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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-056
Date: October 2006

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Chapter 3. COMPILATION OF INFORMATION AND SPECIFICATIONS FROM HPC BRIDGES

ACTION: Revisions to the maximum usable strain and the Φ factor are proposed.

8.16.3 Flexure

8.16.3.2 Rectangular Sections With Tension Reinforcement Only
8.16.3.3 Flanged Sections With Tension Reinforcement Only
8.16.3.4 Rectangular Sections With Compression Reinforcement Only

These three articles provide equations for the calculation of design moment strength and balanced reinforcement ratio based on a rectangular stress block and an assumed limiting concrete strain of 0.003. If the rectangular stress block and the limiting strains are not appropriate for HSC, the equations will need to be revised or their application restricted to lower concrete strengths.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-64.

8.16.4 Compression Members

8.16.4.1 General Requirements

8.16.4.1.2 Members subject to compressive axial load combined with bending shall be designed for the maximum moment that can accompany the axial load. The factored axial load, Pu, at a given eccentricity shall not exceed the design axial load strength fphin(max), where:

(a) For members with spiral reinforcement conforming to Article 8.18.2.2           

Equation 12.  The equation reads P subscript n times open parentheses max close parentheses, equals .85 times open bracket .85 times f prime subscript c times open parentheses A subscript g minus A subscript st close parentheses, plus f subscript y times A subscript st close bracket.  Phi equals .75.

phi = 0.75

  (8-29)    [Equation 12]

(b)        For members with tie reinforcement conforming to Article 8.18.2.3                     

Equation 13.  The equation reads P subscript n times open parentheses max close parentheses, equals .80 times open bracket .85 times f prime subscript c times open parentheses A subscript g minus A subscript st close parentheses, plus f subscript y times A subscript st close bracket.  Phi equals .70.

phi = 0.70

  (8-30)    [Equation 13]

The maximum factored moment, Mu, shall be magnified for slenderness effects in accordance with Article 8.16.5.

HSC has less lateral expansion than conventional strength concrete, so the confinement effect is less. This affects column behavior. The constants used in equations 8-29 and 8-30 need to be evaluated for use with HSC.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-64.

8.16.4.2 Compression Member Strengths

8.16.4.2.1 Pure Compression

The design axial load strength at zero eccentricity, phiPo, may be computed by:

Equation 14.  The equations reads phi times P subscript o equals phi times open bracket .85 times f prime subscript c times open parentheses A subscript g minus A subscript st close parentheses, plus A subscript st times f subscript y close bracket.

   (8-31)    [Equation 14]

For design, pure compressive strength is a hypothetical condition since Article 8.16.4.1.2 limits the axial load strength of compression members to 85 and 80 percent of the axial load at zero eccentricity.

See comments on articles 8.16.2.7 and 8.16.4.1.2.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-64.

8.16.6 Shear

8.16.6.2 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete

8.16.6.2.1 Shear in Beams and One-Way Slabs and Footings

For members subject to shear and flexure only, Vc shall be computed by,

Equation 15.  The equation reads V subscript c equals open parentheses 1.9 times the square root of f prime subscript c plus 2,500 times rho subscript w times V subscript u times d divided by M subscript u close parentheses, times b subscript w times d.

   (8-48)            [Equation 15]

or

Equation 16. The equation reads V subscript c equals 2 times the square root of f prime subscript c times b subscript w times d.

   (8-49)            [Equation 16]

where bw is the width of web and d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the longitudinal tension reinforcement. Whenever applicable, effects of torsion shall be included. For a circular section, bw shall be the diameter and d need not be less than the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement in the opposite half of the member. For tapered webs, bw shall be the average width or 1.2 times the minimum width, whichever is smaller.

Note:

(a) Vc shall not exceed 3.5the square root of f prime, subscript cbwd when using more detailed calculations.

(b) The quality Vud/Mu shall not be greater than 1.0 where Mu is the factored moment occurring simultaneously with Vu at the section being considered.

At higher compressive strengths, HSC is more brittle and the shear cracks are smoother. As a result, there is less friction along the shear cracks. Since this friction carries some of the shear load, shear provided by the concrete may be less. Consequently, the constants used in the equations need to be investigated. The ACI Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-99) limits the term  the square root of f prime, subscript c to a maximum value of 690 kPa (100 psi) for most shear provisions.(18) Recent research data should be evaluated to determine if a similar limit is needed in the AASHTO Standard Specifications.

ACTION: None. Further research is being conducted under NCHRP project 12-56.

8.16.6.2.2 Shear in Compression Members

For members subject to axial compression, Vc may be computed by:

Equation 17. The equation reads V subscript c equals 2 times open parentheses 1 plus N subscript u divided by 2,000 times A subscript g close parentheses, times the square root of f prime subscript c, open parentheses b subscript w times d close parentheses.

   (8-50)            [Equation 17]

or

Equation 18. The equation reads V subscript c equals 2 times the square root of f prime subscript c times b subscript w times d.

   (8-51)            [Equation 18]

Note:

The quantity Nu /Ag shall be expressed in pounds per square inch.

See comments on 8.16.6.2.1.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.6.2.3 Shear in Tension Members

For members subject to axial tension, shear reinforcement shall be designed to carry total shear, unless a more detailed calculation is made using:

Equation 19. The equation reads v subscript c equals 2 times open parentheses 1 plus N subscript u divided by 500 times A subscript g close parentheses, times the square root of f prime subscript c, open parentheses b subscript w times d close parentheses.

   (8-52)            [Equation 19]

Note:

(a) Nu is negative for tension.

(b) The quantity Nu /Ag shall be expressed in pounds per square inch.

In equation 8-52, vc should be Vc. See comments on 8.16.6.2.1.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.6.2.4 Shear in Lightweight Concrete

The provisions for shear stress, vc, carried by the concrete, apply to normal-weight concrete. When lightweight aggregate concretes are used, one of the following modifications shall apply:

(a)  When fct is specified, the shear strength, Vc, shall be modified by substituting fct /6.7 for the square root of f prime, subscript c, but the value of fct /6.7 used shall not exceed the square root of f prime, subscript c.

(b)  When fct is not specified, Vc shall be multiplied by 0.75 for all-lightweight concrete, and 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete. Linear interpolation may be used when partial sand replacement is used.

HPC can be all-lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete. The constants used in the article need to be evaluated for lightweight and sand-lightweight HPC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.6.3 Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement

8.16.6.3.8 When shear strength Vs exceeds 4the square root of f prime, subscript cbwd , spacing of shear reinforcement shall not exceed one-half the maximum spacing given in Article 8.19.3.

There is a need to verify spacing requirements for HSC.

ACTION: None. Further research is being conducted under NCHRP project 12-56.

8.16.6.3.9 Shear strength Vs shall not be taken great than 8 the square root of f prime, subscript cbwd.

The upper limit for Vs needs to be verified for HSC. The AASHTO LRFD Specifications allow a substantially higher value for the maximum shear strength.

ACTION: None. Further research is being conducted under NCHRP project 12-56.

8.16.6.4 Shear Friction

8.16.6.4.4 Shear-Friction Design Method

(a)  When the shear-friction reinforcement is perpendicular to the shear plane, shear strength Vn shall be computed by:

Equation 20. The equation reads V subscript n equals A subscript vf times f subscript y times mu.

(8-56)            [Equation 20]

where mu is the coefficient of friction in accordance with Article (c).

(b)  When the shear-friction reinforcement is inclined to the shear plane, such that the shear force produces tension in shear-friction reinforcement, shear strength Vn shall be computed by:

Equation 21.  The equation reads V subscript n equals A subscript vf times f subscript y times open parentheses mu times the sine of of alpha subscript f plus the cosine of alpha subscript f close parentheses.

  (8-56A)            [Equation 21]

where af   is the angle between the shear-friction reinforcement and shear plane.

Coefficient of friction mu in Eq. (8-56) and Eq. (8-56A) shall be

Concrete placed monolithically....................................................................... 1.4lambda

Concrete placed against hardened concrete with surface intentionally roughened as specified in Article 8.16.6.4.8......................................................................................................... 1.0lambda

Concrete placed against hardened concrete not intentionally roughened..... 0.6lambda

Concrete anchored to as-rolled structural steel by headed studs or by reinforcing bars (see Article 8.16.6.4.9)......................................................................................................................... 0.7lambda

where lambda = 1.0 for normal-weight concrete, 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete, and 0.75 for all-lightweight concrete. Linear interpolation may be applied when using partial sand replacement.

Tests have indicated that a smoother crack plane occurs with HSC.(15) Consequently, the values of mu andlambdaneed to be evaluated for HSC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.6.4.5 Shear strength Vn shall not be taken greater than 0.2f prime, subscript cAcv nor 800 Acv in pounds, where Acv is area of the concrete section resisting shear transfer.

