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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-07-052
Date: September 2007

Long Term Pavement Performance Project Laboratory Materials Testing and Handling Guide

Protocol P31
Test Method for Identification and Descriptionof Treated Base and Subbase Materials, and Determinationof Typeof Treatment (TB01)

This LTPP protocol covers the procedures for identification and description of treated base and subbase materials; including lean concrete, econocrete, cement aggregate, soil cement, lime-treated soil, and asphalt treated materials as well as the determination of the type of treatment given to the base and/or subbase material to be tested. This protocol also covers the procedures for identification and description of treated subgrade. This protocol is based on the standard ASTM D2488-00. The test shall be carried out in accordance with this standard (ASTM D2488-00) as modified herein. Those sections of the ASTM standard included in this protocol by reference and without modifications shall be followed. All other sections of this protocol shall be followed as herein written. This test shall be the first test to be performed on 4-inch (102-mm) diameter cores and/or chunks and pieces of any kind of treated base/subbase layers and treated subgrade from a pavement section.

The following definitions will be used throughout this protocol:

      (a) Layer: That part of the pavement produced with similar material and placed with similar equipment and techniques. The material within a particular layer is assumed to be homogeneous. The layer thickness can be equal to or less than the core thickness or length.

      (b) Treated Base or Subbase Materials: Treated base or subbase materials are bound or stabilized layers of base or subbase. The terms (treated, bond, stabilized) are used interchangeably in reference to base and subbase layers containing a cementing or binding type of agent. For LTPP terminology and codes, see Table 4.29 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide.

      (c) Asphalt Treated Base (ATB) or Subbase: Asphalt treated base and subbase materials (ATB, also known as bituminous treated materials) include soils, aggregate and soil-aggregate mixtures bound by asphalt or bitumen. Examples are asphalt treated aggregate base, soil-asphalt, and sand-asphalt. Typically these materials are produced by cold mix and mixed-in-place procedures. Samples of ATB type materials shall be tested using Protocols P31 and P07 procedures only.

      (d) Other than Asphalt Treated Base or Subbase (OTB): Other than asphalt treated base and subbase materials include all types of treated materials for which asphalt or bitumen was not used as a binding agent. Typical OTB materials range from very strong and durable to weak and less durable treated materials. Examples of very strong materials are lean concrete, econocrete, and cement-aggregate. The following materials may range from strong to weak; soil cement, lime-treated materials, and flyash-treated soils. Materials stabilized with chemicals, industrial wastes, and different kinds of proprietary products are also included in the category of OTB materials. Samples of OTB materials shall be tested using Protocols P31 and P32 procedures only.

      (e) Treated Subgrade: Treated subgrade materials are bound or stabilized layers of subgrade. The terms (treated, bound, stabilized) are used interchangeably in reference to the treated subgrade containing a cementing or binding type of agent. Table 4.26 and Table 4.29 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide should be consulted to assign appropriate LTPP terminology and codes for the description of treated subgrade material and type of treatment respectively. The treated subgrade may be asphalt treated material (for example, ATB) or other than asphalt treated (OTB) material (for example, lime, cement, lime- and cement- flyash, polymer and chemical treated subgrade; but not lean concrete and econocrete).

      (f) Core: An intact cylindrical specimen of the pavement material that is removed from the pavement by drilling at the designated location. A core can consist of, or include, one, two or more different layers.

      (g) Chunks: Chunks (large pieces) of treated base, subbase or subgrade may be extracted from the full thickness of each layer in the test pit area and/or the 12-inch (305-mm) diameter BA... type borehole(s). An undisturbed block sample (12-inch [305-mm] square) may also be taken from the field in certain cases. A chunk is always smaller than a block sample. If chunks or block samples of the treated material can not be recovered, then smaller pieces of the treated material are collected in the field for shipment to the laboratory.

      (h) Sample: A representative portion of material from one or more pavement layers received from the field. A sample can be a core, block, chunk, pieces, bulk, thin-walled tube or jar sample.

      (i) Test Specimen: That part of the layer which is used for, or in, the specified test. The thickness of the test specimen can be equal to or less than the layer thickness.

Preliminary identification and detailed description using Protocol P31 shall be carried out on samples of each layer of treated base and subbase materials and treated subgrade suitable for testing after assigning the appropriate layer number.

Locations for Chunks and Pieces of Treated Layer

If intact cores from the treated layer have not been recovered then chunks and pieces of each treated layer may be retrieved from the following sample locations:

      (a) From BA1, BA2, BA3... type 12-inch (305-mm) diameter boreholes.

