail system that will extend from the Orange Line's East Falls Church Station in Arlington, Virginia to Route 772 in Loudoun County, Virginia. The extension serves Tysons Corner, Virginia's largest employment center, and the Reston/Herndon area, the region's second largest employment concentration. It also will provide a one-seat ride from Washington Dulles International Airport to downtown Washington, DC.
The Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project is being constructed in two phases and includes 11 new stations upon completion. Phase 1 runs from East Falls Church to Wiehle Avenue on the eastern edge of Reston, Virginia and includes four stations in Tysons Corner - McLean, Tysons Corner, Greensboro and Spring Hill - as well as the Wiehle-Reston East station in Reston. Phase 2 will run from Wiehle Avenue to Route 772 in eastern Loudoun County. Phase 2 will serve Reston Town Center, Herndon, Washington Dulles International Airport, Route 606, and Ashburn (Route 772).
The Project will provide high-quality, high-capacity transit service in the Dulles Corridor. The new Metrorail service will help mitigate traffic congestion, expand the reach of the existing regional rail system, offer a viable alternative to automobile travel, and support future transit-oriented development along the corridor. The Project is being financed with an FTA New Starts grant, three TIFIA loans as well as other state, county, and airport revenues.
Eagle Project - Denver Metro Area, Colorado
The East and Gold Line Enterprise (Eagle) Project is part of RTD's FasTracks, a voter-approved program to expand rail and bus transit throughout the Denver metropolitan region. The Eagle Project is being procured through a concession agreement between RTD and Denver Transit Partners to design, build, finance, operate, and maintain the project's components for 34 years.
East Link Extension - Seattle, Washington Metropolitan Area
The $4.031 billion East Link Extension and included I-90 Two-Way Transit and HOV Operations project will provide a new 14.5-mile Light Rail Transit (LRT) line across Lake Washington linking the Eastside communities of Redman and Bellevue with Mercer Island and Downtown Seattle and eight miles of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes across the I-90 Floating Bridge. This multimodal program will be paid for with an innovative financial plan backed by federal, state, local and private stakeholders.
Eleventh Street Bridge Project - Washington, DC
The Eleventh Street Bridge Project replaced the existing twin bridges that carry I-295 over the Anacostia River in the southeast quadrant of the District of Columbia. Three new bridges were constructed and improvements were made to the interchanges at both ends, including adding missing movements to and from the north onto the Anacostia Freeway (I-295/DC 295). Project funding comprised a mixture of federal, local, and private funds including GARVEE bonds used in combination with tapered match.
Foothill/Eastern and San Joaquin Toll Roads - Orange County, California
The Foothill/Eastern and San Joaquin Toll Roads comprise 51 total miles across four public toll roads providing congestion relief and connectivity within Orange County, California. Development impact fees levied on developers of residential and commercial properties are used to supplement toll revenues for debt service payments.
Gerald Desmond Bridge Replacement Project - Long Beach, California
The Gerald Desmond Bridge Replacement Project is the replacement of the existing bridge, a major access point to the Port of Long Beach, downtown Long Beach, and surrounding communities in the Los Angeles region. The replacement bridge will be a six-lane, cable-stayed structure with a bicycle/pedestrian path, and a 205-foot clearance to accommodate the newest generation of cargo ships accessing the Port. The project is being delivered on a design-build basis and is financed through Port of Long Beach funds, federal, state and local contributions, and a TIFIA loan.
Goethals Bridge Replacement - Staten Island, New York to Elizabeth New, Jersey
The Goethals Bridge project is the reconstruction of a new six-lane, cable-stayed bridge adjacent to the existing bridge and the demolition and removal of the existing bridge. The reconstructed bridge will include a bicycle/pedestrian lane along the northern edge of the New Jersey bound side, as well as a central area between eastbound and westbound lanes to accommodate future transit service. The project is being delivered as a 40-year, design-build-finance-maintain (DBFM) public-private partnership (P3) concession by the NYNJ Link Partnership. The project was financed with a TIFIA loan, private activity bonds, and equity from the private partner.
Grand Parkway (SH 99) Segments D-G - Houston Metropolitan Area, Texas
Grand Parkway (SH 99) Segments D-G is a four lane, 53-mile segment of the planned 180-mile circumferential Grand Parkway toll highway around the Greater Houston Metropolitan Region. This portion includes five segments, situated along the northwest portion of the parkway alignment from just south of I-10 to I-69/US 59N (Eastex Freeway). Project financing includes a TIFIA loan and toll revenue bonds.
