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High Performance Concrete Pavements
Project Summary

CHAPTER 17. KANSAS 1 (Highway K-96, Haven)

Introduction

In 1997, the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) constructed an experimental project under the TE-30 program. This project incorporates a wide variety of experimental features, from alternative dowel bars to alternative sawing practices to different mix designs (Wojakowski 1998). The project is located on Highway K-96 near Haven, which is located between Wichita and Hutchinson (see Figure 43).

Figure 43. Location of KS 1 project.

Location of KS 1 project. The outline map shows the Kansas 1 project on Highway K-96 in Haven, midway between Hutchinson and Wichita, in south-central Kansas. I-70 is shown crossing the north Kansas through Topeka. I-35 appears near the eastern border.

Study Objectives

Looking for ways to improve PCC pavement performance, KDOT implemented this project to specifically assess the effects of different design features, mix designs, and construction practices on the constructibility and performance of PCC pavements. Benefits expected to be derived from the project include assessments of the following (Wojakowski 1998):

  • Feasibility of including recycled waste materials in a two-lift PCC pavement.
  • Feasibility of using a harder aggregate of unknown reactivity mitigated with an appropriate pozzolan in a two-lift PCC pavement.
  • Performance of new load transfer devices.
  • Life extensions associated with premium materials and concrete mixes.
  • Cost-benefit data associated with the various designs.

Project Design and Layout

Two phases were defined in the work plan for this project. Phase I included evaluating the many different construction materials and mix designs to be used in the study, preparing the plans and specifications, doing a construction evaluation, and evaluating and monitoring the project (Wojakowski 1998). Phase II consisted of the actual construction of the test sections.

Constructed in the early fall of 1997, the test sections are located only in the two eastbound lanes of the four-lane divided highway (Wojakowski 1998). Most test sections are 1-km (0.6-mi) long. The soils in the area are typically silty and sandy loams, and the 20-year projected traffic volume is 8,000 vehicles per day, which includes 11 percent trucks (Wojakowski 1998).

The nominal pavement structural design for the test sections is a 254-mm (10-in.) JPCP over a cement-treated base (CTB). Transverse joints are spaced at 4.6-m (15-ft) intervals (except for one section), contain 32-mm (1.25-in.) diameter epoxy-coated steel dowels (except for two sections), and are sealed with neoprene compression seals (except for part of one section) (Wojakowski 1998). Longitudinal joints contain tie bars at 914-mm (36-in.) spacings and are sealed with a hot-poured, low-modulus sealant (Wojakowski 1998).

Thirteen experimental pavement sections were constructed on this project, incorporating a wide range of design and construction variables. A description of the features of each experimental section is provided below (Wojakowski 1998):