      (b) Test pits.

These chunks and pieces are then used for the P31 test.

Assignment of Laboratory Test Numbers

      (a) The results of each test determined from the specified cores and/or chunks of the treated layer shall be assigned Laboratory Test Number "1", if these samples were retrieved from near the beginning of a test section (Stations 0-).

      (b) The results of each test determined from the specified cores and/or chunks of the treated layer shall be assigned Laboratory Test Number "2", if these samples were retrieved from near the end of a test section (Stations 5+).

      (c) The results of each test determined from the specified cores and/or chunks of the treated layer shall be assigned Laboratory Test Number "3", if these samples were retrieved from within the test section (Stations 0+00 to 5+00).

Selection of Protocols P31 and P32 Test Methods

The following sections are applicable to each layer of treated base, treated subbase and treated subgrade.

      (1) Cores retrieved from lean concrete, econocrete, cement aggregate or lime, lime-flyash treated, chemical-stabilized and any other non-asphalt treated OTB layers should be tested for compressive strength using LTPP Protocol P32 procedures only if the core thickness is 3 inches (76 mm) or more.

      (2) All ATB materials from each layer of treated base or subbase and treated subgrade shall be tested for resilient modulus using LTPP Protocol P07 procedures only if the core thickness is 3 inches (76 mm) or more.

      (3) If all the available samples are unsuitable for P32 or P07 testing (broken cores, chunks or pieces of layer material, for example), then only the test results from LTPP Protocol P31 shall be reported on Form T31. The compressive strength or resilient modulus tests (Protocols P32 or P07) shall not be performed. Comment code 92 shall be used to record this condition in reporting the test results on Form T31.

      (4) Compressive strength tests (Protocol P32) shall not be performed if the thickness of the treated layer is less than 3 inches (76 mm). Resilient modulus tests (Protocol P07) shall not be performed if the thickness of the treated layer is less than 1 inch (25 mm). This rule shall be applied irrespective of the availability of intact cores and/or only chunks and pieces. The treated layer samples shall be tested using Protocol P31 only.

Testing Sequence for Each Layer of Treated Material

Prior to testing, assign layer numbers using lab sheet L04. The testing sequence to be followed for treated base/subbase materials and treated subgrade is as defined below:

Step 1: Determine layer number (lab sheet L04); mark layer number on sample identification labels for every sample.

Step 2: Conduct preliminary identification of the treated material and measure thickness of cores using Section 9 of LTPP Protocol P31.

Step 3: (a) DO NOT PERFORM THE P32 OR P07 TESTS if suitable cores for the P32 or P07 are not available or the thickness of the treated layer is less than 3 inches (76 mm) or 1 inch (25 mm) respectively.

      (b) Go to step 4 if the thickness of the treated layer is acceptable and intact cores suitable for the P32 or P07 tests are available.

Step 4: Select cores for LTPP Protocol P32 - Method A or B (for OTB materials) or LTPP Protocol P07 (for ATB materials), following preliminary identification procedures described in Sections 9 and 11 of LTPP Protocol P31.

Step 5: Depending on the outcome of Step 4 above, apply LTPP Protocol P32 - Method A or Method B for OTB materials or Protocol P07 for ATB materials.

Step 6: Save remnants and broken pieces of the cores tested in Step 5 above for detailed description as defined in Sections 10 and 11 of LTPP Protocol P31.

1. SCOPE

1.1 This protocol covers the preliminary identification of treated base and subbase materials and type of treatment of these pavement layers. Material codes used in this description should be according to the LTPP terminology for pavement materials and soils as described in Table 4.29 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide.

1.2 This protocol also covers the detailed description of treated base and subbase materials and type of treatment using LTPP terminology and material codes of Tables 4.27, 4.29, 4.30 and 4.31 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide.

1.3 This protocol also covers; (a) the preliminary identification of treated subgrade and type of treatment as described in Section 1.1 of this protocol, and (b) the detailed description of treated subgrade and type of treatment as described in Section 1.2 of this protocol.