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail - Hudson/Bergen Counties, New Jersey
The $1.0 billion, 9.5-mile initial operating segment was procured using innovative 15-year DBOM contract, resulting in an estimated 8 years in savings compared to a traditional multiple design-bid-build approach. The contract was later renegotiated to cover Segments II ($1.2 billion) and III ($100 million) that extended the rail another 7 miles, adding 8 stations.
I-4 Ultimate - Orlando, Florida
The I-4 Ultimate project is the reconstruction and widening of 21 miles of I-4 from west of Kirkman Road in Orange County, Florida through downtown Orlando to east of State Road 434 in Seminole County. The project is adding four express toll lanes to median of the rebuilt stretch of interstate through a 40-year design-build-finance-operate-maintain availability payment concession, financed in part by a senior bank debt, a TIFIA loan, and private equity.
I-69 Section 5 - Bloomington to Martinsville, Southwest Indiana
Indiana's second availability payment P3 concession, I-69 Section 5, will extend I-69 from Bloomington to Martinsville, bringing the four-lane highway 21 miles closer to Indianapolis. The project is being implemented as a 35-year availability payment DBFOM concession.
I-77 HOT Lanes - Charlotte, North Carolina
The I-77 HOT Lanes project will add 26 miles of variably priced managed lanes along I-77 and I-277 in Charlotte, North Carolina north through Mecklenburg and Iredell Counties. The project is being delivered as a 50-year design, build, finance, operate and maintain concession between the North Carolina Department of Transportation and Cintra Infraestructuras, S.A. Financing includes a mix of Private Activity Bonds, a TIFIA loan, public funding, and an equity contribution.
I-93 Reconstruction: Salem to Manchester - Southern New Hampshire
The I-93 Improvements from Salem to Manchester project involves the reconstruction and widening of a 19.8-mile segment of I-93 in southern New Hampshire from the Massachusetts state line in Salem to the I-293 interchange in Manchester. It is being funded through proceeds from GARVEE bonds, federal and state highway funds, turnpike toll credits, and a TIFIA loan.
I-95 HOV/HOT Lanes - Fairfax, Prince William, and Stafford Counties, Virginia
The I-95 Express Lanes will be the second step in creating a regional network of tolled managed lanes in Northern Virginia. The project consists of the development, design, finance, construction, maintenance and operation of 29.4 miles of high occupancy toll lanes along I-95 and I-395 from Garrisonville Rd. in Stafford County to Edsall Rd. in Fairfax County over a 76-year concession period.
I-269 Corridor - DeSoto and Marshall Counties, Mississippi
I-269 in DeSoto and Marshall Counties, Mississippi is the 25-mile, Mississippi portion of a new partial circumferential highway around the Memphis, Tennessee metropolitan region that itself is a portion of the federally mandated I-69. The majority of the project cost is being covered by locally-issued bonds supported by federal and state transportation funds.
I-285/SR 400 Interchange Reconstruction - Fulton and DeKalb Counties, Georgia
The I-285/SR 400 Interchange Reconstruction project will rebuild the I-285/SR 400 Interchange and make improvements along 10 miles of I-285 and SR 400 roughly 13 miles north of Atlanta. The improvements will be made to an interchange that handles over 400,000 vehicles daily while maintaining all travel lanes and movements in the peak period. The state will provide a design-build-finance partner with funds to cover roughly one-quarter of the project cost upfront. The private partner will finance the remaining project cost and will be repaid by the state following project completion.
I-485 Charlotte Outer Loop - Charlotte, North Carolina
The I-485 Charlotte Outer Loop constructed a new 5.7-mile, eight-lane section of Interstate from west of NC 115 (Old Statesville Rd.) to west of I-85 north of Charlotte, North Carolina. This is the last segment of the I-485 Outer Loop around Charlotte, linking I-77 to I-85. The project is financed with GARVEE bonds, State Transportation Trust Fund disbursements, and contractor financing to be repaid by future General Assembly appropriations.
I-495 Capital Beltway HOT Lanes - Fairfax County, Virginia
The I-495 Capital Beltway HOT Lanes project is a P3 between VDOT and Capital Beltway Express, LLC, a joint venture of Fluor and Transurban. Improvements include 14 miles of twin HOT lanes in each direction, the replacement of more than 50 bridges and overpasses, and interchange upgrades. Financing includes the first-ever combination of TIFIA credit assistance and private activity bonds (PABs).
