High Performance Concrete Pavements
CHAPTER 30. SOUTH DAKOTA 1 (US Route 83, Pierre)
In the early 1990s, the South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) investigated the use of non-metallic fiber reinforced concrete (NMFRC) on several small bridge and highway applications (Ramakrishnan 1995; Ramakrishnan 1997). Although the NMFRC performed well in each application, a strong need for additional information on the design, construction, and performance of NMFRC pavements was identified. Thus, this project, located on US 83 northeast of Pierre (see Figure 85), was constructed in 1996 under the TE-30 program to allow, on a larger scale, the evaluation of NMFRC pavements with different slab thicknesses, joint spacings, and the need for transverse joint load transfer (Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998).
Figure 85. Location of SD 1 project.
In order to more fully assess the suitability of NMFRC in full-depth concrete, this project was constructed to accomplish the following objectives (Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998):
- Develop NMFRC full-depth pavement designs that will enhance PCC pavement performance, including appropriate slab thicknesses, joint load transfer designs, and joint spacings.
- Evaluate the constructibility and performance of NMFRC full-depth pavement.
- Evaluate the economic impacts of using NMFRC full-depth pavement.
Project Design and Layout
This project was constructed in 1996 on US 83 northeast of Pierre, between mileage reference markers (MRMs) 144 and 145 (Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998). The new pavement is a two-lane roadway (each lane 4.3 m [14 ft] wide), and was constructed on an existing gravel base course. Eight different test sections are included in the project: one control section and seven non-metallic fiber reinforced concrete pavement (NMFRCP) sections. Figure 86 illustrates the layout of the test sections, and Table 46 summarizes the design features of the test sections. Table 47 presents the experimental design matrix for the project.
Figure 86. Layout of SD 1 test sections (Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998).
Table 46. Design Features of SD 1 Test Sections (Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998)
FIBER CONCRETE, YD3
|B||250||FRCP (25 lb/yd3)||6.5||No||25||173|
|C||245||FRCP (25 lb/yd3)||6.5||No||35||170|
|D||500||FRCP (25 lb/yd3)||8||Yes||25||346|
|E||490||FRCP (25 lb/yd3)||8||Yes||35||339|
|F||500||FRCP (25 lb/yd3)||8||No||25||346|
|G||490||FRCP (25 lb/yd3)||8||No||35||339|
|H||1290||FRCP (25 lb/yd3)||8||No||None||892|
|JPCP = jointed plain concrete pavement; FRCP = fiber-reinforced concrete pavement|
Table 47. Experimental Design Matrix for SD 1
|6.5-in. Slab||20 ft Joints|| || || || |
|25 ft Joints|| || || ||Section B|
|35 ft Joints|| || || ||Section C|
|No Joints|| || || || |
|8-in. Slab||20 ft Joints||Section A|| || || |
|25 ft Joints|| || ||Section D||Section F|
|35 ft Joints|| || ||Section E||Section G|
|No Joints|| || || ||Section H|
|JPCP = jointed plain concrete pavement; NMFRCP = non-metallic fiber-reinforced concrete pavement|
The NMFRCP sections used polyolefin fibers, manufactured by the 3M company. These fibers are purported to provide mechanical improvements to the concrete and are also non-corrodible and resistant to chemicals (Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998). The NMFRCP mix design used in this project is shown in Table 48 (Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998).
Table 48. NMFRCP Mix Design Used in SD 1 Project
(Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998)
|Cement (Type II)||510 lb/yd3|
|Fly ash (Type F)||112 lb/yd3|
|Limestone coarse aggregate||1417 lb/yd3|
|Fine aggregate||1417 lb/yd3|
|Polyolefin fibers||25 lb/yd3|
|Air content||6 ± 1.5 percent|
The monitoring of the design, construction, and early performance of these pavement sections had led to the following conclusions regarding the use of NMFRC pavements (Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998):
- The same construction techniques and construction equipment can be used in the batching and placement of fiber-reinforced concrete pavements. The only modification needed in the batching process is the addition of a plastic tube to facilitate the introduction of the fibers. However, some additional mixing time may be required for NMFRC pavements.