1.4 As required in Section 1.5 of ASTM D2488-00.

2. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS

2.1 ASTM Standards: As listed in ASTM D2488-00

ASTM D2488-00 Description and Identification of Soils (Visual- Manual Procedure)

2.2 LTPP Protocols:

P32 Test Method for Determination of Compressive Strength of Other Than Asphalt Treated Base and Subbase Cores

P07 Test Method for Determination of Creep Compliance, Resilient Modulus and Strength of Asphalt Materials Using the Indirect Tensile Test Device

2.3 Other LTPP Documents: LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide, Section 4.3

3. SUMMARY OF METHOD

3.1 Using visual examination and simple manual tests as appropriate, this procedure gives standardized methodology for preliminary identification of treated base and subbase materials and treated subgrade.

3.2 This procedure also provides standardized methodology based on visual examination and appropriate simple manual tests described in ASTM D2488-00 for detailed description of treated base and subbase materials and treated subgrade.

4. SIGNIFICANCE AND USE

4.1 This protocol is used to establish a comprehensive standardized, description and identification of treated base and subbase materials and treated subgrade for coded entry in the PPDB.

4.2 This protocol is used to select appropriate cores for use with LTPP Protocols P32 and P07.

4.3 This protocol is also used for selecting the appropriate test Method "A" or "B" of Protocol P32 for testing cores of other than asphalt treated materials.

5. APPARATUS

5.1 As required in Section 6 of ASTM D2488-00.

6. REAGENTS

6.1 As listed in Section 7 of ASTM D2488-00.

7. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

7.1 As required in Section 8 of ASTM D2488-00.

8. TEST SAMPLES

8.1 The test samples of treated base and subbase materials for preliminary identification will come from the specified locations as described in this protocol. If intact cores are not available then chunks or pieces retrieved from the specified locations shall be used.

8.2 The test samples for detailed description shall be the remnants of the treated base/subbase cores that have been tested using LTPP Protocols P32 or P07, and chunks and pieces of the treated material if available. If these remnants, chunks and pieces are not available, then use the samples specified for the preliminary identification as described in Section 8.1 above.

8.3 Test samples of the treated subgrade shall be obtained following the instructions of (a) Section 8.1 of this protocol for preliminary identification and (b) Section 8.2 of this protocol for detailed description.

8.4 The following LTPP rules shall be followed to prepare cores for testing.

      (a) Some pavement sections may contain very thin layers such as leveling courses or bond breaker courses placed on top of the base or subbase layers. These very thin layers are not to be tested and are removed prior to testing the treated base or subbase core(s).

      (b) The core of the treated material may have bonded particles from an unbounded layer and/or particles of an AC layer. These bonded particles shall be removed by wedging, or by chisel and hammer, applied to expose the surface of the core. Care shall be exercised so that the cores are not damaged in this process. If the core is damaged so that it is unsuitable for thickness measurement, then this condition shall be recorded using the appropriate comment code, 57, as described in Attachment "A" to Protocol P31 for ATB materials. The comment code 07 shall be used to record this condition for the OTB materials. The comment code 07 is described in Attachment "B" to Protocol P31.

      (c) The LTPP rules for core preparation, described in Section 8.4 (a) and (b) of this protocol shall also apply to the cores of treated subgrade.

8.5 Separate all individual treated base and subbase layers within the core, chunk or piece sample using the following LTPP rules.

      (a) Rule #1: Sawing of the treated base and subbase core, block, chunk or piece is not required if the sample consists of only one layer. The testing can be conducted on the core(s), chunk, or piece using the instructions provided in the designated protocol.

      (b) Rule #2: Two or more treated layers within a sample (core, block, chunk or piece) shall not be combined for any specified tests.

      (c) Rule #3: A treated layer of 3 inches (76 mm) or more shall be separated by carefully sawing the sample prior to testing. The comment code 93 shall be used in reporting the test results for Protocol P31 on Form T31.

      (d) Rule #4: If the thickness of a treated layer is less than 3 inches (76 mm) then only the Protocol P31 test shall be performed on this thin layer. Comment code 91 or 92 shall be used in reporting the test results for Protocol P31 on Form T31.

      (e) Rule #5: Separate the treated layer from the sample according to the criteria given in Rules #3 and #4. Special care shall be taken for sawing treated base and subbase cores so as to provide minimum disturbance. Perform the sawing operation on the interface of the treated layer to be separated so that the material will not be weakened by shock or by heating. The sawed surfaces of cores shall be smooth, plane, parallel, and free from steps, ridges and grooves. Take care in handling the sawed specimens to avoid chipping or cracking. Dry the specimens by air at approximately room temperature (60°F [16°C] to 75°F [24°C]). Assign the appropriate layer number and sample identification for core, chunk or piece samples.