I-595 Corridor Roadway Improvements - Broward County, Florida
The I-595 Corridor Roadway Improvements project consisted of the reconstruction and widening of 10.5 miles of the I-595 mainline from the I-75/Sawgrass Expressway to I-95. The project has been implemented as an availability-payment P3 between FDOT and a private concessionaire, I-595 Express, LLC, to design, build, finance, operate, and maintain the roadway for a 35-year term. The concessionaire's financing, backed by these availability payments, includes senior bank debt, a TIFIA loan, and private equity.
IH 635 Managed Lanes - Dallas County, Texas
The IH-635 (LBJ Freeway) Managed Lanes Project relieves congestion north of Dallas on a 13-mile stretch of the LBJ Freeway through the reconstruction of its main lanes and frontage roads and addition of six managed lanes along I-635 (subsurface) and I-35E (elevated). The project has been delivered as a P3 between TxDOT and LBJ Infrastructure Group, which will operate and maintain the facility for 52 years.
Intercounty Connector - Maryland
The 18-mile, 6-lane Intercounty Connector (ICC) is a toll highway in Maryland connecting I-270 in Gaithersburg and US 1 in Laurel. The road links existing and proposed development areas between the I-270/I-370 and I-95/US 1 corridors within central and eastern Montgomery County and northwestern Prince George's County, north of Washington, DC. The project is largely supported by GARVEE and toll revenue bonds, as well as a TIFIA loan and State Transportation Trust Fund and General Fund revenues.
Interlink (formerly Warwick Intermodal Station) - Warwick, Rhode Island
Interlink, formerly the Warwick Intermodal Station project, is an intermodal project connecting air, rail, bus, automobiles, and rental cars at T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI that serves the Providence area and Southern Massachusetts. The project consisted of construction of a new commuter rail station with an enclosed walkway connection to the airport and a consolidated rental car center and parking garage.
Iway (I-195 Relocation Project) - Providence, Rhode Island
Iway is composed of 16 individual projects that relocated a 45-year-old 1.6-mile stretch of I-195 and an adjacent 0.8-mile portion of I-95 through Providence, Rhode Island. This $610 million project was financed through GARVEE and motor fuel tax revenue bonds and has won national acclaim for its project management and bridge design and construction. Twenty newly-recovered acres of prime downtown real estate is currently being redeveloped.
Katy Freeway Reconstruction - Houston, Texas
TxDOT undertook a major five-year reconstruction of a 12-mile section of the east-west Katy Freeway from west of SH 6 to the I-10/610 interchange west of Houston. The reconstruction widened the Katy to provide six general purpose highway lanes in each direction and two variably priced high occupancy toll lanes in the median of the highway. The financing of the $2.8 billion project has involved an innovative collaboration between TxDOT and the Harris County Toll Road Authority, combining toll-backed debt with more traditional grant funding.
LA 1 Improvements - Leeville, Louisiana
Phase I of this project has replaced approximately nine miles of elevated highway and the Leeville Bridge in Southern Louisiana, which had suffered from subsidence, erosion, and frequent storm damage. The highway features open road tolling and was constructed within an area of sensitive wetlands.
Lake Bridges: Kentucky Lake Bridge & Lake Barkley Bridge - Southwest Kentucky
The Lake Bridges project is the replacement of two bridges in the Land Between the Lakes region in southwestern Kentucky. The Kentucky Lake Bridge will replace the existing Eggners Ferry Bridge and widen two miles of US68/KY80 to four lanes. The Lake Barkley Bridge will replace the existing Lawrence Memorial Bridge and widen 1.5 miles of the approach on US 68/KY 80. The Lake Bridges are primarily financed with GARVEEs.
Loop 202 South Mountain Freeway - Phoenix, Arizona
The Loop 202 freeway, also known as the South Mountain Freeway, is a 22-mile, 8-lane freeway that will complete the Loop 202 and Loop 101 freeway system in the southwestern quadrant of the Phoenix metropolitan area. The $1.8 billion project has been procured as a P3 where the selected design-build team will also maintain the roadway under a 30-year agreement once it opens in late 2019 or early 2020.
Miami Intermodal Center - Florida
Located next to the Miami International Airport (MIA), the Miami Intermodal Center is a large ground transportation hub incorporating a Rental Car Center, the Miami Central Station serving local rail transit, commuter rail, Amtrak, and intercity bus transit, major roadway improvements, the MIA Mover and future joint development. Federal, state, and local funding supported this $2 billion program.