  • Section 1 - Control section. This pavement section reflects the nominal pavement structural design, containing 32-mm (1.25-in.) diameter dowel bars and placed in a single lift. The concrete mixture contains 337 kg/m3 (564 lb/yd3) of Type II cement, a water-cement ratio (w/c) of 0.47, and 6.5 percent air. Three aggregates - 35 percent of a coarse limestone (19 mm [0.75 in.] top size), 15 percent of a pea gravel, and 50 percent of a coarse sand - were used and blended to produce a grading approximating a "Shilstone" haystack gradation curve. Consolidation of the concrete was specified to be 98 percent of the vibrated unit weight when measured by a nuclear density meter.
  • Section 2 - Single saw cut. The first 31 transverse joints of this section were created using a narrow (6 mm [0.25 in.]) single saw cut and left unsealed, whereas the remaining 79 joints were widened and sealed with a hot-poured material. Other than the transverse joint sealant, other aspects of this pavement are the same as the nominal pavement structural design.
  • Section 3 - Nontraditional dowel type. With the same nominal structural design as the control, this section incorporates 51-mm (2-in.) diameter FiberCon™ fiberglass dowels, manufactured by Concrete Systems, Inc. These dowels are a composite fiberglass tube filled with a high-strength cement grout. One-half of the length of the bar is machined to a smooth surface of 48 mm (1.9 in.) diameter to allow slippage of the bar as the joint opens and closes. The bars are placed on center-to-center spacings of 305 mm (12 in.).
  • Section 4 - X-Flex™ load transfer device. This short section, consisting only of five joints, incorporates a unique load transfer device called the X-Flex™, developed at Kansas State University. As shown in Figure 44, the configuration of the X-Flex™ is such that the "X" part of the device goes across the transverse joint with the far ends curving to make a loop in a continuous design; wheel loads are transferred through tension in the "X" part of the device rather than by shear. The device is made from 13 mm (0.5 in.) epoxy-coated steel cast bars and spaced at 305-mm (12-in.) centers across the joint. Other design aspects of this section are the same as the nominal pavement design.
  • Section 4a, 5, and 6 - Alternate saws. Three sections were constructed that used different lightweight saws for the establishment of the transverse joints. Section 4a used a Soff-Cut™ saw (to depths of 38 and 64 mm [1.5 and 2.5 in.]), section 5 used a Target saw (to depths of 25, 44, and 64 mm [1, 1.75, and 2.5 in.]), and section 6 used a Magnum saw (to depths of 25, 44, and 64 mm [1, 1.75, and 2.5 in.]). The rest of the design features of this section are the same as the nominal structural design.
  • Section 6a - Polyolefin fiber PCC. This short (152-m [500-ft]) section incorporates polyolefin fibers in the PCC mix design. The transverse joint spacing was extended to 18.3 m (60 ft), and the longitudinal lane-lane joint was eliminated. The fibers are 1.57 mm (0.062 in.) in diameter and were added at the rate of 15 kg/m3 (25 lb/yd3). The w/c of the mix was increased from 0.45 to 0.49 to provide additional workability.
  • Section 7 - Longitudinal tining. Instead of conventional transverse tining, this section incorporates longitudinal tining impressed on the surface of the fresh concrete surface. The primary purpose of longitudinal tining is to reduce noise levels produced by passing vehicles. All other design aspects of this section are the same as the nominal structural pavement design.
  • Section 8 - Special curing compound. A special high solids curing compound, conforming to ASTM C 1315, was applied to this section. The purpose is to compare the effectiveness of the special curing compound to the conventional curing compound in terms of surface integrity and compressive strength. The curing compound was applied at the rate of 0.036 L/m2 (0.03 gal/yd2), which is about half the rate recommended for a rough surface. All other design elements for this section are the same as the nominal pavement design.
  • Section 9 - Two-lift construction with recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). This section used a two-lift construction process in which the bottom 178 mm (7 in.) of pavement used 15 percent recycled asphalt pavement in place of the intermediate-sized well gravel. Laboratory testing indicated that this mixture could produce 28-day strengths of 27.6 MPa (4,000 lbf/in2). The top lift was placed 76-mm (3-in.) thick using the standard PCC mixture. All other design aspects for this section are the same as the nominal pavement design.
  • Section 10 - Lower w/c concrete. This section employed a high-range water reducer to lower the w/c of the mixture by 0.05 from the standard w/c of 0.47. The rest of the pavement design is the same as the nominal structural pavement design.
  • Section 11 - Two-lift construction with igneous rock. This section used a two-lift construction process in which the top 76 mm (3 in.) incorporates rhyolite, a hard igneous rock. The objective of this design is to evaluate the resistance of the pavement to polishing, to which the limestone aggregates commonly used by KDOT are susceptible. Because the rhyolite is potentially susceptible to alkali-silica reactivity (ASR), a calcined natural clay pozzolan called DuraPoz™ was used to replace 20 percent of the cement (by weight) in the 76-mm (3-in.) surface layer. The bottom 178 mm (7 in.) of this pavement used a soft, high-absorption durable limestone. A 25-mm (1-in.) maximum size that passed the State's freeze-thaw durability test (ASTM C 666, Procedure B) was used.
  • Section 12 - Two-lift construction with lower w/c concrete. This two-lift construction section used the same lower w/c PCC mixture used in section 10 but only in the top 76 mm (3 in.) layer. The bottom 178 mm (7 in.) layer used the same 25-mm (1-in.) soft high absorptive limestone used in section 11. The remaining design aspects of this section are the same as the nominal pavement design.
  • Section 13 - Random transverse tining and special curing compound. This section was constructed in the spring of 1998 and used a special tining rake that imparted variably spaced transverse impressions on the surface of the fresh concrete to reduce tire-surface noise. Additionally, the remainder of the high-solids special curing compound used on section 8 was applied at the rate of 0.18 L/m2 (0.04 gal/yd2). All other design elements of the section are the same as the nominal pavement design.