This article imposes a limit of 28 MPa (4000 psi) on the compressive strength of concrete that can be used in design and is a barrier to the effective use of HSC. The limits of 0.2f prime, subscript cAcv and 5.5 MPa (800 psi) need to be evaluated based on recent test data.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.6.5 Horizontal Shear Strength for Composite Concrete Flexural Members

8.16.6.5.3 Design of cross sections subject to horizontal shear may be based on:

Equation 22.   The equation reads V subscript u less than or equal to phi times V subscript nh.

   (8-57)            [Equation 22]

where Vu is the factored shear force at the section considered, Vnh is the nominal horizontal shear strength in accordance with the following, and d is for the entire composite section.

(a)  When contact surface is clean, free of laitance, and intentionally roughened, shear strength Vnh shall not be taken greater than 80 bvd, in pounds.

(b)  When minimum ties are provided in accordance with paragraph 8.16.6.5.5, and contact surface is clean and free of laitance, but not intentionally roughened, shear strength Vnh shall not be taken greater than 80 bvd, in pounds.

(c)  When minimum ties are provided in accordance with paragraph 8.16.6.5.5, and contract surface is clean, free of laitance, and intentionally roughened to a full amplitude of approximately ¼ inch, shear strength Vnh shall not be taken greater than 350 bvd, in pounds.

(d)  For each percent of tie reinforcement crossing the contact surface in excess of the minimum required by 8.16.6.5.5, shear strength Vnh may be increased by (160fy/40,000)bvd, in pounds.

The horizontal shear resistance needs to be evaluated for HPC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.6.6 Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings

8.16.6.6.2 Design of slab or footing for two-way action shall be based on Equation (8-46), where shear strength Vn shall not be taken greater than shear strength Vc given by Equation (8‑58), unless shear reinforcement is provided in accordance with Article 8.16.6.6.3.

Equation 23. The equation reads V subscript c equals open parentheses 2 plus 4 divided by beta subscript c close parentheses, times the square root of f prime subscript c times b subscript o times d less than or equal to 4 times the square root of f prime subscript c times b subscript o times d.

     (8-58)            [Equation 23]

betac is the ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or reaction area, and bo is the perimeter of the critical section defined in Article 8.16.6.6.1(b).

The constants used in equation 8-58 need to be verified for HSC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.6.6.3 Shear reinforcement consisting of bars or wires may be used in slabs and footings in accordance with the following provisions:

(a)  Shear strength Vn shall be computed by Equation (8-47), where shear strength Vc shall be in accordance with paragraph (d) and shear strength Vs shall be in accordance with paragraph (e).

(b)  Shear strength shall be investigated at the critical section defined in 8.16.6.6.1(b), and at successive sections more distant from the support.

(c)  Shear strength Vn shall not be taken greater than 6the square root of f prime, subscript cbo d, where bo is the perimeter of the critical section defined in paragraph (b).

(d)  Shear strength Vc at any section shall not be taken greater than 2the square root of f prime, subscript cbod, where bo is the perimeter of the critical section defined in paragraph (b).

(e)  Where the factored shear force Vu exceeds the shear strength phiVc as given in paragraph (d), the required area Av and shear strength Vs of shear reinforcement shall be calculated in accordance with Article 8.16.6.3.

The limiting values of Vn and Vc need to be verified for HSC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.6.7 Special Provisions for Slabs of Box Culverts

8.16.6.7.1 For slabs of box culverts under 2 feet or more fill, shear strength Vc may be computed by:

Equation 24. The equation reads V subscript c equals open parentheses 2.14 times the square root of f prime subscript c plus 4,600 times rho times V subscript u times d divided by M subscript u close parentheses, times b times d.

     (8-59)         [Equation 24]

but Vc shall not exceed 4the square root of f prime, subscript cbd. For single-cell box culverts only, Vc for slabs monolithic with walls need not be taken less than 3the square root of f prime, subscript cbd, and Vc for slabs simply supported need not be taken less than 2.5the square root of f prime, subscript cbd. The quantity Vud/Mu shall not be taken greater than 1.0 where Mu is the factored moment occurring simultaneously with Vu at the section considered. For slabs of box culverts under less than 2 feet of fill, applicable provisions of Articles 3.24 and 6.4 should be used.

Although HSC may not be used in slabs of box culverts, the constants in equation 8-59 and the limiting values of Vc should be verified.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.6.8 Special Provisions for Brackets and Corbels*

8.16.6.8.3 The section at the face of the support shall be designed to resist simultaneously a shear Vu, a moment (Vuav + Nuc (h – d)), and a horizontal tensile force Nuc. Distance h shall be measured at the face of support.

(a)  In all design calculations in accordance with Article 8.16.6.8, the strength-reduction factor phi shall be taken equal to 0.85.

(b)  Design of shear-friction reinforcement Avf to resist shear Vu shall be in accordance with Article 8.16.6.4. For normal-weight concrete, shear strength Vn shall not be taken greater than 0.2 fc’bwd nor 800 bwd in pounds. For all-lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete, shear strength Vn shall not be taken greater than (0.2 – 0.07 av/d) fc’bwd nor (800 – 280 av /d)bwd in pounds.

(c)  Reinforcement Af to resist moment (Vuav + Nuc (h – d)) shall be computed in accordance with Articles 8.16.2 and 8.16.3.

(d)  Reinforcement An to resist tensile force Nuc shall be determined from NucLess than or equal tophiAnfy. Tensile force Nuc shall not be taken less than 0.2Vu unless special provisions are made to avoid tensile forces. Tensile force Nuc shall be regarded as a live load even when tension results from creep, shrinkage, or temperature change.

(e)  Area of primary tension reinforcement As shall be made equal to the greater of (Af +An) or:                                          

Equation 25.  The equation reads 2 times A subscript vf divided by 3 plus A subscript n.

    [Equation 25]

*These provisions do not apply to beam ledges. The PCA publication, “Notes on ACI 318-83, ” contains an example design of beam ledges, Part 16, example 16-3.

Article (b) imposes a limit of 28 MPa (4000 psi) on the compressive strength of concrete that can be used in design and is a barrier to the effective use of HSC. The limits and factors need to be evaluated.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.16.7 Bearing Strength

8.16.7.1 The bearing stress, fb, on concrete shall not exceed 0.85Nphif prime, subscript c except as provided in Articles 8.16.7.2, 8.16.7.3, and 8.16.7.4.

8.16.7.2 When the supporting surface is wider on all sides than the loaded area, the allowable bearing stress on the loaded area may be multiplied by square root of A subscript s / A subscript 1 but not by more than 2.

8.16.7.3 When the supporting surface is sloped or stepped, A2 may be taken as the area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a right pyramid or cone contained wholly within the support and having for its upper base the loaded area, and having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.

8.16.7.4 When the loaded area is subjected to high edge stresses due to deflection or eccentric loading, the allowable bearing stress on the loaded area, including any increase due to the supporting surface being larger than the loaded area, shall be multiplied by a factor of 0.75.

The upper limit for the bearing stress, fb, needs to be verified for HSC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.17 Reinforcement of Flexural Members

8.17.1 Minimum Reinforcement

8.17.1.1 At any section of a flexural member where tension reinforcement is required by analysis, the reinforcement provided shall be adequate to develop a moment at least 1.2 times the cracking moment calculated on the basis of the modulus of rupture for normal-weight concrete specified in Article 8.15.2.1.1.                           

Equation 26.  The equation reads phi times M subscript n is greater than or equal to 1.2 times M subscript cr.

   (8-62)            [Equation 26]

The purpose of this article is to ensure that the section does not go to its ultimate strength state as soon as it cracks. HSC is known to have proportionately higher tensile strength than conventional strength concrete. This means that the actual value of Mcr is higher than that calculated using 7.5the square root of f prime, subscript c for the modulus of rupture. Therefore, any factor of safety provided by this article would be lost. Revision to the equation for the modulus of rupture and/or the 1.2 factor may be needed.

ACTION: Revisions to article 8.15.2.1.1 are proposed.

8.18 reinforcement of compression members

8.18.2 Lateral Reinforcement

8.18.2.2 Spirals

Spiral reinforcement for compression members shall conform to the following:

8.18.2.2.1 Spirals shall consist of evenly spaced continuous bar or wire, with a minimum diameter of three eighth inch.

8.18.2.2.2 The ratio of spiral reinforcement to total volume of core, rhos, shall not be less than the value given by: 

Equation 27. The equation reads rho subscript s equals .45 times open parentheses A subscript g divided by A subscript c minus 1 close parentheses times f prime subscript c divided by f subscript y.

     (8-63)            [Equation 27]

where fy is the specified yield strength of spiral reinforcement, but not more than 60,000 psi.