Missouri Safe and Sound Bridge Improvement Program - State of Missouri
There were 10,405 bridges on the Missouri Department of Transportation system with at least 1,093 in Condition 3 (serious) or Condition 4 (poor). The Missouri Safe and Sound Bridge Improvement Program has replaced or rehabilitated 802 of these bridges using both a modified design-bid-build and design-build approaches.
Monroe Expressway - Mecklenburg and Union Counties, North Carolina
The Monroe Expressway will be a new, 20-mile all-electronic toll road in Mecklenburg and Union Counties, North Carolina. The Bypass will provide a high-speed alternative to US 74 in the region. The project is supported through a variety of bond proceeds, including GARVEEs.
New Mexico SR-44 - Northwest New Mexico
US 550/NM SR 44 runs from I-25 in Bernalillo north and west to the New Mexico/Colorado state line. This project involved the widening from two to four lanes of a 118-mile section running northwest from San Ysidro to just outside of Bloomfield, near the Four Corners. New Mexico law did not allow for design-build procurement at the time NM 44 was widened. However, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department was able to create many of the efficiencies of design-build through a professional services contract.
New NY Bridge (Tappan Zee Bridge Replacement) - Westchester to Rockland Counties, New York
The "New NY Bridge" will replace the Tappan Zee Bridge spanning the Hudson River between Westchester and Rockland Counties 20 miles north of New York City. The new bridge is a tolled, eight-lane, dual-span twin bridge, being constructed alongside the current bridge to provide the least traffic disruption to users. The project is being delivered under a design-build contract and is financed with a combination of bonds and a TIFIA loan. The project is expected to be completed in 2018.
NoMa - Gallaudet U Metrorail Station - Washington, DC
The NoMa - Gallaudet U station, formerly known as the New York Avenue station, opened in 2004 as the Washington Metrorail's first infill station. The station was funded through a unique partnership between the District of Columbia, developers and property owners, community leaders, and WMATA. The private sector and local property owners funded $35 million (34 percent) of the $104 million project cost through land donations ($10 million) and the creation of a special assessment district ($25 million).
North Tarrant Express (I-820 and SH 121/183) - Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex
TxDOT entered into a public-private partnership with NTE Mobility Partners for the design, construction, finance, maintenance, and operation of 13 miles of roadway improvements along I- 820 and SH 121/SH 183 north and east of Fort Worth. The duration of the concession for this first phase of the North Tarrant Express (NTE) is 52 years. The roadway is being reconstructed with the addition of two managed lanes and an additional general purpose lane in each direction. Under a separate agreement, the private partner examined other segments in the region for development as part of the NTE, leading to a third agreement to pursue the NTE 35W Project.
North Tarrant Express 35W Project - Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, Texas
The North Tarrant Express (NTE) 35W Project consists of the design, construction, operations, and maintenance of approximately 12 miles of managed lanes, associated improvements to adjacent cross-roads, frontage roads, and ramps, and the intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and tolling systems on two segments of I-35W in Fort Worth, Texas. Segment 3A is being designed and constructed via a public-private partnership between the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) and the NTE Mobility Partners. TxDOT is responsible for the financing and construction of Segment 3B, excluding tolling and ITS. The concessionaire will perform operations and maintenance for the entire facility, including the 3B portion constructed by TxDOT.
Northwest Corridor - Atlanta, Georgia
The Northwest Corridor project will include extensions of existing HOV lanes and the addition of reversible tolled managed lanes along sections of nearly 30 miles of I-75 and I-575 northwest of Atlanta. The nearly $850 million project is being delivered using a design-build-finance approach.
Ohio River Bridges Downtown Crossing - Louisville, Kentucky/Southern Indiana
The Ohio River Bridges Downtown Crossing project is one half of the bi-state Ohio River Bridges project, which also includes the East End Crossing project, that together are addressing cross-river capacity and mobility needs in the greater Louisville-Southern Indiana region. The project consists of the new Abraham Lincoln Bridge carrying northbound I-65 across the Ohio River between Louisville and Southern Indiana. In the background is the existing Kennedy Bridge that carries the southbound lanes. The Downtown Crossing project also includes the reconstruction of the Kennedy Interchange in downtown Louisville to eliminate design deficiencies and safety hazards. The project has been delivered an availability-pay design-build-finance-operate-maintain concession.