Figure 44. Photo of X-Flex™ load transfer devices.

Image of X-Flex™ load transfer devices. Four loops in the shape of a figure 8 resting on its side appear at right angles to three tie bars, two above the loops and one below. The two sides of each figure eight appear to be tied to the tie bars above, and the “X” portion appears centered over and near the third tie bar, below.

Table 17 provides the simplified experimental design matrix for the sections included in this project. The layout of the pavement test sections is illustrated in Figure 45.

Table 17. Simplified Experimental Design Matrix for KS 1
 CONVENTIONAL PCC MIX WITH SINGLE-LIFT CONSTRUCTIONTWO-LIFT CONSTRUCTION (RECYCLED ASPHALT ON BOTTOM)TWO-LIFT CONSTRUCTION (IGNEOUS ROCK ON TOP)TWO-LIFT CONSTRUCTION (LOW W/C ON TOP)PCC MIX WITH POLYOLEFIN FIBERS
Conventional Sawcutting EquipmentLightweight Sawcutting EquipmentConventional Sawcutting EquipmentConventional Sawcutting EquipmentConventional Sawcutting Equipment
Steel DowelsFiberCon DowelsX-Flex DeviceSteel DowelsSteel DowelsSteel DowelsSteel Dowels
Compression SealsCompression SealsHot-Pour SealantNo SealantCompression SealsCompression Seals
Conventional w/cConventional Curing CompoundConventional Transverse TiningSection 1Section 3Section 4Section 4a Section 5 Section 6Section 2Section 2 (31 jts)Section 9Section 11Section 12Section 6a
Longitudinal TiningSection 7         
Random Transverse Tining          
High Solids Curing CompoundConventional Transverse TiningSection 8         
Longitudinal Tining          
Random Transverse TiningSection 13         
Lower w/cConventional Curing CompoundConventional Transverse TiningSection 10         

Figure 45. Layout of KS 1 project (Wojakowski 1998).

Layout of KS 1 project (Wojakowski 1998). Thirteen test sections are shown with their beginning station numbers. Section 1. Control Section (566+95), 1 km (3,280 lf): typical construction, 1-lift placement, “Shilstone” design, 564 lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air, 98 percent consolidation, typical epoxy-coated steel dowels (1.25-in. diameter), 0.47 w/c used through section. Section 2. Single saw cut (533+25), 0.5 km (1,640 lf): single saw cut, no joint sealant, 0.14 km open, 0.36 km ss; 1-lift construction, “Shilstone” design, 564 lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air, 98 percent consolidation, typical dowels, 0.47 w/c ratio first day and 0.45 w/c ratio second day. Section 3. Non-traditional dowel type (516+85), 0.5 km (1,640 lf): FiberCon dowels, 1-lift construction, “Shilstone” design, 564 lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air, 98 percent consolidation, typical dowels, 0.45 w/c ratio all day. Sections 4, 5, and 6. X-Flex, Alternate Saw, and 34M Fibers (Soft Cut 500+70, Target [midway], and Magnum 468+95), 1 km (3,280 lf): 5 X-Flex joints, initial control cuts utilizing Soff-Cut, Magnum and Target Early-cut Saw; 3M polyolefin fibers (500-ft section only); 1-lift construction, “Shilstone” design, 564-lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air, 98 percent consolidation, typical dowels (outside of X-flex), 0.47 w/c ratio for fibers, 0.45 w/c ratio for all others. Section 7. Special pavement marking/longitudinal tining (468+95), 1 km (3,280 lf): longitudinal tining, proprietary pavement marking product, 1-lift construction, “Shilstone design, 654 lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air, 98 percent consolidation, typical dowels, 0.45 w/c ratio through section. Section 8. ASTM C1315 Cure (435+05), 1 km (3,280 lf): Special high-solids curing compound, 1-lift construction, “Shilstone” design, 564 lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air, 98 percent consolidation, typical dowels. Section 9. Two-Lift, Recycled Asphalt (RAP) on Bottom (420+10 - 366+30), 1 km (3,280 lf): 15 percent RAP usage in bottom 7-in. layer, typical concrete mix in top 3 in., 2-lift construction, 564 lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air in each lift, 98 percent consolidation, typical dowels, single consolidation, 3 oz/100 lb Masterpave N in RAP mix, 0.45 w/c ratio in RAP mix, 0.45 w/c ratio in normal mix. Section 10. lower w/c ratio (366+30), 1 km (3,280 lf): High range water reducer to lower w/c 0.05 from standard mix, 1-lift construction, “Shilstone” design, 564 lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air, 98 percent consolidation, typical dowels. Section 11. Two-lift, igneous rock on top (333+30), 0.63 km (2,065 lf): High absorption limestone in bottom 7 in., Rhyolite aggregate in top 3 in., Dura-Poz to counter ASR of Rhyolite, 2-lift construction, “Shilstone” design, 654 lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air in each lift, 98 percent consolidation, typical dowels, single consolidation. Section 12. Two-lift, low w/c on top (289+05 - 248+90), 1 km (3,280 lf): High absorption limestone in bottom 7 in., high range water reducer in top 3 in. to lower w/c 0.05 from standard mix, 2-lift construction, “Shilstone” design, 546 lb cement/cy, 6.5 percent air in each lift, 98 percent consolidation, typical dowels, single consolidation. Section 13. Random pattern transverse tining and high solids cure (966+44 to 982+15 and 1006+00 to 1026+40), 1.1 km (3611 lf): All else typical construction.