9. PROCEDURE FOR PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION AND THICKNESS DETERMINATION

9.1 Use Table 4.29 of Section 4.3 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide for preliminary identification of the treated material and type of treatment.

9.2 Select Protocol P32 or P33 test method as described below:

      (a) After visual and manual examinations of the treated layer cores, the material shall be designated for use in resilient modulus testing (LTPP Protocol P07) if ATB.

      (b) The OTB material (other than asphalt-treated material, such as lean concrete, econocrete, soil cement, lime treated soils), shall be tested for compressive strength following LTPP Protocol P32. Method A of LTPP Protocol P32 shall be used for strong durable material such as lean concrete, econocrete and cement aggregate. Method B of LTPP Protocol P32 shall be used for weak, crumbly, cracked, soft and nondurable specimens of the OTB materials.

9.3 The thickness of each treated layer of base and subbase and treated subgrade shall be determined in the participating laboratory. Layer thicknesses and layer material codes recorded on the field exploration logs such as corehole, borehole and/or test pit at the treated material sampling locations should be reviewed by the Material Testing laboratory prior to assigning thicknesses. Use the following alternatives for thickness determination:

      (a) The treated layer thickness should be determined from intact cores using the instructions of Sections 8 and 9.4 of this protocol. Comment code 91 or 93 (as appropriate) shall be used to indicate this thickness determination procedure in reporting the test results for Protocol P31 on Form T31.

      (b) If there is no intact core and only chunks and pieces of the treated layer were retrieved in the field, the thickness should be averaged from the information available on field exploration logs. Comment code 92 shall be used to indicate this thickness determination procedure in reporting the test results for Protocol P31 on Form T31.

9.4 Determination of treated layer thickness from intact cores:

      (a) The thickness of the individual treated layer shall be determined for each designated intact core identified in Section 9.3 (a) of this protocol. The thickness shall be determined to the nearest (0.1 inch) 3 mm by taking the average of four measurements at equal distances along the face of the core.

      (b) The thickness shall be measured prior to sawing off other bonded layers.

9.5 Use the visual examination codes from Attachment A (for OTB materials) and Attachment B (for ATB material) of Protocol P31 to describe the condition of the P31 test samples. Up to six codes and a note not exceeding 25 characters are allowed.

10. PROCEDURE FOR DETAILED DESCRIPTION

10.1 Use Section 10 of ASTM D2488-00 for the descriptive information to be assigned to the test samples of treated base and subbase materials and treated subgrade. Use description codes provided in Table 4.27 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide. There are 13 sections in Table 4.27 which provide description codes. Only one code from each of these sections is allowed to describe the material except Section 7 from which more than one code is allowed.

10.2 Use description codes provided in Table 4.29 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide. Only one code is permitted for reporting the test results on material type and one code is permitted for indicating the type of treatment. A note not exceeding 25 characters is also permitted with each code.

10.3 Use one of the description codes provided in Table 4.30 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide for aggregate type description. A note not exceeding 25 characters is also permitted.

10.4 Use one of the description codes provided in Table 4.31 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide for geologic classification of soil and soil-aggregate portion of the treated material. A note not exceeding 25 characters is also permitted.

11. REPORT

The following information is to be recorded on Form T31.

11.1 Sample Identification shall include: Laboratory Identification Code, Region, State, State Code, SHRP ID, Layer Number, Field Set Number, Sample Area Number, Sample Location Number, LTPP Sample Number.

11.2 Test identification shall include: LTPP Test Designation, LTPP Protocol Number, Laboratory Test Number, Test Date.

11.3 Test Results

Report the following:

11.3.1 Results of Preliminary Identification.

      (a) Description codes for treated material and type of treatment based on Table 4.29 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide, as required in Section 9.1 of this protocol. One code for the type of treated material and one code for the type of treatment are permitted.

      (b) Based on the guidelines provided in Section 9.2 of this protocol, designate the cores of the treated layer for testing by either LTPP Protocol P07 or LTPP Protocol P32 (Method A or B).

      (c) Layer thickness (to the nearest 0.1 inches [3 mm]) and thickness code (according to Sections 9.3 and 9.4 of this protocol) for each treated layer.

      (d) Up to six visual examination codes using Attachment A or Attachment B of this protocol and a note not exceeding 25 characters, as described in Section 9.5 of this protocol.