Spirals are less effective for confinement in HSC. Another formula is reported by ACI Committee 363 and should be considered.(15) In addition, the ratio of reinforcement required by equation 8-63 may be too high to be practical with HSC. The concept for providing spiral reinforcement to strengthen the core to offset the loss of strength when the concrete shell is lost may not be appropriate for HSC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.18.2.3 Ties

Tie reinforcement for compression members shall conform to the following:

8.18.2.3.1 All bars shall be enclosed by lateral ties which shall be at least No. 3 in size for longitudinal bars that are No. 10 or smaller, and at least No. 4 in size for No. 11, No. 14, No. 18, and bundled longitudinal bars. Deformed wire or welded wire fabric of equivalent area may be used instead of bars.

8.18.2.3.2 The spacing of ties shall not exceed the least dimension of the compression member or 12 inches. When two or more bars larger than No. 10 are bundled together, tie spacing shall be one-half that specified above.

8.18.2.3.3 Ties shall be located not more than half a tie spacing from the face of a footing or from the nearest longitudinal reinforcement of a cross-framing member.

8.18.2.3.4 No longitudinal bar shall be more than 2 feet, measured along the tie, from a restrained bar on either side. A restrained bar is one which has lateral support provided by the corner of a tie having an included angle of not more than 135 degrees. Where longitudinal bars are located around the perimeter of a circle, a complete circular tie may be used.

Since ties may be less effective with HSC, these provisions need to be evaluated.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.19 Llimits for Shear Reinforcement

8.19.1 Minimum Shear Reinforcement

8.19.1.1 A minimum area of shear reinforcement shall be provided in all flexural members, except slabs and footings, where:

(a)  For design by Strength Design, factored shear force Vu exceeds one-half the shear strength provided by concrete phiVc.

(b)  For design by Service Load Design, design shear stress v exceeds one-half the permissible shear stress carried by concrete vc.

8.19.1.2 Where shear reinforcement is required by Article 8.19.1.1, or by analysis, the area provided shall not be less than:

Equation 28. The equation reads A subscript v equals 50 times b subscript w times s all divided by f subscript y.

    (8-64)            [Equation 28]

where bw and s are in inches.

The ACI 318 Building Code requires that the minimum area of shear reinforcement increase as concrete strength increases, but shall not be less than the value of Av calculated by equation 8‑64.(18) A similar modification to equation 8-64 should be considered.

ACTION: A revision for minimum reinforcement is proposed.

8.22 protection against corrosion

8.22.1 The following minimum concrete cover shall be provided for reinforcement:

  Minimum Cover (inches)
Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth.......................... 3
 
Concrete exposed to earth or weather:
Primary reinforcement............................................................................ 2
Stirrups, ties, and spirals........................................................................
 
Concrete deck slabs in mild climates:
Top reinforcement.................................................................................. 2
Bottom reinforcement............................................................................. 1
 
Concrete deck slabs that have no positive corrosion protection and are frequently exposed to deicing salts:
Top reinforcement..................................................................................
Bottom reinforcement............................................................................. 1
 
Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground:
Primary reinforcement............................................................................
Stirrups, ties, and spirals....................................................................... 1
   
Concrete piles cast against and/or permanently exposed to earth.............. 2

HPC is less permeable than conventional concrete, and offers the possibility of reducing the minimum concrete cover. The advantages and disadvantages of reducing the minimum cover with HPC should be evaluated.

ACTION: None.

8.25 DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMED BARS AND DEFORMED WIRE IN TENSION    

The development length, ld, in inches shall be computed as the product of the basic development length defined in Article 8.25.1 and the applicable modification factor or factors defined in Article 8.25.2 and 8.25.3, but ld shall be not less than that specified in Article 8.25.4.

8.25.1 The basic development length shall be:

No. 11 bar and smaller ........................... 0.04 A subscript lowercase delta f subscript y divided by the square root of f prime, subscript c
but not less than .....................................    0.0004 db fy
No. 14 bars.............................................. 0.085 f subscript y divided by the square root of f prime, subscript c
No. 18 bars...............................................    0.11 f subscript y divided by the square root of f prime, subscript c
deformed wire ......................................... 0.03 d subscript lowercase delta f subscript y divided by the square root of f prime, subscript c

The ACI 318 Building Code limits the value of the square root of f prime, subscript c to a maximum of 690 kPa (100 psi) in the calculation of development length.(18) The need for a similar limit in the AASHTO Standard Specifications should be assessed. Limited tests have indicated that the development lengths calculated using the above provisions are applicable to HSC.(29) However, the tests indicate a more sudden failure than occurs with conventional strength concrete. The development lengths need to be verified for HSC.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-60.

8.25.2 The basic development length shall be multiplied by the following applicable factor or factors:

8.25.2.1 Top reinforcement so placed that more than 12 inches of concrete is cast below the reinforcement........................................................................................................... 1.4

8.25.2.2 Lightweight aggregate concrete when fct is specified.............................6.7 the square root of f prime, subscript c divided by f subscript cf

but not less than 1.0.

When fct is not specified

all-lightweight concrete...............................................................................................1.33

sand-lightweight concrete............................................................................................ 1.18

Linear interpolation may be applied when partial sand replacement is used.

8.25.2.3 Bars coated with epoxy with cover less than 3db or clear spacing between bars

less than 6 db.................................................................................................................. 1.5

all other cases ..............................................................................................................1.15

The product obtained when combining the factor for top reinforcement with the applicable factor for epoxy-coated reinforcement need not be taken greater than 1.7.

8.25.3 The basic development length, modified by the appropriate factors of Article 8.25.2, may be multiplied by the following factors when:

8.25.3.1 Reinforcement being developed in the length under consideration is spaced laterally at least 6 inches on center with at least 3 inches clear cover measured in the direction of the spacing..............................................................0.8

8.25.3.2 Anchorage or development for reinforcement strength is not specifically required or reinforcement in flexural members is in excess of that required by analysis

(As required)/(As provided)

8.25.3.3 Reinforcement is enclosed within a spiral of not less than 1/4 inch in diameter and not more than 4-inch pitch 0.75

8.25.4 The development length, ld, shall not be less than 12 inches except in the computation of lap splices by Article 8.32.3 and development of shear reinforcement by Article 8.27.

The factors need to be verified for HPC.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-60.

8.26 DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMED BARS IN COMPRESSION

The development length, ld, in inches, for deformed bars in compression shall be computed as the product of the basic development length of Article 8.26.1 and applicable modification factors of 8.26.2, but ld shall not be less than 8 inches.

8.26.1 The basic development length shall be ........................................... 0.02 dbfy /the square root of f prime, subscript c

            but not less than...................................................................................0.0003 dbfy

8.26.2 The basic development length may be multiplied by applicable factors when:

8.26.2.1 Anchorage or development for reinforcement strength is not specifically required, or reinforcement is in excess of that required by analysis............................................. (As required)/(As provided)

8.26.2.2 Reinforcement is enclosed in a spiral of not less than 1/4 inch in diameter and not more than 4-inch pitch............... 0.75

The factors need to be verified for HPC.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-60.

8.28 DEVELOPMENT OF BUNDLED BARS

The development length of individual bars within a bundle, in tension or compression, shall be that for the individual bar, increased by 20 percent for a three-bar bundle, and 33 percent for a four-bar bundle.

The factors need to be verified for HPC.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-60.

8.29 DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD HOOKS IN TENSION

8.29.1 Development length ldh in inches, for deformed bars in tension terminating in a standard hook (Article 8.23.1) shall be computed as the product of the basic development length lhb of Article 8.29.2 and the applicable modification factor or factors of Article 8.29.3, but ldh shall not be less than 8db or 6 inches, whichever is greater.

8.29.2 Basic development length lhb for a hooked bar with fy equal to 60,000 psi shall be                                                     ............................................................................................. 1,200 db /

the square root of f prime, subscript c

8.29.3 Basic development length lhb shall be multiplied by applicable modification factor or factors for:

8.29.3.1 Bar yield strength:

Bars with fy other than 60,000 psi....................................................................... fy /60,000

8.29.3.2 Concrete cover:

For No. 11 bar and smaller, side cover (normal to plane of hook) not less than 2½ inches, and for 90-deg hook, cover on bar extension beyond hook not less than 2 inches.......................................... 0.7

8.29.3.3 Ties or stirrups:

For No. 11 bar and smaller, hook enclosed vertically or horizontally within ties or stirrup-ties spaced along the full development length ldh not greater than 3db, where db is diameter of hooked bar....... 0.8

8.29.3.4 Excess reinforcement:

Where anchorage or development for fy is not specifically required, reinforcement in excess of that required by analysis...................... (As required)/(As provided)

8.29.3.5 Lightweight aggregate concrete...................................................................... 1.3

8.29.4 For bars being developed by a standard hook at discontinuous ends of members with both side cover and top (or bottom) cover over hook less than 2½ inches, hooked bar shall be enclosed within ties or stirrups spaced along the full development length ldh, not greater than 3 db, where db is the diameter of the hooked bar. For this case, the factor of Article 8.29.3.3 shall not apply.