State Monitoring Activities

Construction Monitoring

During the construction of the test sections, several incidents of note were observed by the researchers. These are summarized below (Wojakowski 1998):

  • Section 4. Because they were placed only about 38 mm (1.5 in.) below the surface, several of the X-Flex™ load transfer devices were struck and dislodged by the paver during construction. Consequently, some of these devices had to be replaced by dowels and the transverse joint hand finished.
  • Section 5. Sawing with the Soff-Cut™ lightweight saw began about 3 hours and 20 minutes after the concrete was placed. For the 40 joints cut to a depth of 38 mm (1 in.), 6 cracks occurred beneath the saw cut after 1 day, 18 cracks occurred beneath the saw cut after 2 days, 23 cracks after 3 days, 31 cracks after 4 days, 35 cracks after 5 days, and 39 cracks after 7 days. No cracks were observed within the panels for this section or for any of the sections that employed the lightweight saws.
  • Section 6. Intermediate cracks occurred almost immediately after this fiber-reinforced PCC pavement was placed. During the first night, intermediate cracks formed on 5 of the 8 panels that were paved, and by the 5th day after placement, 10 cracks had appeared in the 8 panels. The panels containing two cracks were noted to be the first two placed on the day that had a high temperature of 35 °C (95 °F) and a low of 21 °C (69 °F).
  • Section 8. The special curing compound was applied with the expectation that improved curing would lead to a more durable pavement. Unfortunately, the environmental conditions at the time of application were quite mild, and the actual coverage rate (0.035 L/m2 [0.03 gal/yd2]) was one-half the recommended value.
  • Section 9. Limited funding prevented the use of a separate paver for the lower lift. Therefore, a belt placer/spreader was used for the placement of the lower lift, the mix design of which had to be stiffened to accommodate its placement. An interval of about 30 minutes was needed between the placement of the two lifts. Small depressions were noted when the top lift was dropped on the bottom lift and some intermixing of the two lifts occurred, but for the most part the process was workable and adequately controlled. This same construction procedure was essentially followed for all two-lift sections.
  • Section 10. In spite of the lower w/c used in the mix design for this section, it was found to be workable and easy to finish. This workability is attributed to the lubrication provided by the high-range water reducer used to reduce the w/c.
  • Section 13. The weather at the time that this section was constructed in 1998 mandated the use of cold-weather concreting procedures. The special curing compound was applied at the specified rate of 0.18 L/m2 (0.04 gal/yd2).
Early Mix Property Data

During the construction of the different sections, several key mix design properties were measured. These measurements are summarized in Table 18. Generally speaking, most of the results appear reasonable for the various mix designs.