Ohio River Bridges East End Crossing - Southern Indiana/Louisville, Kentucky
The Ohio River Bridges East End Crossing project is one half of the bi-state Ohio River Bridges project, which also includes the Downtown Crossing project, that together are addressing cross-river capacity and mobility needs in the greater Louisville-Southern Indiana region. The project consists of a new East End Bridge and approaches connecting I-265/KY 841 in Kentucky to I-265/SR 265 in Indiana. The project has been delivered an availability-pay design-build-finance-operate-maintain concession.
Orchard Pond Parkway - Tallahassee, Florida
The Orchard Pond Parkway is a 5.2-mile privately constructed toll road north of Tallahassee, Florida. The road was developed by a private landowner as a means to preserve the surrounding region from suburban development, and it incorporates a number of features to protect wildlife and the natural environment. The Florida Department of Transportation has supported the project financially with a State Infrastructure Bank loan that covers 80 percent of the $17 million project cost. Leon County owns the road and is leasing it back to the developer for 99 years.
Pennsylvania Rapid Bridge Replacement Project - Pennsylvania (statewide)
The Pennsylvania Rapid Bridge Replacement Project is replacing 558 structurally deficient bridges throughout the commonwealth over a three-year period. The private partner, Plenary Keystone Partners, will design, construct, and finance the project; and then maintain the bridges for 25 years. The project is financed with the largest transportation private activity bond issued to date in the U.S., together with PennDOT milestone payments and private partner equity.
Pocahontas Parkway / Richmond Airport Connector - Greater Richmond, Virginia
This $354 million project was financed by tax-exempt toll revenue bonds issues by a 63-20 corporation. It was the first transportation project implemented under Virginia's Public-Private Transportation Act of 1995. The Parkway was leased to a private toll road operator in 2007. The deal defeased its underlying debt and included the construction of the 1.6-mile Richmond Airport Connector, which opened in January 2011. The Parkway changed hands in 2015 and again in 2016 after the initial private operator first transferred ownership to its senior lenders in May 2014.
Poinciana Parkway - Osceola and Polk Counties, Florida
Originally planned for development by a private real estate firm in the 2000s, the Poinciana Parkway was ultimately developed under an agreement between Osceola and Polk Counties and the developer, who donated existing work on design, permitting, and right-of-way. The $141 million, 9.7-mile arterial and toll road improvement connects the Poinciana community 25 miles south of Orlando with a major state route and I-4 to provide better commuting access and congestion relief. In addition to the private developer contribution, the project is financed with toll revenue bonds, a State Infrastructure Bank loan, and county contributions.
Port of Miami Tunnel - Florida
The Port of Miami Tunnel improves access to and from the Port of Miami, serving as a dedicated roadway connector linking the Port (located on an island in Biscayne) with the MacArthur Causeway and I-395 on the mainland. The project has been developed as a P3 with Miami Access Tunnel, LLC (MAT). The state has paid for approximately 50 percent of the capital costs (design and construction) and all operations and maintenance, while local governments provided the remaining 50 percent of the capital costs. FDOT made milestone payments to MAT at various stages of project development and is now making availability payments during a 30-year concession. Senior bank debt, a TIFIA loan, and private equity have been used to finance the project.
Portland Streetcar - Portland, Oregon
The Portland Streetcar network is a 14.7-mile modern streetcar network in Downtown Portland, Oregon. Property owners along the proposed alignment agreed to establish a special property tax levy through the formation of a Local Improvement District (LID), funding approximately 13.9 percent ($34.9 million) of the $251.4 million project. In addition, Tax Increment Financing also contributed to 8.2 percent ($21.5 million) of total project costs.
Potomac Yard Metrorail Station - City of Alexandria, Virginia
The City of Alexandria, Virginia negotiated exactions for developer contributions in return for land rezoning, dedicated net new tax revenues, and created two special assessment districts to fund the project costs of a proposed infill station on the Washington Metrorail system. The Potomac Yard station - estimated to begin construction in 2016 and open to service in 2018 - is the cornerstone of the redevelopment plan for the Potomac Yard, a 295-acre former rail yard near the Potomac River.