8.29.5 Hooks shall not be considered effective in developing bars in compression.

All the provisions of article 8.29 need to be verified for HPC.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-60.

8.30 DEVELOPMENT OF WELDED WIRE FABRIC IN TENSION

8.30.1 Deformed Wire Fabric

8.30.1.1 The development length, ld, in inches of welded deformed wire fabric measured from the point of critical section to the end of wire shall be computed as the product of the basic development length of Article 8.30.1.2 or 8.30.1.3 and the applicable modification factor or factors of Articles 8.25.2 and 8.25.3, but ld shall not be less than 8 inches except in computation of lap splices by Article 8.32.5 and development of shear reinforcement by Article 8.27.

8.30.1.2 The basic development length of welded deformed wire fabric, with at least one cross wire within the development length not less than 2 inches from the point of critical section, shall be:                                                    

Equation 29.  The equation reads .03 times d subscript b times open parentheses f subscript y minus 20,000 close parentheses, all divided by the square root of f prime subscript c.

    (8-66)            [Equation 29]

  but not less than

Equation 30.  The equation reads .2 times A subscript w divided by s subscript w times f subscript y divided by the square root of f prime subscript c.

        (8-67)            [Equation 30]

*The units for 20,000 are psi.

8.30.1.3 The basic development length of welded deformed wire fabric, with no cross wires within the development length, shall be determined as for deformed wire in accordance with Article 8.25.

8.30.2 Smooth Wire Fabric

The yield strength of welded smooth wire fabric shall be considered developed by embedment of two cross wires, with the closer cross wire not less than 2 inches from the point of critical section. However, development length ld measured from the point of critical section to outermost cross wire shall not be less than:                                    

Equation 31.  The equation reads .27 times A subscript w divided by s subscript w times f subscript y divided by the square root of f prime subscript c.

        (8-68)            [Equation 31]

modified by (As required)/(As provided) for reinforcement in excess of that required by analysis and by factor of Article 8.25.2 for lightweight aggregate concrete, but ld shall not be less than 6 inches except in computation of lap splices by Article 8.32.6.

All the provisions of article 8.30 need to be verified for HPC.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-60.

8.32 SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT

8.32.1 Lap Splices

8.32.1.1 Lap splices shall not be used for bars larger than No. 11, except as provided in Articles 8.32.4.1 and 4.4.11.4.1

8.32.1.2 Lap splices of bundled bars shall be based on the lap splice length required for individual bars within a bundle. The length of lap, as prescribed in Article 8.32.3 or 8.32.4 shall be increased 20 percent for a three-bar bundle and 33 percent for a four-bar bundle. Individual bar splices within the bundle shall not overlap.

8.32.1.3 Bars spliced by noncontact lap splices in flexural members shall not be spaced transversely farther apart than 1/5 the required length of lap or 6 inches.

The above provisions of article 8.32.1 need to be verified for HPC.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-60.

8.32.3 Splices of Deformed Bars and Deformed Wire in Tension

8.32.3.1 The minimum length of lap for tension lap splices shall be as required for Class A, B,
or C splice, but not less than 12 inches.

            Class A splice......................................................................................... 1.0 ld

            Class B splice......................................................................................... 1.3 ld

            Class C splice........................................................................................ 1.7 ld

8.32.3.2 Lap splices of deformed bars and deformed wire in tension shall conform to table 8.32.3.2

Table 8.32.3.2. Tension lap splices.

Maximum Percent of As Spliced Within Required Lap Length

(As provided)/(As required)*

50

75

100

Equal to or Greater Than 2
Class A Class A Class B

Less Than 2

Class B

Class C

Class C

*Ratio of area reinforcement provided to area of reinforcement required by analysis at splice location.

The above provisions of article 8.32.3 need to be verified for HPC.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-60.

Section 9: PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

9.1 application

9.1.2 Notations

f prime, subscript c  = compressive strength of concrete at 28 days

Since HSC is often specified at ages other than 28 days, consideration should be given to rewording this definition.

ACTION: A revision to the notation is proposed.

9.2 concrete

The specified compressive strength, f prime, subscript c, of concrete for each part of the structure shall be shown on the plans. The requirements for f prime, subscript c shall be based on tests of cylinders made and tested in accordance with Division II, Section 8, “Concrete Structures.”

Consideration should be given to including   in this article since making and testing cylinders for   needs to be addressed in division II, section 8, for HSC.

ACTION: A revision to include f prime, subscript ci is proposed.

9.14 LOAD FACTORS

The computed strength capacity shall not be less than the largest value from load factor design in Article 3.22. For the design of post-tensioned anchorage zones, a load factor of 1.2 shall be applied to the maximum tendon jacking force.

The following strength capacity reduction factors shall be used:

For factory-produced precast, prestressed concrete members, phi= 1.0.

For post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete members,phi = 0.95.

For shear, phi = 0.90.

For anchorage zones, phi = 0.85 for normal-weight concrete and phi= 0.70 for lightweight concrete.

HSC is known to be more brittle than conventional strength concrete. Also, HPC requires much higher levels of quality control. Strength capacity reduction factors may need to be revised to reflect this.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

9.15 Allowable Stresses

The design of precast prestressed members ordinarily shall be based on f prime, subscript c= 5,000 psi. An increase to 6,000 psi is permissible where, in the Engineer’s judgment, it is reasonable to expect that this strength will be obtained consistently. Still higher concrete strengths may be considered on an individual area basis. In such cases, the Engineer shall satisfy himself completely that the controls over materials and fabrication procedures will provide the required strengths. The provisions of this section are equally applicable to prestressed concrete structures and components designed with lower concrete strengths.

A survey by the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute indicates that its members are consistently producing concrete members withf prime, subscript cequal to or greater than 41 MPa (6000 psi). The wording of this article needs to be revised to reflect the current practice and remove a barrier to the use of HSC. This limitation is also inconsistent with the limitation of 70 MPa (10,000 psi) in the AASHTO LRFD Specifications.

ACTION: A revision to raise the limit to 70 MPa (10,000 psi) is proposed.

9.15.2 Concrete

9.15.2.1 Temporary Stresses Before Losses Due to Creep and Shrinkage

Compression:

Pretensioned members.................................................................................. 0.60 f prime, subscript ci

Post-tensioned members................................................................................ 0.55 f prime, subscript ci

Tension:

Precompressed tensile zone...................................No temporary allowable stresses are specified. See Article 9.15.2.2 for allowable stresses after losses.

Other Areas:

In tension areas with no bonded reinforcement............................. 200 psi or 3 Square root of f prime, subscript ci

Where the calculated tensile stress exceeds this value, bonded reinforcement shall be provided
to resist the total tension force in the concrete computed on the assumption of an uncracked section. The maximum tensile stress shall not exceed.....................7.5Square root of f prime, subscript ci

HSC is known to have a proportionally higher tensile strength. It may be possible to allow higher tensile stresses in HSC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

9.15.2.2 Stress at Service Load After Losses Have Occurred

Compression:

(a)  The compressive stresses under all load combinations, except as stated in (b) and (c), shall not exceed 0.60 f prime, subscript c.

(b)  The compressive stresses due to effective prestress plus permanent (dead) loads shall not exceed 0.40 f prime, subscript c.

(c)  The compressive stress due to live loads plus one-half of the sum of compressive stresses due to prestress and permanent (dead) loads shall not exceed 0.40 f prime, subscript c.

Tension in the precompressed tensile zone:


(a) For members with bonded reinforcement*.................................................6Square root of f prime, subscript ci

For severe corrosive exposure conditions, such as coastal areas.....................3Square root of f prime, subscript ci

(b) For members without bonded reinforcement....................................................... 0

Tension in other areas is limited by allowable temporary stresses specified in Article 9.15.2.1.

HSC is known to have proportionally higher tensile strength. It may be possible to allow higher tensile stresses in HSC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

9.15.2.3 Cracking Stress*

Modulus of rupture from tests or if not available:

For normal-weight concrete..................................................................................7.5Square root of f prime, subscript ci

For sand-lightweight concrete..............................................................................6.3Square root of f prime, subscript ci

For all other lightweight concrete........................................................................5.5Square root of f prime, subscript ci

HSC is known to have proportionally higher tensile strength. It may be possible to allow higher tensile stresses in HSC.

ACTION: A revision for normal-weight concrete is proposed. A research problem statement is proposed for other weights of concrete.

9.15.2.4 Anchorage Bearing Stress

Post-tensioned anchorage at service load........................................................... 3,000 psi

This limit is clearly intended for conventional strength concrete. A higher limit for HSC may be justified.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

9.16 Loss of Prestress

9.16.2 Prestress Losses

9.16.2.1 General

Loss of prestress due to all causes, excluding friction, may be determined by the following method.* The method is based on normal-weight concrete and one of the following types of prestressing steel: 250 or 270 ksi, seven-wire, stress-relieved or low-relaxation strand; 240 ksi stress-relieved wires; or 145 to 160 ksi smooth or deformed bars. Refer to documented tests for data regarding the properties and the effects of lightweight aggregate concrete on prestress losses.