- No differences in the riding quality of the pavement sections could be established. All of the pavement sections met the smoothness criteria for new pavement construction.
- During the construction of these test sections, both cylinders and beams were cast for later laboratory testing. A comparison of the flexural strengths for beams cast from concrete used on different days of paving is shown in Figure 87; these are the average of three beam breaks for each of the following specimens:
- "P1" indicates specimens collected from the northbound NMFRC paving operations on August 15, 1996.
- "P2" indicates specimens collected from a portion of the southbound NMFRC paving operations on August 26, 1996.
- "P3" indicates specimens collected from the rest of the southbound NMFRC paving operations on August 27, 1996.
- "Control" indicates specimens collected from the northbound control section paved on August 15, 1996.
The strengths of the NMFRC specimens are observed to be greater than that of the control section, although on average the percent increase is only about 20 percent. However, other laboratory tests of toughness, impact, fatigue, endurance limit, and post-crack load carrying capacity suggested that the structural properties of the fiber-modified concrete had been improved.
- After about 3 years of service, condition surveys of the pavement sections revealed that transverse cracks had occurred only in the section without joints (section H). These cracks occurred at approximately 26-m (85-ft) intervals. No other distresses were noted within the pavement sections.
- Data from FWD testing showed that the load transfer was less in the NMFRC pavement sections compared to the control section (see Figure 88). In general, the load transfer was less in sections with longer joint spacings, thinner slabs, or nondoweled joints. The longer joint spacings of the nondoweled NMFRC pavements reduce the effectiveness of the aggregate interlock at the joints, even though they contain fibers. This suggests that the doweling recommendations for conventional PCC pavements also apply to fiber-reinforced concrete pavements. Unfortunately, direct comparisons of load transfer could not be made between the control section and the NMFRC sections because joint spacing was not held constant in the experimental design.
- The initial cost of the 203-mm (8-in.) JPCP was $18.36/m2 ($15.35/yd2), whereas the initial cost of the 203-mm (8-in.) NMFRC was $34.57/m2 ($28.90/yd2) (both based on an 8.5-m [28-ft] wide pavement). A life cycle cost analysis of both designs showed that the conventional design was 61 and 31 percent cheaper than the NMFRC design for analysis periods of 40 and 60 years, respectively. Nevertheless, there may be special design situations in which longer joint spacings, thinner slabs, or more efficient performance may dictate the use of NMFRC pavements.
Figure 87. Summary of flexural strength tests for SD 1
(Ramakrishnan and Tolmare 1998).
Figure 88. Load transfer efficiencies for SD 1 sections.
Distress surveys conducted on these test sections in February 2004 revealed no apparent distress of any kind except for the uncontrolled transverse cracks in section H (Johnston and Huft 2004). The uncontrolled transverse cracks showed no faulting, spalling, etc. and remained narrow. The entire pavement section was uniform in appearance and in good condition (Johnston & Huft 2004).
Points of Contact
South Dakota Department of Transportation
700 East Broadway Avenue
Pierre, SD 57501-2586
Department of Civil andEnvironmental Engineering
SD School of Mines and Technology
501 E St. Joseph Street
Rapid City, SD 57701-3995
Johnston, D., and D. Huft. 2004. Distress Survey Results of the Non-Metallic Fiber Reinforced Concrete Pavement Test Sections on U.S. 83. E-mail communication from South Dakota Department of Transportation, Pierre.
Ramakrishnan, V. 1995. Evaluation of Non-Metallic Fiber Reinforced Concrete in PCC Pavements and Structures. Report No. SD94-04-I. South Dakota Department of Transportation, Pierre.
---. 1997. Demonstration of Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Concrete in Bridge Replacement. Report No. 5095-22. South Dakota Department of Transportation, Pierre.
Ramakrishnan, V., and N. S. Tolmare. 1998. Evaluation of Non-Metallic Fiber Reinforced Concrete in New Full Depth PCC Pavements. Report No. SD96-15-F. South Dakota Department of Transportation, Pierre.