President George Turnpike - North Dallas, Texas
The President George Bush Turnpike (PGBT) is a six-lane 30.5-mile circumferential toll highway connecting various cities in the northern part of Dallas County and portions of neighboring Denton and Collin Counties. This original segment opened in phases between 1998 and 2006. It was the first project to benefit from USDOT's TE-045 innovative finance provisions including a Section 129 loan, partial conversion of advance construction, and the use of flexible match. Construction on a 9.9-mile Eastern Extension began in October 2008 and was opened in December 2011. Financing for the extension included toll-backed revenue bonds and other state and local resources.
President George Bush Turnpike Western Extension (SH 161) - Dallas, Texas
State Highway (SH) 161, the President George Bush Turnpike Western Extension (PGBT WE), provides a new, approximately 11.5-mile link between SH 183, I-30, and I-20 as part of a western loop around Dallas through the cities of Irving and Grand Prairie south of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. This toll road was completed in four phases. The first three were constructed by TxDOT and the remaining phase and overall ownership and operation became the responsibility of the North Texas Tollway Authority under a concession agreement signed in 2008.
Presidio Parkway - San Francisco, California
The Presidio Parkway project is a replacement of Doyle Drive, the southern access to the Golden Gate Bridge. The existing structure, built in 1936, did not meet current highway standards and was seismically deficient. Through a competitive procurement process, Caltrans selected a private consortium to deliver Phase II as an availability-pay design, build, finance, operate, and maintain availability-pay concession.
Purple Line Project - Baltimore, Maryland
The Purple Line is a new 16-mile, 21-station light rail transit line that will connect several communities in southern Maryland from Bethesda to New Carrollton. The corridor is located along the Capital Beltway near Washington, D.C., in a densely populated area with continued commercial, institutional, mixed-use, and residential development. The line provides connections to the Metro subway, MARC commuter rail, and Amtrak's Northeast Corridor. An availability-payment-backed design-build-finance-operate-maintain concession will deliver the project using a financing package of private activity bonds, TIFIA loan, private equity, and Maryland Transit Agency funds.
Regional Connector Transit Corridor Project - Los Angeles, California
The Regional Connector Transit Corridor Project is a 1.9-mile underground light rail connection between the Little Tokyo/Arts District Station to the 7th Street/Metro Center Station in downtown Los Angeles, California. The Regional Connector extends from the Metro Gold Line and will allow passengers to transfer to the Metro Blue, Exposition, Red, and Purple Lines, bypassing Union Station, while providing one-seat ride for travel across Los Angeles County. The project will be delivered as a design-build project. It will be financed through federal, state, and local sources, including a TIFIA loan and an FTA New Starts Full Funding Grant Agreement.
Reno Transportation Rail Access Corridor (ReTRAC) - Reno, Nevada
Traffic congestion and safety concerns brought about the largest public works project ever undertaken in Northern Nevada, the Reno Transportation Rail Access Corridor, or ReTRAC. The project depressed a 2.3-mile stretch of freight rail that ran through downtown, eliminating 10 at-grade street crossings.
Riverwalk Expansion/Wacker Drive Reconstruction Project - Chicago, Illinois
The Riverwalk Expansion, which included the final phases of the Wacker Drive Reconstruction Project, is a pedestrian walkway running six blocks along the Chicago River from State Street to Lake Street. Each block features a distinct theme, facilitating different recreational and transportation activities. A TIFIA loan helped fund most of two of three phases of the Riverwalk, and will be repaid with project-generated revenues, including tour boat, retail leasing, and advertising fees.
Route 28 Corridor Improvements - Northern Virginia
In 1987, property owners in Fairfax and Loudon Counties agreed to establish an additional property tax through the creation of a special assessment. Revenue has been dedicated to major highway improvements along the Route 28 corridor, including widenings and interchange reconstruction.
Route 33 Interchange Project - Easton, Pennsylvania Region
The Route 33 Interchange Project in Palmer Township, Pennsylvania (65 miles north of Philadelphia) involved the construction of a new interchange and associated access improvements to facilitate the mixed-use commercial development of over 600 acres of surrounding land. The interchange was constructed by PennDOT and other infrastructure improvements are being made by a private owner who is selling parcels of land to other third party developers. Tax increment financing provided partial funding for the improvements.
SH 45SW - Austin, Texas
SH 45SW is a four-lane toll road under development by the Central Texas Regional Mobility Authority between the southern end of MoPac Expressway (Loop 1) and FM 1626 southwest of Austin, Texas. The $100 million project uses no federal funds, relying solely on state funds and debt along with contributions from Travis and Hays Counties, through which the road passes.