11.3.2 Results of Detailed Description.

      (a) Description codes according to Table 4.27 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide as described in Section 10.1 of this protocol. At least five four-digit codes are desirable and up to 10 four-digit codes are allowed.

      (b) Color description (as required in Section 10.3 of ASTM D2488-00 and Section 14 of Table 4.27 of the LTPP Laboratory Testing Guide).

      (c) One description code for treated material type and one code for the type of treatment from Table 4.29 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide, as described in Section 10.2 of this protocol. A note not exceeding 25 characters is also permitted with each code.

      (d) One description code from Table 4.30 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide for aggregate type description and a note not exceeding 25 characters, as described in Section 10.3 of this protocol.

      (e) One description code from Table 4.31 of the LTPP Laboratory Material Testing Guide for geologic classification and a note not exceeding 25 characters, as described in Section 10.4 of this protocol.

11.4 Comments shall include LTPP standard comment code(s), as shown in Section 4.3 of this Guide and any other note as needed. Additional codes for special comments associated with this protocol are given below.

Code Comment
91 The thickness of the treated layer was determined in the laboratory using the intact cores and the Protocol P31 procedure. Compressive strength test (Protocol P32 for OTB materials) or resilient modulus test (Protocol P07 for ATB materials) shall not be performed on the cores from the designated locations, because the thickness is less than 3 inches (76 mm) or 1 inch (25 mm), respectively.
92 Intact cores were not available. The thickness of the treated layer was averaged from the information available on field exploration logs and used as is in reporting the test results of Protocol P31 on Form T31. Only the Protocol P31 test was conducted on chunks and pieces. Compressive strength test on OTB materials (Protocol P32) or resilient modulus test on ATB materials (Protocol P07) shall not be performed.
93 The thickness of the treated layer was 3 inches (76 mm) (Protocol P32) or 1 inch (25 mm) (Protocol P07) or more as determined from the intact cores. Protocol P31 test was performed. Other tests were or will be performed on intact cores using Protocol P32 (compressive strength for other than asphalt treated materials, ATB).

11.5 Use Form T31 (Test Sheet T31) to report the above information (Items 11.1 to 11.4).

APPENDIX "A" TO LTPP PROTOCOL P31
VISUAL EXAMINATION CODES FOR OTHER THAN ASPHALT TREATED BASE AND SUBBASE (OTB) MATERIALS AND TREATED SUBGRADE

This attachment to LTPP Protocol P31 describes a series of two-digit codes for reporting the results of visual examination of OTB base and subbase materials and treated subgrade such as lean concrete, econocrete, cement-aggregate, lime-treated soil and soil cement.

Code Description
51 Intact core; excellent condition; suitable for testing
52 Hairline cracks on the surface of the core; suitable for testing
53 Cracks and/or voids visible along the side of the core; core is suitable for testing.
54 Badly cracked or damaged core; unsuitable for testing; suitable for thickness measurements.
55 Ridges on the sides of the cores; (Identify by placing a straightedge along the side of the core when the distance between the straightedge and core face is 1/16 inch [2 mm] or greater); such a condition should be recorded for P31 and for any other test, if the core is designated for such a purpose.
56 Very rough and uneven bottom surface of the core. Place the core on a level surface. Identify with this code when less than 75% of the surface area is in contact with a level surface when the core is perpendicular to the surface.
57 Core extremely damaged from sampling, shipping, or laboratory handling; unsuitable for testing. Core thickness cannot be measured.
58 Treated base core was sawed in the laboratory to remove the core from the underlying bonded layer of subbase.
59 Core consisted of two or more layers of treated material. Core was sawed in the laboratory and appropriate layer numbers were assigned to each layer.
60 One or more treated material layers have become separated. Appropriate layer numbers were assigned to each layer.
61 Segregation of coarse and fine aggregate is observed over 25% or more of the surface area of the core.
62 Voids in the matrix of the treated base/subbase mixture.
63 Voids due to loss of coarse and fine aggregate are observed along the sides of the core.
64 Core is missing significant portions and cannot be considered a coherent cylindrical core; unsuitable for testing. Do not test for LTPP Protocols P32 or P07.
65 Coarse aggregate along the face of the core contains 50% or more of crushed materials with fractured faces.
66 Coarse aggregate along the face of the core is a mixture of uncrushed gravel and crushed gravel or stone.
67 The exposed aggregates along the face of the core are lightweight aggregate.
68 More than 10% of the surface area of the core contains soft and deleterious aggregate particles or clay balls. Soft aggregates are defined as those aggregates that can be easily scratched with a knife.
69 Cracks are generally across or through the coarse aggregate.
70 Cracks are generally around the periphery of the coarse aggregate.
72 Rims are observed on aggregate.
73 Fine aggregate is natural sand.
74 Fine aggregate is manufactured sand.
75 Fine aggregate is a mixture of natural and manufactured sand.
79 Core indicates deterioration that may be due to freeze-thaw cycles of the pavement layers.
80 Core indicates sulfate attack. Concrete or cement treated material is deteriorated because of volume change caused by chemical and physical reaction or both with sulfates sometimes found in groundwater or soils.
81 Core indicates alkali silica reactivity. It is shown by the expansion of reactive aggregates. As an expansion occurs, the cement matrix is disrupted and cracks. It appears as a map cracked area.
82 Skewed core. A core, after being placed on a level, horizontal surface, is considered skewed when either end of the core departs from perpendicularity to the axis by more than 0.5 degrees or ? inch (3 mm) in 12 inches (305 mm).
99 Other comment (describe in a note).