Performance Monitoring

KDOT has been monitoring the performance of these test sections since 1998. The following information is collected: distress data (cracking, faulting, spalling), joint load transfer efficiency, noise, and surface friction (Wojakowski 1998).

Preliminary Results/Findings

Some preliminary results are available from KDOT regarding the costs and performance of these sections. These results are described in the following sections.

Cost Data

Construction costs for these sections are summarized in Table 19 and illustrated in Figure 46. Some notes regarding these costs are documented by Wojakowski (1998):

  • Section 1. This figure includes the costs of both the mainline pavement and the shoulders.
  • Section 3. For the small quantities of this project, the costs of the FiberCon™ dowels were $28.87/m ($8.80/ft) as compared to $8.00/m ($2.44/ft) for conventional epoxy-coated steel dowels. With a larger project and volume pricing, the cost of these dowels could be expected to be around $16.40/m ($5.00/ft).
  • Sections 4a, 5, and 6. The lightweight saws provided minimal savings to the overall construction costs.
  • Sections 9, 11, and 12. These sections included a two-lift construction process that added considerable cost. The two-lift construction costs included a second batch plant, extra hauling of material, a concrete belt placer/spreader, and extra labor for hauling.
Table 18. Summary of Early Mix Properties of KS 1 Test Sections (Wojakowski 1998)
SECTIONAVERAGE SLUMP, IN.AVERAGE AIR CONTENT, %AVERAGE UNIT WEIGHT, LB/FT3AVERAGE FLEXURAL STRENGTH, LBF/IN2CORE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, LBF/IN2 (28-DAY)
1—Control0.66142525 (7 days)4,583
2—Single sawcut17.1142.2N/AN/A
3—Nontraditional dowel15.3142.6N/AN/A
4—X-FlexTN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
4a—Lightweight Soff-cut sawN/AN/AN/AN/A4,530
5—Lightweight Target saw17141N/AN/A
6—Lightweight Magnum sawN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
6a—Polyolefin fibers05.2141539 (7 days)4,598
7—Longitudinal tining0.86.9141.2N/A4,665
8—Special curing compound2.17.4140N/A4,760
9—Two-lift with RAP0.8 (top lift)6.8142N/A3,843
0.8 (bottom lift)5.8142.2517 (5 days)
10—Lower w/c1.15.8144.7550 (4 days)5,040
11—Two-lift with igneous rock2.0 (top lift)4.3142.2583 (8 days)4,780
0.8 (bottom lift)5.9139.43475 (4 days)
12—Two-lift with lower w/c1.0 (top lift)5.8143.8583 (6 days)N/A
1.2 (bottom lift)5.3137.82583 (6 days)
13—Random tiningN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
N/A = not available
Flexural strengths measured under third-point loading.
Table 19. Summary of Construction Cost Data for KS 1 (Wojakowski 1998)
SECTIONEXPERIMENTAL FEATURECOST DIFFERENCE FROM CONTROL, $/YD2TOTAL UNIT COST, $/YD2
1Control25.8
2Unsealed joints-0.6725.13
3FiberCon™ dowels+5.7231.52
4X-Flex™ deviceN/AN/A
4aSoff-Cut lightweight saw025.8
5Target lightweight saw025.8
6Magnum lightweight saw025.8
6aPolyolefin fibers+15.6341.43
7Longitudinal tining025.8
8Special curing compound+0.8326.63
9Two-lift construction with recycled asphalt pavement+25.1250.92
10Lower w/c+0.0325.83
11Two-lift construction with igneous rock+26.0551.85
12Two-lift construction with lower w/c+25.0950.89
13Random transverse tining025.8
N/A = Not available (experimental device not commercially available)

Figure 46. Relative construction costs by section for KS 1.