SH 130 (Segments 5-6) - Austin, Texas Metropolitan Area
SH 130 is a four-lane, 91-mile toll road east and south of Austin designed to relieve congestion on the heavily traveled I-35, the primary north-south route through Central Texas. Segments 5 and 6 have been developed through a 50-year concession (Comprehensive Development Agreement) with the SH 130 Concession Company (a joint venture of Cintra and Zachry American Infrastructure). They were financed with senior bank debt, a TIFIA loan, and private equity. Segments 1-4 were constructed under a design-build project as part of the Central Texas Turnpike System.
SH 288 Toll Lanes - Houston, Texas
The SH 288 Toll Lanes project is located in Harris County, Texas and involves the development, design, construction, financing, operation, and maintenance of four new toll lanes that stretch 10.3 miles along the median of SH 288, which extends from downtown Houston south toward the Gulf of Mexico. The P3 DBFOM concession also includes the maintenance of the existing general purpose lanes along the corridor. The concessionaire's financing includes a combination of private activity bonds, a TIFIA loan, private equity, and public funding for direct connector ramps to the Texas Medical Center.
SmartWay Upgrade Kits - Oregon
Cascade Sierra Solutions (CSS), a non-profit organization, is responsible for deploying the SmartWay Upgrade Kits, which can include: engine idle reduction technology, such as an auxiliary power unit, direct fired heater, or truck stop electrification; low rolling resistance tires; advanced aerodynamics for tractors and trailers; exhaust after-treatment devices, such as oxidation catalysts and particulate filters.
South Bay Expressway (formerly SR 125 South Toll Road) - San Diego County, California
The South Bay Expressway toll road is a 9.2-mile privately-funded southern extension of SR 125, extending from SR 905 near the International Border to SR 54 near Sweetwater Reservoir in San Diego, California. The original operator, South Bay Expressway, L.P., held a 35-year franchise with the State of California under which it financed and built the highway, then transferred ownership to the State. The concessionaire emerged from bankruptcy in April 2011 as South Bay Expressway, LLC, and sold the toll road to the San Diego Association of Governments in December 2011.
South Carolina 27 in 7 - South Carolina
This statewide effort from 1999 to 2008 accelerated the implementation of 200 highway improvement projects worth over $5.0 billion from 27 to 7 years. The South Carolina DOT entered into partnerships with two private construction and resource management firms to undertake strategic planning and financial management and coordinate design and construction activities, all without augmenting the size of the state agency.
South Lake Union Streetcar - Seattle, Washington
The South Lake Union Streetcar project is a 2.6-mile modern streetcar connecting the South Lake Union area to Downtown Seattle, Washington. Forming the centerpiece of an innovative funding package, local businesses and property owners along the proposed alignment agreed to establish a special property tax levy through the formation of a Local Improvement District (LID), funding approximately 47 percent ($25 million) of the $53.5 million project.
SR 91 Corridor Improvement Project - Riverside County, California
The SR 91 Corridor Improvement Project is an eight-mile extension of the Orange County SR 91 Express Lanes east into Riverside County through conversion of existing HOV lanes. Two general purpose lanes will also be added, along with improvements made to interchanges and bridges. The project is supported by a TIFIA loan and is almost exclusively paid for with local funding through a combination of toll revenue and voter-approved county-level sales tax proceeds.
Southern Ohio Veterans Memorial Highway - Portsmouth to Lucasville, Scioto County, Ohio
The Southern Ohio Veterans Memorial Highway is a 16-mile, four-lane, limited access highway providing motorists with an alternative route around the city of Portsmouth in South Central Ohio, saving 10 miles of travel and up to 16 minutes per trip. The project is Ohio's first DBFOM availability payment concession and has benefited from TIFIA and PAB financing, as well as Appalachian Development Highway System funds.
SR 520 Floating Bridge - Seattle, Washington Metropolitan Area
SR 520 is one of two major east-west roadways crossing Lake Washington, located within King County and the Seattle metropolitan area in the State of Washington. The SR 520 Floating Bridge and Eastside plus West Approach Bridge Project includes the replacement of the existing floating bridge across Lake Washington, the widening of the roadway to the east and accommodation of a transit/HOV lane, and the west approach project connecting to the floating bridge on the Seattle side. Project financing includes toll-backed revenue bonds and a TIFIA loan supported by tolls collected on the existing and replacement bridges, in combination with other federal and state funding.
