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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-07-036
Date: March 2007

Junction Loss Experiments: Laboratory Report

APPENDIX A. VELOCITY PROFILES AT 5 MM INCREMENTS

The following images show examples of the velocity profile in the outflow pipe from one of the miniculvert experiments. Blue indicates low velocity, while the spectrum toward red reflects increasing magnitudes of local velocity.

Figure 25. Image. Example velocity profile at the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. In this particular image, the highest velocities occupy a crescent shape above and to the right of the pipe center.

Figure 25. Image. Example velocity profile at the outlet.

Figure 26. Image. Example velocity profile 5 millimeters (0.19 inch) from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. This particular image shows two small areas of red in the upper right quadrant, indicating areas of maximum velocity. A red-orange area of high velocities is midway to the top half of the pipe's center. An area of moderate velocity is located in the lower left quadrant.

Figure 26. Image. Example velocity profile 5 mm (0.19 inch) from the outlet.

Figure 27. Image. Example velocity profile 10 millimeters (0.39 inch)from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. This particular image shows a large area of red, or high velocity, in the upper right quadrant, and a yellow area of moderate velocity in the lower left quadrant. A red-orange area occupies most of the pipe's center region.

Figure 27. Image. Example velocity profile 10 mm (0.39 inch) from the outlet.

Figure 28. Image. Example velocity profile 15 millimeters (0.59 inch) from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. This particular image does not have any red areas. The red-orange or high-velocity area occupies the upper third of the pipe, with a small yellow moderate velocity area near the left side of the pipe.

Figure 28. Image. Example velocity profile 15 mm (0.59 inch) from the outlet.

Figure 29. Image. Example velocity profile 20 millimeters (0.79 inch) from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. This particular image shows an area of moderate velocity and an area of low to moderate velocity. Compared to the previous images, the velocities within the pipe center region are more uniform.

Figure 29. Image. Example velocity profile 20 mm (0.79 inch) from the outlet.

Figure 30. Image. Example velocity profile 25 millimeters (0.98 inch) from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. This particular image shows relatively uniform velocities in the pipe center region, which is entirely orange to red-orange. The red-orange area of higher velocities occupies the upper quarter of the pipe's central region, with three fingers pointing downward from that area.

Figure 30. Image. Example velocity profile 25 mm (0.98 inch) from the outlet.

Figure 31. Image. Example velocity profile 30 millimeters (1.18 inches) from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. This particular image shows only orange and red-orange in the center region of the pipe, indicating mostly uniform higher velocities. The red-orange area is just above the pipe's center and has one figure pointing down just to the right of center.

Figure 31. Image. Example velocity profile 30 mm (1.18 inches) from the outlet.

Figure 32. Image. Example velocity profile 35 millimeters (1.38 inches) from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. In this particular image, the red-orange area of higher velocities occupies the pipe's center point and a sizeable portion of the right half of the pipe.

Figure 32. Image. Example velocity profile 35 mm (1.38 inches) from the outlet.

Figure 33. Image. Example velocity profile 40 millimeters (1.57 inches) from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. In this particular image, the red-orange area of higher velocities occupies much of the right-center and lower right quadrant of the pipe.

Figure 33. Image. Example velocity profile 40 mm (1.57 inches) from the outlet.

Figure 34. Image. Example velocity profile 45 millimeters (1.77 inches) from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. In this particular image, the red-orange area of higher velocities extends from the center of the pipe to much of the lower right quadrant.

Figure 34. Image. Example velocity profile 45 mm (1.77 inches) from the outlet.

Figure 35. Image. Example velocity profile 50 millimeters (1.97 inches) from the outlet. For one of the miniculvert experiments, this is one in a series of eleven computer images in appendix A showing velocity profiles at 5 millimeter increments between 0 and 50 millimeters along the outflow pipe. Each image shows a spectrum of colors with blue indicating low velocity and orange and red indicating higher velocities. The low velocities are generally near the upper edge of the pipe and the higher velocities generally near the center of the pipe. In this particular image, the red-orange area of higher velocities extends from the center of the pipe to much of the lower right quadrant.

Figure 35. Image. Example velocity profile 50 mm (1.97 inches) from the outlet.

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). The hydraulics and hydrology research program at the TFHRC Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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