TOTAL LOSS                                                

Equation 32. The equation reads delta times f subscript s equals SH plus ES plus CR subscript c plus CR subscript s.

        [Equation 32]

where

delta f subscript s =   total loss excluding friction in pounds per square inch;

SH  =   loss due to concrete shrinkage in pounds per square inch;

ES   =   loss due to elastic shortening in pounds per square inch;

CRc =   loss due to creep of concrete in pounds per square inch;

 CRs =   loss due to relaxation of prestressing steel in pounds per square inch.

Equations are then provided for calculation of individual components of prestress losses.

ACTION: Proposed revisions to the AASHTO LRFD Specifications for calculations of prestress losses have been developed in NCHRP project 18-07. A revision to adopt the same method in the AASHTO Standard Specifications is proposed.

9.16.2.2 Estimated Losses

In lieu of the preceding method, the following estimates of total losses may be used for prestressed members or structures of the usual design. These loss values are based on use of normal-weight concrete, normal prestress levels, and average exposure conditions. For exceptionally long spans, or for unusual designs, the method in Article 9.16.2.1 or a more exact method shall be used.

Table 9.16.2.2. Estimate of prestress losses.

Type of Prestressing Steel

Total Loss

 f prime, subscript c = 4,000 psi

 f prime, subscript c = 5,000 psi

Pretensioning Strand

45,000 psi

Post-Tensioning1

Wire or Strand

32,000 psi

33,000 psi

Bars

22,000 psi

23,000 psi

1 Losses due to friction are excluded. Friction losses should be computed according to Article 9.16.1.

Recent research has indicated that these articles, developed for calculating prestress losses in conventional strength concretes, may not always provide reliable estimates for HSC bridge girders. For this reason, NCHRP project 18-07 was initiated with the objective of developing design guidelines for estimating prestress losses in pretensioned HSC bridge girders. Table 9.16.2.2 needs to be extended to include higher concrete strengths if this is feasible. Results of the NCHRP project will need to be incorporated into this article.

ACTION: Proposed revisions to the AASHTO LRFD Specifications for calculations of prestress losses have been developed in NCHRP project 18-07. A revision to adopt the same method in the AASHTO Standard Specifications is proposed.

9.17 Flexural Strength

9.17.2 Rectangular Sections

9.17.3 Flanged Sections

These two articles provide equations for calculation of design flexural strength based on a rectangular stress block. If the rectangular stress block is not appropriate for HSC, the equations will need to be revised or their application restricted to conventional strength concretes.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-64.

9.18 DUCTILITY LIMITS

9.18.1 Maximum Prestressing Steel

Prestressed concrete members shall be designed so that the steel is yielding as ultimate capacity is approached. In general, the reinforcement index shall be such that             

Equation 33. The equation reads open parentheses p superscript star times f superscript star, subscript su all divided by f prime subscript c. for rectangular sections

                      (9-20)             [Equation 33]

and         

Equation 34.  The equation reads A subscript sr times f superscript star all divided by open parentheses b prime times d times f prime subscript c close parentheses. for flanged sections 

                      (9-21)             [Equation 34]

does not exceed 0.36 times beta subscript 1. (See Article 9.19 for reinforcement indices of sections with non-prestressed reinforcement.)

For members with reinforcement indices greater than 0.36 times beta subscript 1, the design flexural strength shall be assumed not greater than:

For rectangular sections:             

Equation 35.  The equation reads phi times M subscript n equals phi times open bracket, open parentheses .36 times beta subscript 1 minus .08 times beta subscript 1 squared close parentheses, times f prime subscript c times b times d squared.

                      (9-22)           [Equation 35]

For flanged sections:

Equation 36.  The equation reads phi times M subscript n equals phi times open bracket, open parentheses .36 times beta subscript 1 minus .08 times beta subscript 1 squared close parentheses, times f prime subscript c times b prime times d squared plus .85 times f prime subscript c times open parentheses b minus b prime close parentheses times t times open parentheses d minus .5 times t close parentheses, close bracket.

                      (9-23)           [Equation 36]

Unreinforced HSC is more brittle than conventional strength concrete. The equivalent rectangular stress block may require adjustment to reflect the brittleness. This, in turn, would result in a more realistic maximum limit for flexural reinforcement. Equations 9-22 and 9-23 imply that over-reinforced cross sections are allowed in prestressed concrete flexural members, whereas they are prohibited in non-prestressed flexural members. In prestressed concrete members, some sections away from the maximum moment sections may have the same amount of reinforcement as that at the maximum moment section, but with a smaller effective depth and thus a larger steel area index. Since these sections are non-critical sections, they are allowed provided equations 9-22 and 9-23 are used to calculate the moment strength. Other alternative rational approaches should be considered to eliminate the need for a maximum reinforcement index and strength equations for over-reinforced sections.

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-64.

9.18.2 Minimum Steel

9.18.2.1 The total amount of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement shall be adequate to develop an ultimate moment at the critical section at least 1.2 times the cracking moment M asterisk subscript c r

Equation 37.  The equation reads phi times M subscript n greater than or equal to 1.2 times M superscript star, subscript cr.

[Equation 37]

where                                              

Equation 38.  The equation reads M superscript star, subscript cr equals open parentheses f subscript r plus f subscript pe close parentheses times S subscript c minus M subscript d divided by nc times open parentheses S subscript c divided by S subscript b minus 1 close parentheses.

[Equation 38]

Appropriate values for Md/nc and Sbshall be used for any intermediate composite sections. Where beams are designed to be noncomposite, substitute Sb for Sc  in the above equation for the calculation of M*cr .

The purpose of this article is to ensure that the section does not go to the ultimate strength state as soon as it cracks. HSC is known to have proportionally higher tensile strength than conventional strength concrete. This means that the actual value of Mcr would be higher than that calculated using 7.5the square root of f prime, subscript c   for the modulus of rupture. Therefore, any factor of safety provided by this article would be lost. Revisions to both the equation for the modulus of rupture and/or the 1.2 factor may be needed.

ACTION: Revisions to article 9.15.2.3 are proposed.

9.18.2.2 The minimum amount of non-prestressed longitudinal reinforcement provided in the cast-in-place portion of slabs utilizing precast, prestressed deck panels shall be 0.25 square inch per foot of slab width.

The purpose of this reinforcement is to help distribute wheel loads in the longitudinal direction when precast deck panels are not connected for longitudinal continuity. The appropriateness of requiring a fixed amount of reinforcement that is independent of concrete strength and the bending strength of the system should be evaluated.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

9.20 shear

9.20.2 Shear–Strength Provided by Concrete

9.20.2.1 The shear strength provided by concrete, Vc, shall be taken as the lesser of the values Vci or Vcw.

9.20.2.2 The shear strength, Vci, shall be computed by:         

Equation 39.  The equation reads V subscript ci equals .6 times the square root of f prime subscript c times b prime times d plus V subscript d plus V subscript i times M subscript cr divided by M subscript max.

(9–27)             [Equation 39]

but need not be less than 1.7 the square root of f prime, subscript cb'd  and d need not be taken less than 0.8 h.

The moment causing flexural cracking at the section due to external applied loads, Mcr, shall be computed by:                        

Equation 40.  The equation reads M subscript cr equals I divided by Y subscript t times open parentheses 6 times the square root of f prime subscript c plus f subscript pe minus f subscript d close parentheses.

(9–28)             [Equation 40]

The maximum factored moment and factored shear at the section due to externally applied loads, Mmax and Vi, shall be computed from the load combination causing maximum moment at the section.

9.20.2.3 The shear strength, Vcw, shall be computed by:   

Equation 41.  The equation reads V subscript cw equals open parentheses 3.5 times the square root of f prime subscript c plus .3 times f subscript pc close parentheses, times b prime times d plus V subscript p.

(9–29)             [Equation 41]

but d need not be taken less than 0.8h.

9.20.2.4 For a pretensioned member in which the section at a distance h/2 from the face of support is closer to the end of the member than the transfer length of the prestressing tendons, the reduced prestress shall be considered when computing Vcw. The prestress force may be assumed to vary linearly from zero at the end of the tendon to a maximum at a distance from the end of the tendon equal to the transfer length, assumed to be 50 diameters for strand and 100 diameters for single wire.

9.20.2.5 The provisions for computing the shear strength provided by concrete, Vci and Vcw, apply to normal-weight concrete. When lightweight aggregate concretes are used (see definition, concrete, structural lightweight, Article 8.1.3), one of the following modifications shall apply:

(a)  When fct is specified, the shear strength, Vci and Vcw, shall be modified by substituting fct  /6.7 for Square root of f prime, subscript ci, but the value fct /6.7 used shall not exceed the square root of f prime, subscript c.