Staten Island Ferries and Terminals - New York
The Staten Island Ferry provides over 21 million people a year (65,000 passengers a day not including weekend days) with ferry service between St. George on Staten Island and Whitehall Street in lower Manhattan. With the help of a $159 million TIFIA loan, the project included the redevelopment of the two ferry terminals and the purchase of three ferry boats.
Transbay Transit Center - San Francisco, California
The Transbay Transit Center Project will replace the current Transbay Terminal with a new multimodal transportation center and centralize the region's transportation network by accommodating nine transportation systems under one roof. The project consists of replacing the outdated Transbay Terminal with a modern transit hub, extending the Caltrain rail line from its current terminus and accommodating high-speed rail, and redeveloping the area surrounding the Transbay Transit Center.
Tren Urbano - San Juan, Puerto Rico
The Tren Urbano is a 10.7-mile, fully automated rapid transit that serves the metropolitan area of San Juan, which includes the municipalities of San Juan, Bayamón, and Guaynabo. The Tren Urbano consists of 16 stations along a single line, a vehicle maintenance and storage facility, rolling stock, and other supporting infrastructure.
Triangle Expressway - Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina
The 18.8-mile Triangle Expressway, composed of three sections, provides congestion relief on existing north-south routes serving the Research Triangle Park region (including I-40) between Raleigh and Durham. The project is being financed with toll and state revenue bonds and a $386 million TIFIA loan.
U.S. 36 Express Lanes (Phase 1) - Denver Metro Area, Colorado
The U.S. 36 Express Lanes Phase 1 is an initial 10-mile phase of improvements, including one HOT lane in each direction, along 15 miles of roadway between Denver and Boulder, Colorado. This $312 million first phase opened in July 2015 under a design-build contract. A second phase, which opened in January 2016, completes the improvements. The full corridor is operated and maintained by a private partner that developed Phase 2.
U.S. 36 Express Lanes (Phase 2) - Denver Metro Area, Colorado
Phase 2 of a 15-mile reconstruction and expansion of U.S. 36, a four-lane divided highway connecting Denver and Boulder, extends the 10-mile Phase 1 project five miles further northwest to Boulder. The corridor was reconstructed and augmented with a single HOT lane in each direction. The project also included the reconstruction or rehabilitation of three bridges, accommodations for bus rapid transit, provision for ITS, improvements to a commuter rail station, and a bikeway. Phase 2 has been delivered as a DBFOM P3. In addition to the Phase 2 construction, the concessionaire will operate and maintain the entire U.S. 36 Express Lanes corridor as well as the existing I-25 Express Lanes, which connect at its southern terminus.
Veterans Memorial Bridge Replacement - Portland, Maine
The existing Veterans Memorial Bridge was built in 1954 to connect Portland's West End to South Portland over the Fore River. The new bridge, which includes a bicycle/pedestrian pathway as well as green spaces, opened in July 2012 and is designed to last 100 years. GARVEE bonds were sold as taxable Build America Bonds and tax exempt revenue bonds by the Maine Municipal Bond Bank in November 2010 to finance a portion of the project.
Washington Metro Capital Improvement Program - Washington, D.C.
The WMATA capital improvement program (CIP) replaced vehicles and rehabilitated facilities and equipment on the rail and bus systems. Individual components of the CIP included procurement of new buses and rail cars; major maintenance and rehabilitation of electrical and mechanical systems, communications, and track and structures to improve system-wide performance; escalator and elevator rehabilitation and other station enhancements; parking lot improvements; and upgrades to several maintenance facilities.
Wekiva Parkway Project - Orlando Metropolitan Region, Florida
The Central Florida Expressway Authority is constructing 10 miles of the planned 25-mile Wekiva Parkway that will complete the beltway around northwest metropolitan Orlando. A TIFIA loan is helping to accelerate completion of these sections of toll highway from 2019 to 2018.
Westside Purple Line Extension, Section 1 - Los Angeles, California
The Westside Purple Line Extension comprises a three phase, 8.9 mile station-to-station subway heavy rail line that would operate as an extension of the LA Metro's existing Purple Line from its current terminus at Wilshire/Western Station to a new western terminus in West Los Angeles near the Veterans Affairs (VA) Hospital in Westwood. Section 1 will extend the Purple Line 3.9 miles from Wilshire/Western to Wilshire/La Cienega and includes three stations. Section 1 is being procured as a design-build, and will be financed through federal, state, and local sources, including a TIFIA loan and an FTA New Starts Full Funding Grant Agreement.