Relative construction costs by section for KS 1. Construction costs are plotted in dollars per square yard for each section. Refer to Table 19 for exact costs per section. The highest costs are for Sections 9, 11, and 12, exceeding $50/yd<sup>2</sup>. Section 6a topped $40/yd<sup>2</sup>, and Section 3 exceeded $30/yd<sup>2</sup>. The remaining sections cost between $20 and $27/yd<sup>2</sup>.

Early Performance Data

KDOT is monitoring the performance of these test sections, and has produced two annual reports documenting their early performance (KDOT 1998; KDOT 1999). Visual distress surveys are conducted in which cracking, joint faulting, and joint spalling are recorded. The results from these surveys are illustrated in Table 20. An examination of this table shows that although a few cracks have occurred in a few of the sections, overall these sections are in good condition. Faulting levels are all less than 1 mm (0.04 in.), far below critical faulting thresholds of 2.5 to 3.0 mm (0.10 to 0.12 in.). Joint spalling is observed only on two sections.

The initial profile index values for the test sections are shown in Table 20 and plotted in Figure 47. These values are based on a zero-blanking band. Followup roughness measurements are not available.

Table 20. Summary of Early Performance Data for KS 1 Project (KDOT 1998; KDOT 1999)
SECTIONEXPERIMENTAL FEATURE1998 INITIAL PROFILE INDEX, MM/KMAVERAGE JOINT FAULTING, MMAVERAGE SPALLING, MM/JOINTOTHER NOTED DISTRESSES
1998199919981999
1Control2400.020.024.915.24 
2Unsealed joints 00.21  1 corner crack
Sealed joints 0.070.1  2 corner cracks
3FiberCon™ dowels2680.080.25  1.0-m transverse crack
8 corner cracks
4X-Flex™ device25900   
4aSoff-Cut lightweight saw 00.07   
5Target lightweight saw 00.07   
6Magnum lightweight saw      
6aPolyolefin fibers 0.060.16  16 mid-panel cracks*; 1 longitudinal crack
7Longitudinal tining189     
8Special curing compound1290.02010.616.9 
9Two-lift construction with recycled asphalt pavement1780.050.13   
10Lower w/c1780.130.1   
11Two-lift construction with igneous rock1660.020.02   
12Two-lift construction with lower w/c1860.130.17  3.7-m trans. crack
13Random transverse tining319 0.03   
* These cracks in section 6a were retrofitted with dowel bars in 1999.

Figure 47. Comparison of Initial Profile Index of KS 1 test sections (Zero-Blanking Band).

Comparison of Initial Profile Index of KS 1 test sections (Zero-Blanking Band). Initial Profile Index (IPI) in mm/km is shown for each test section. Refer to Table 20 for exact numbers. Section 13 is the outlier, exceeding 300 mm/km. Sections 3 and 4 exceed 250 mm/km, and Section 1 is nearly 250 mm/km. Section 8 has the lowest IPI, between 100 and 150 mm/km. IPIs of the remaining sections fall between 100 and 200 mm/km.

A noise study was conducted by KDOT in October 1998 to assess the effect of the various tining methods (sections 1, 7, and 13) (KDOT 1998; KDOT 1999). Noise sampling was recorded from a passenger car and a medium-duty dump truck at three locations adjacent to the roadway. The study concluded that there were no significant differences in either the exterior or interior noise levels generated by vehicles traveling over these test sections (KDOT 1998; KDOT 1999).

Interim Results/Findings

The interim performance of these test sections is documented in the 2002 Annual Report (KDOT 2002) and the 2003 Annual Report (KDOT 2003) and summarized in Tables 21 and 22. FWD testing was performed in January 2002 and again in January 2004, and the results are shown in Figure 48. Based upon the FWD results, some of the load transfer devices are exhibiting marginal efficiency, particularly for a pavement less than 5 years old.