(b)  When fct is not specified, Vci and Vcw shall be modified by multiplying each term containing the square root of f prime, subscript c by 0.75 for all-lightweight concrete, and 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete. Linear interpolation may be used when partial sand replacement is used.

At higher compressive strengths, HSC is more brittle and shear cracks are smoother. As a result, there is less friction along the shear cracks and the concrete contribution to shear may be less. Consequently, the constants used in the equations need to be investigated.

The above article specifies a transfer length of 50 diameters for strands, whereas, the AASHTO LRFD Specifications specifies 60 diameters. Research data from the FHWA showcase bridges and FHWA research can be used to determine the appropriate number that will include HSC.(30) This is particularly important for 15.2-mm- (0.6-inch-) diameter strands used in most HSC beams.

ACTION: None. Further research is being conducted under NCHRP project 12-56.

9.20.3 Shear Strength Provided by Web Reinforcement

9.20.3.3 The minimum area of web reinforcement shall be:

Equation 42.  The equation reads A subscript v equals 50 times b prime times s all divided by f subscript sy.

(9–31)             [Equation 42]

where b’ and s are in inches and fsy is in psi.

The ACI 318 Building Code requires that the minimum area of shear reinforcement increase as concrete strength increases, but shall not be less than the value of Av calculated by equation 9‑31.(18) A similar modification to equation 9-31 should be considered.

ACTION: A revision for minimum reinforcement is proposed.

9.20.3.4 The design yield strength of web reinforcement, fsy, shall not exceed 60,000 psi.

The use of a design yield strength higher than 414 MPa (60,000 psi) should be considered for both HSC and conventional concrete.

ACTION: A revision to allow higher design yield strengths is proposed.

9.21 POST-TENSIONED ANCHORAGE ZONES

9.21.7 Design of the Local Zone

9.21.7.2 Bearing Strength

9.21.7.2.1 Anchorage devices may be either basic anchorage devices meeting the bearing compressive strength limits of Articles 9.21.7.2.2 through 9.21.7.2.4 or special anchorage devices meeting the requirements of section 9.21.7.3.

9.21.7.2.2 The effective concrete-bearing compressive strength used for design shall not exceed that of Equations (9-39) or (9-40).                       

Equation 43. The equation reads f subscript b less than or equal to .7 times phi times f prime subscript ci times the square root of A divided by A subscript g.

(9-39)             [Equation 43]

but                            

Equation 44.  The equation reads f subscript b less than or equal to 2.25 times phi times f prime subscript ci.

(9-40)             [Equation 44]

where

fb =   the maximum factored tendon load, Pu, divided by the effective bearing area Ab;

f prime, subscript ci = the concrete compressive strength at stressing;

A    =   the maximum area of the portion of the supporting surface that is geometrically similar to the loaded area and concentric with it;

Ag =   the gross area of the bearing plate if the requirements or Article 9.21.7.2.3 are met, or is the area calculated in accordance with Article 9.21.7.2.4;

Ab =   the effective net area of the bearing plate calculated as the area Ag minus the area of openings in the bearing plate.

Equations (9-39) and (9-40) are only valid if general zone reinforcement satisfying Article 9.21.3.4 is provided and if the extent of the concrete along the tendon axis ahead of the anchorage device is at least twice the length of the local zone as defined in Article 9.21.7.1.3

HSC is proportionally stronger in tension than conventional strength concrete (bearing failures are often splitting failures), but also more brittle. The suitability of the bearing equations needs
to be verified for HSC.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

9.23 CONCRETE STRENGTH AT STRESS TRANSFER

Unless otherwise specified, stress shall not be transferred to concrete until the compressive strength of the concrete as indicated by test cylinders, cured by methods identical with the curing of the members, is at least 4,000 psi for pretensioned members (other than piles) and 3,500 psi for post-tensioned members and pretensioned piles.

Since HSC generates more heat of hydration than conventional strength concrete, it is important that test cylinders be cured at the same temperature as the member. Enclosing the cylinders under the same cover as the member does not ensure this, particularly when external steam or heat curing is not used. This article needs to be revised to be more specific.

ACTION: A revision referencing division II procedures is proposed.

9.26 COVER AND SPACING OF STEEL

9.26.1 Minimum Cover

The following minimum concrete cover shall be provided for prestressing and conventional steel:

9.26.1.1 Prestressing Steel and Main Reinforcement................................ 1½ inches

9.26.1.2 Slab Reinforcement

9.26.1.2.1 Top of Slab................................................................................ 1½ inches
                 When deicers are used.................................................................. 2 inches

9.26.1.2.2 Bottom of Slab................................................................................ 1 inch

9.26.1.3 Stirrups and Ties................................................................................ 1 inch

9.26.1.4 When deicer chemicals are used, drainage details shall dispose of deicer solutions without constant contact with the prestressed girders. Where such contact cannot be avoided, or in locations where members are exposed to salt water, salt spray, or chemical vapor, additional cover should be provided.

HPC is usually more impermeable than conventional concrete and a longer service life is expected.

ACTION: None.

9.28 EMBEDMENT OF PRESTRESSED STRAND

9.28.1 Three- or seven-wire pretensioning strand shall be bonded beyond the critical section for a development length in inches not less than

Equation 45. The equation reads open parentheses f superscript star, subscript su minus 2 divided by 3 times f subscript se close parentheses times D.

(9-42)             [Equation 45]

where D is the nominal diameter in inches, This graphical element reads f asterisk subscript s u.  and fse are in kips per square inch, and the parenthetical expression is considered to be without units.

9.28.3 Where strand is debonded at the end of a member and tension at service load is allowed in the precompressed tensile zone, the development length required above shall be doubled.

Development lengths for the combination of 15.2-mm- (0.6-inch-) diameter strand used with HSC need to be evaluated based on FHWA and other research.(30)

ACTION: None. Further research is the objective of NCHRP project 12-60.

Section 17: SOIL-REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE INTERACTION SYSTEMS

This section covers buried reinforced concrete structures such as pipes and culverts. However, any articles that include concrete materials, stresses, or design refer back to section 8.

ACTION: None.

Division II: Construction

Section 8: CONCRETE STRUCTURES

8.2 CLASSES OF CONCRETE

This article provides definitions for normal-weight and lightweight concrete. A definition of HPC may need to be added as a means of identifying when special provisions for HPC apply.

ACTION: Revisions to add two classes of HPC are proposed.

8.3 MATERIALS

8.3.1 Cements

Portland Cements shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 85 (ASTM C 150) and Blended Hydraulic Cements shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 240 (ASTM C 595). For Type IP portland-pozzolan cement, the pozzolan constituent shall not exceed 20 percent of the weight of the blend and the loss on ignition of the pozzolan shall not exceed 5 percent.

Unless otherwise specified, only Types I, II, or III Portland Cement; Types IA, IIA, or IIIA Air-Entrained Portland Cement or Types IP or IS Blended Hydraulic Cements shall be used. Types IA, IIA, and IIIA cement may be used only in concrete where air entrainment is required.

Low-alkali cements conforming to the requirements of AASHTO M 85 for low-alkali cement shall be used when specified or when ordered by the Engineer as a condition of use for aggregates of limited alkali-silica reactivity.

Unless otherwise permitted, the product of only one mill of any one brand and type of cement shall be used for like elements of a structure that are exposed to view, except when cements must be blended for reduction of any excessive air entrainment where air-entraining cement is used.

By definition, HPC is a concrete where certain properties have been modified to increase performance. Restricting the cement to types I, II, III, IA, IIA, IIIA, IP, or IS may prevent the designer from using different types of cement to enhance concrete performance. For example, the use of type IV cement reduces the heat of hydration in high cement content HPC, and type V provides higher sulfate resistance. Cements conforming to ASTM C 1157, Standard Performance Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cement, should be included.

HPC is very sensitive to the brand, type, and mill of origin of the cement. Studies have shown that changing the brand of cement can cause great differences in the final hardened properties of HPC.(15) The final paragraph should be modified to include special restrictions for HPC.

Consideration should be given to addressing interaction effects between cement components and mineral or chemical admixtures.

ACTION: Revisions to add ASTM C 1157 and reference the two classes of HPC are proposed.

8.3.2 Water

Mixing water for concrete in which steel is embedded shall not contain a chloride ion concentration in excess of 1,000 ppm or sulfates such as SO4 in excess of 1,300 ppm.

These limits should be evaluated for use with HPC and prestressed concrete.

ACTION: A research problem statement is proposed.

8.3.3 Fine Aggregates

Fine aggregate for concrete shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 6.

The coarse and fine aggregates in HPC should be blended together to obtain the maximum density. This will increase strength, decrease permeability, and lower the required cementitious materials content. The requirements of AASHTO M 6 may be too broad for HPC.

ACTION: A new specification for combined aggregates is proposed.

8.3.4 Coarse Aggregate

Coarse aggregate for concrete shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 80.

The coarse and fine aggregates in HPC should be blended together to obtain the maximum density. This will increase strength, decrease permeability, and lower the required cementitious materials content. The requirements of AASHTO M 80 may be too broad for HPC.

ACTION: A new specification for combined aggregates is proposed.

8.3.7 Mineral Admixtures

Fly ash pozzolans and calcined natural pozzolans for use as mineral admixtures in concrete shall conform to AASHTO M 295 (ASTM C 618).

The use of fly ash as produced by plants that utilize the limestone injection process or compounds of sodium, ammonium, or sulfur, such as soda ash, to control stack emissions shall not be used in concrete.

A Certificate of Compliance, based on test results and signed by the producer of the mineral admixture certifying that the material conforms to the above specifications, shall be furnished for each shipment used in the work.

This article should be modified to include other pozzolans and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (AASHTO M 307). Available research should also be checked to determine whether pozzolans from nontraditional sources, such as fly ash from petroleum coke or bark ash, can be used in HPC.

ACTION: A revision to include other materials is proposed.

8.4 PROPORTIONING OF CONCRETE

8.4.1 Mix Design

8.4.1.1 Responsibility and Criteria

The contractor shall design and be responsible for the performance of all concrete mixes used in structures. The mix proportions selected shall produce concrete that is sufficiently workable and finishable for all uses intended and shall conform to the requirements in table 8.2 and all other requirements of this section.

For normal-weight concrete, the absolute volume method, as described in American Concrete Institute Publication 211.1, shall be used in selecting the mix proportions. For structural lightweight concrete, the mix proportions shall be selected on the basis of trial mixes with the cement factor rather than the water/cement ratio being determined by the specified strength using methods such as those described in American Concrete Institute Publication 211.2.

The mix design shall be based upon obtaining an average concrete strength sufficiently above the specified strength so that, considering the expected variability of the concrete and test procedures, no more than 1 in 10 strength tests will be expected to fall below the specified strength. Mix designs shall be modified during the course of the work when necessary to ensure compliance with strength and consistency requirements.

HPC is often designed to have enhanced properties other than strength, thus a strength-based specification will not apply to many forms of HPC. This article should be modified to permit other properties to control the concrete mix design.

Table 8.2 needs to be extended to incorporate values for HPC.

This article requires the use of the absolute volume method for normal-weight concrete. For HPC and especially HSC, type, size, grading, and shape of aggregate require more attention than they do with conventional strength concrete mixtures. For HSC, a large amount and smaller nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate are generally required. HSC mixtures usually have a high cementitious materials content and a low water-cementitious materials ratio. For a given set of constituent materials, a decrease in the ratio results in an increase in compressive strength. However, when different materials are used, similar strengths can be achieved at different ratios. Consequently, HPC and HSC mix proportions should always be determined from trial batch tests.

Finally, HPC is very sensitive to changes in the constitutive materials. The mix design of HPC should NOT be changed during the job unless tests show that the material is failing to meet specifications or there is a change in any constitutive material. If changes to the mix design are required, trial batch tests should be required.

ACTION: Revisions to include the two classes of HPC are proposed.

8.4.1.2 Trial Batch Tests

For classes A, A(AE), and P concrete, for lightweight concrete, and for other classes of concrete when specified or ordered by the Engineer, satisfactory performance of the proposed mix design shall be verified by laboratory tests on trial batches. The results of such tests shall be furnished to the Engineer by the contractor or the manufacturer of the precast elements at the time the proposed mix design is submitted. For mix design approval, the strengths of a minimum of five test cylinders taken from a trial batch shall average at least 800 psi greater than the specified strength.

If materials and a mix design identical to those proposed for use have been used on other work within the previous year, certified copies of concrete test results from this work that indicate full compliance with these specifications may be substituted for such laboratory tests. If the results of more than 10 such strength tests are available from historical records for the past year, the average strength for these tests shall be at least 1.28 standard deviations above the specified strength.

HPC may be designed with an emphasis on properties other than strength. This article should be revised to allow acceptance of a mix based on properties other than strength.

For HSC, the requirement that the average strength be 5.5 MPa (800 psi) above the average may be too low. For example, 5.5 MPa (800 psi) is 20 percent over strength for 28-MPa (4000-psi) concrete, 10 percent over strength for 55-MPa (8000-psi) concrete, but only 7 percent over strength for 83-MPa (12,000-psi) concrete. Consideration should be given to adopting the revisions from ACI Committee 318-02, which have different requirements for conventional and high-strength concrete.(18)

ACTION: Revisions to the over-strength requirement are proposed.

8.4.3 Cement Content

The minimum cement content shall be as listed in table 8.2 or otherwise specified. The maximum cement or cement plus mineral admixture content shall not exceed 800 pounds per cubic yard of concrete. The actual cement content used shall be within these limits and shall be sufficient to produce concrete of the required strength and consistency.

HPC for use in massive bridge foundations may require less cement than the values indicated in table 8.2 to reduce the heat of hydration.

HSC often requires a total cementitious materials content greater than 475 kg/m3 (800 lb/yd3). Often, a maximum of 593 kg/m3 (1000 lb/yd3) is used as the limit in HSC. Revisions to this provision are required to accommodate HPC. Also, the cement content affects properties such as creep, shrinkage, permeability, etc. The last sentence should be modified to include a broader range of properties.

ACTION: A revision to increase the maximum cementitious materials content for HPC is proposed.

8.4.4 Mineral Admixtures

Mineral admixtures shall be used in the amounts specified. In addition, when either Types I, II, IV, or V (AASHTO M 85) cements are used and mineral admixtures are neither specified nor prohibited, the Contractor will be permitted to replace up to 20 percent of the required Portland cement with a mineral admixture. The weight of the mineral admixture used shall be equal to or greater than the weight of the Portland cement replaced. In calculating the water/cement ratio of the mix, the weight of the cement shall be considered to be the sum of the weights of the Portland cement and the mineral admixture.

HPC is very sensitive to the constitutive materials. Adding mineral admixtures when they are not specifically called for can adversely affect the concrete properties. This article should prohibit the use of mineral admixtures in HPC unless they are specified in the mix design or should require additional trial mixes whenever changes in the mix proportions are proposed. In addition, the maximum replacement percentage needs to be higher when fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag are used and lower for silica fume. For HPC, it is more appropriate to consider total cementitious materials content and water-cementitious materials ratio rather than cement replacement. Changes in the wording should be considered.

ACTION: Revisions to permit larger percentages and other cementitious materials are proposed.

8.5 Manufacture of Concrete

8.5.4 Batching and Mixing Concrete

8.5.4.2 Mixing

The minimum drum revolutions for transit mixers at the mixing speed recommended by the manufacturer shall not be less than 70 and not less than that recommended by the manufacturer.

For HPC, a larger number of revolutions than 70 may be needed to ensure proper mixing of all constituent materials.

ACTION: None.

8.5.7 Evaluation of Concrete Strength

8.5.7.1 Tests

A strength test shall consist of the average strength of two compressive strength test cylinders fabricated from material taken from a single randomly selected batch of concrete, except that if any cylinder should show evidence of improper sampling, molding, or testing, said cylinder shall be discarded and the strength test shall consist of the strength of the remaining cylinder.

ACI Committee 363 recommends three specimens for each strength test for HSC.(16)

Consideration should be given to revising this provision.

ACTION: A revision to require three specimens for HSC is proposed.

8.5.7.2 For Controlling Construction Operations

For determining adequacy of cure and protection, and for determining when loads or stresses can be applied to concrete structures, test cylinders shall be cured at the structure site under conditions that are not more favorable than the most unfavorable conditions for the portions of the structure that they represent as described in Article 9.4 of AASHTO T 23. Sufficient test cylinders shall be made and tested at the appropriate ages to determine when operations such as release of falsework, application of prestressing forces, or placing the structure in service can occur.

Curing specimens according to the most unfavorable conditions may not be appropriate for high-strength precast, prestressed concrete. A lower temperature for the cylinder will produce a lower compressive strength for the cylinder at release age than is achieved by higher temperatures in the precast member. However, this can result in the cylinder having a higher strength than that of the precast member at later ages. The use of the match-curing technique should be considered for precast, prestressed concrete. Generally, this requires the use of 102- by 203-mm (4- by 8-inch) cylinders. The use of 102- by 203-mm (4- by 8-inch) cylinders should be evaluated. In addition, specifications should be developed for the match-curing system.

ACTION: Revisions to section 8.5.7.5 are proposed.

8.5.7.3 For Acceptance of Concrete

For determining compliance of concrete with a specified 28-day strength, test cylinders shall be cured under controlled conditions as described in Article 9.3 of AASHTO T 23 and tested at the age of 28 days. Samples for acceptance tests for each class of concrete shall be taken not less than once a day nor less than once for each 150 cubic yards of concrete or once for each major placement.