Table 21. Summary of 2002 Performance Data for KS 1 Project (KDOT 2002)
SECTIONEXPERIMENTAL FEATUREAVERAGE JOINT FAULTING, MM
---
2002
AVERAGE SPALLING MM/JOINT
---
2002
OTHER NOTED DISTRESSES
1Control0.0265.2 
2Unsealed joints0.0227.91 corner crack
Sealed joints0.0738.96 corner cracks
3FiberCon™ dowels0.1632.27 corner cracks; 1 1.2-m longitudinal crack
4X-Flex™ device0162.6 
4aSoff-Cut lightweight saw0.02143.1 
5Target lightweight saw0.0710.9 
6Magnum lightweight saw050.8 
6aPolyolefin fibers0.2353.33 new longitudinal cracks
7Longitudinal tining0.079.3 
8Special curing compound0.0727.9 
9Two-lift construction with recycled asphalt pavement0.0517.816 transverse cracks averaging 1.3m each
10Lower w/c0.1510.2 
11Two-lift construction with igneous rock0.0727.1395 transverse cracks averaging 0.4m each; 16 longitudinal cracks averaging 0.4mm each
12Two-lift construction with lower w/c0.1212.75 longitudinal cracks from 4.6 to 9.14m each; 1 3.7m transverse crack
13Random transverse tining0.0522.92 corner cracks; 1 0.3m longitudinal crack
Table 22. Summary of 2003 Performance Data for KS 1 Project (KDOT 2003)
SECTIONEXPERIMENTAL FEATURE2003 AVERAGE JOINT FAULTING, MM2003 AVERAGE SPALLING MM/JOINTOTHER NOTED DISTRESSES
1Control0.2541.5 
2Unsealed joints0.08591 corner crack
Sealed joints0.07506 corner cracks
3FiberCon™ dowels0.2238.110 corner cracks; 1 1.2-m longitudinal crack
4X-Flex™ device0.4106.7 
4aSoff-Cut lightweight saw0.0785.4 
5Target lightweight saw0.0421.8 
6Magnum lightweight saw044.5 
6aPolyolefin fibers0.1925.4 
7Longitudinal tining0.079.3 
8Special curing compound0.0242.3 
9Two-lift construction with RAP01116 transverse cracks averaging 1.3m each; light map cracking on 21 of 30 panels
10Lower w/c0.1223.7 
11Two-lift construction with igneous rock021.217 longitudinal cracks averaging 2.6m each; many smaller cracks not recorded
12Two-lift construction with lower w/c0.0824.65 longitudinal cracks from 4.6 to 9.14m each; 1 3.7-m transverse crack; 1 0.3-m transverse crack
13Random transverse tining0.0727.92 corner cracks; 1 3.6-m longitudinal crack

Figure 48. Joint load transfer efficiency on KS 1.

Joint load transfer efficiency on KS 1. The load transfer efficiency as measured by falling weight deflectometer is plotted for the years 1998 through 2003 for five sections of the K-96 Reno County project: control section, FiberCon dowels, X-Flex Ltd., two-lift with asphalt, and lower w/c ratio. Percentage values that follow are approximate. Control section: 82 in 1998 and 1999, dropping to 69 in 2000, 65 in 2001, rising to 70 in 2002, and ending at 85 in 2003. FiberCon dowels: 89 in 1998, 83 in 1999, 86 in 2000, 83 in 2001, 76 in 2002, and 87 in 2003. X-Flex Ltd.: 80 in 2000 (first measurement), 83 in 2001, 82 in 2002, and 87 in 2003. Two-lift with asphalt: 99 in 1998, 74 in 1999, 68 in 2000, 65 in 2001, 63 in 2002, and 66 in 2003. Lower w/c ratio: 96 in 1998, 78 in 1999, 84 in 2000, 75 in 2001 and 2002, and 85 in 2003. The two-lift with asphalt had the lowest values in 2003 with the four other methods clustering around 85–87 percent.

References

Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT). 1998. High Performance Concrete Pavement, K-96 Reno County. 1998 Annual Report. Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka.

---. 1999. High Performance Concrete Pavement, K-96 Reno County. 1999 Annual Report. Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka.

---. 2002. High Performance Concrete Pavement, K-96 Reno County. 2002 Annual Report. Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka.

---. 2003. High Performance Concrete Pavement, K-96 Reno County. 2003 Annual Report. Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka.

Wojakowski, J. B. 1998. High Performance Concrete Pavement. Report No. FHWA-KS-98/2. Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka.

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Updated: 04/07/2011
 

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