Any concrete represented by a test which indicates a strength which is less than the specified 28‑day compressive strength by more than 500 psi will be rejected and shall be removed and replaced with acceptable concrete.   Such rejection shall prevail unless either:

(1)  The Contractor, at his or her expense, obtains and submits evidence of a type acceptable to the Engineer that the strength and quality of the rejected concrete is acceptable. If such evidence consists of cores taken from the work, the cores shall be obtained and tested in accordance with the standard methods of AASHTO T 24 (ASTM C 42) or,

(2)  The Engineer determines that said concrete is located where it will not create an intolerable detrimental effect on the structure and the Contractor agrees to a reduced payment to compensate the Department for loss of durability and other lost benefits.

HPC often contains pozzolans, which hydrate more slowly. In this case, requirements for testing at 28 days may not be appropriate.

The rejection criteria of 3.5 MPa (500 psi) should be re-examined for HSC; 3.5 MPa (500 psi) is 13 percent of the strength for a 28-MPa (4000-psi) concrete, but only 5 percent of the strength for a 69-MPa (10,000-psi) mix. Since a premium price is often paid for HPC, consideration should be given to rejecting concrete that does not meet the specification. A reduced payment cannot compensate for a loss of durability and possible reduced service life.

ACTION: Revisions to include the two classes of HPC are proposed.

8.5.7.5 Steam and Radiant Heat-Cured Concrete

When a precast concrete member is steam or radiant heat cured, the compressive strength test cylinders made for any of the above purposes shall be cured under conditions similar to the member. Such concrete will be considered to be acceptable whenever a test indicates that the concrete has reached the specified 28-day compressive strength provided such strength is reached not more than 28 days after the member is cast.

Consideration needs to be given for strengths specified at ages other than 28 days and to the use of match-cured cylinders. For HPC, curing cylinders under similar conditions may not be sufficient. Match curing provides a more realistic condition. This, generally, requires the use of 102- by 203-mm (4- by 8-inch) cylinders. The use of 102- by 203-mm (4- by 8-inch) cylinders should be evaluated. In addition, specifications should be developed for the match-curing system.

ACTION: Revisions to include match curing are proposed.

8.6 protection of concrete from environmental conditions

8.6.4 Cold Weather Protection

8.6.4.1 Protection During Cure

When there is a probability of air temperatures below 35 °F during the cure period, the Contractor shall submit for approval by the Engineer prior to concrete placement, a cold weather concreting and curing plan detailing the methods and equipment which will be used to assure that the required concrete temperatures are maintained. The concrete shall be maintained at a temperature of not less than 45 °F for the first six days after placement, except when pozzolan cement or fly ash cement is used, this period shall be as follows:

Percentage of Cement Replaced,
by Weight With Pozzolans

Required Period of Controlled
Temperature

10%

8 days

11–15%

9 days

16–20%

10 days

The above requirement for an extended period of controlled temperature may be waived if a compressive strength of 65 percent of the specified 28-day design strength is achieved.

This provision only addresses pozzolans. It needs to include other mineral admixtures and higher percentages.

The above table requires a controlled temperature period of 8 days or until 65 percent of the specified strength is achieved when 10 percent pozzolans are used. Article 8.11.1 requires a curing period of 10 days or until 70 percent of the specified strength is achieved when pozzolans in excess of 10 percent are used. These two articles need to be consistent.

In lieu of fixed periods of controlled temperature, the match-curing method or maturity method could be used. The potential for using these methods needs to be evaluated.

ACTION: Revisions to include slag and higher percentages of cement replacement are proposed.

8.6.6 Concrete Exposed to Salt Water

8.6.7 Concrete Exposed to Sulfate Soils or Water

These two articles provide special considerations for concrete exposed to specific environmental conditions. These are ideal applications for HPC and the provisions need to be revised accordingly.

ACTION: Revisions to require HPC are proposed.

8.11 CURING OF CONCRETE

8.11.1 General

All newly placed concrete shall be cured so as to prevent the loss of water by use of one or more of the methods specified herein. Curing shall commence immediately after the free water has left the surface and finishing operations are completed. If the surface of the concrete begins to dry before the selected cure method can be applied, the surface shall be kept moist by a fog spray applied so as not to damage the surface.

Curing by other than steam or radiant heat methods shall continue uninterrupted for 7 days except that when pozzolans in excess of 10 percent, by weight, of the Portland cement are used in the mix. When such pozzolans are used, the curing period shall be 10 days. For other than top slabs of structures serving as finished pavements, the above curing periods may be reduced and curing terminated when test cylinders cured under the same conditions as the structure indicate that concrete strengths of at least 70 percent of that specified have been reached.

When deemed necessary by the Engineer during periods of hot weather, water shall be applied to concrete surfaces being cured by the liquid membrane method or by the forms-in-place method until the Engineer determines that a cooling effect is no longer required. Such application of water will be paid as extra work.

HPC tends to have very little bleed water, especially when a low water-cementitious materials ratio is used with mineral admixtures. As a result, the evaporation protection of the bleed water on the fresh concrete is lost. To prevent plastic shrinkage cracking, this article should require methods to retard or prevent evaporation of bleed water from HPC during placement and finishing.

The lack of bleed water makes the forms-in-place method (8.11.3.1), the liquid membrane curing compound method (8.11.3.3), and the waterproof cover method (8.11.3.4) of curing ineffective for HPC. Also, the low water-cementitious materials ratios in some HPC mixes make the addition of external water desirable. For HPC, only the water method (8.11.3.2) or steam curing (8.11.3.5) should be allowed. In addition, another article needs to be added for concrete that is heat cured from its own heat of hydration.

This article specifies curing times and allows curing to be discontinued in certain members when the concrete achieves a compressive strength equal to 70 percent of the specified strength. This approach was developed for conventional concretes, but may not be appropriate for HPC. For HPC with low water-cementitious materials ratios, external water may be needed to keep the hydration process going. The curing times and percentages need to be evaluated for use with HPC. The curing period of 10 days or until 70 percent of the specified strength is reached needs to be consistent with the requirements of 8.6.4.1.

HPC tends to have larger quantities of cement and, therefore, higher heat of hydration. The
use of curing water to cool the concrete may be advisable even in cooler weather. In addition, concrete temperatures during placement and curing should be monitored to avoid excessive temperatures and excessive temperature gradients. Limits on concrete temperatures may need
to be specified.

ACTION: Revisions to add curing procedures for HPC are proposed.

8.11.3 Methods

8.11.3.3 Liquid Membrane Curing Compound Method

If the solution is applied in two increments, the second application shall follow the first application within 30 minutes.

The second application should be applied in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the first application.

ACTION: None.

8.11.3.5 Steam or Radiant Heat Curing Method

This method may be used only for precast concrete members manufactured in established plants.

Steam curing or radiant heat curing shall be done under a suitable enclosure to contain the live steam or the heat. Steam shall be low pressure and saturated. Temperature recording devices shall be employed as necessary to verify that temperatures are uniform throughout the enclosure and are within the limits specified.

Since HSC generates significantly more heat than conventional strength concrete, it is important that concrete temperatures be monitored rather than temperatures throughout the enclosure. Otherwise, the concrete temperatures could exceed 100 °C (212 °F), while the enclosure temperature is at 71 °C (160 °F). In addition, it may be desirable to specify a maximum internal concrete temperature and maximum temperature differentials.

ACTION: Revisions to require measurement of concrete temperatures are proposed.

Unless the ambient temperature is maintained above 60 °F, for prestressed members the transfer of the stressing force to the concrete shall be accomplished immediately after the steam curing or heat curing has been discontinued.

A temperature of 16 °C (60 °F) may be too low for HSC. It would seem that transfer has to occur immediately for all ambient temperatures with HSC.

ACTION: A revision to require immediate transfer is proposed.

8.11.4 Bridge Decks

The top surfaces of bridge decks shall be cured by a combination of the liquid membrane curing compound method and the water method. The liquid membrane shall be Type 2, white pigmented, and shall be applied from finishing bridges progressively and immediately after finishing operations are complete on each portion on the deck. The water cure shall be applied not later than 4 hours after completion of deck finishing or, for portions of the decks on which finishing is completed after normal working hours, the water cure shall be applied not later than the following morning.

This article requires the use of both the liquid membrane method and the water methods for bridge decks. For HPC, it is essential that water cure begin as soon as the concrete finishing is complete and that the water be able to reach the concrete. Delaying the application of water until the following morning is not acceptable.

This provision should also allow the use of membrane curing after the water-curing period.

ACTION: A revision to require water curing with HPC is proposed.

8.13 Precast Concrete Members

8.13.4 Curing

Unless otherwise permitted, precast members shall be cured by either the water method or the steam or radiant heat method.

For HSC, there needs to be a method for curing by covering the members to retain heat and moisture, with or without the use of insulating blankets.

ACTION: A revision to include the waterproof cover method is proposed.

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FHWA-HRT-05-056

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