Any six codes from the above list can be used to report the results of the visual examination. A note may also be recorded (the note shall not be more than 25 characters long).

APPENDIX "B" TO LTPP PROTOCOL P31
VISUAL EXAMINATION CODES FOR ASPHALT TREATED BASE AND SUBBASE MATERIALS AND TREATED SUBGRADE

This attachment to LTPP Protocol P31 describes a series of two-digit codes for reporting the results of visual examination of asphalt treated base and subbase (ATB) materials and treated subgrade such as soil-asphalt and sand-asphalt.

Code Description
01 Intact core; excellent condition; suitable for testing
02 Hairline cracks on the surface of the core; suitable for testing
03 Cracks and/or voids visible along the side of the core; core is suitable for testing.
04 Badly cracked or damaged core; unsuitable for testing; suitable for thickness measurements.
05 Ridges on the sides of the cores (identify by placing a straightedge along the side of the core when the distance between the straightedge and core face is 1/16 inch (2 mm) or greater); such a condition should be recorded for P31 and for any other test if the core is designated for such purpose.
06 Very rough and uneven bottom surface of the core. Place the core on a level surface. Identify with this code when less than 75% of the surface area is in contact with a level surface when the core is perpendicular to the surface.
07 Core extremely damaged from sampling, shipping, or laboratory handling; unsuitable for testing. Core thickness cannot be measured.
08 Core was sawed in the laboratory to remove the core from the underlying bonded layer of subbase.
09 Core consisted of two or more asphalt treated layers. Core was sawed in the laboratory and appropriate layer numbers to be assigned to each layer.
10 One or more asphaltic treated layers have become separated due to sampling, shipping or laboratory handling; other layers, if present, to be sawed; and appropriate layer numbers to be assigned to each layer.
11 Segregation of coarse and fine aggregate is observed over 25% or more of the surface area of the core.
12 Voids in the matrix of the asphalt treated material are observed along the sides of the core.
13 Voids due to loss of coarse and fine aggregate are observed along the sides of the core.
14 Core is missing significant portions and cannot be considered a coherent cylindrical core; unsuitable for testing using Protocol P33.
15 Coarse aggregate along the face of the core contains 50% or more of crushed materials with fractured faces.
16 Coarse aggregate along the face of the core is a mixture of uncrushed gravel and crushed gravel or stone.
17 More than 10% of the surface area of the core contains soft and deleterious aggregate particles or clay balls. Soft is defined as those aggregates that can be easily scratched with a knife.
18 Slight stripping. Stripping is defined as the displacement of asphalt cement film from the surface of the aggregate. Slight stripping is identified when the asphalt cement film has been displaced from and/or discoloration is observed on less than 25% of the surface area of the aggregate(s), showing signs of stripping.
19 Severe stripping. A loss of coarse and fine aggregate has been noted over 25% or more of the core face and the asphalt film has been displaced from 25% or more of the surface area of the aggregate(s).
20 Slight bleeding. 5% or less of the asphalt matrix portion of the core is in a non-hardened condition and exhibits shiny and sticky surface.
21 Severe bleeding. More than 5% of the asphalt matrix portion of the core is in a non-hardened condition and exhibits shiny and sticky surface.
22 Skewed core. A core, after being placed on a level, horizontal surface, is considered skewed when either end of the core departs from perpendicularity to the axis by more than 0.5° or ? inch in 12 inches (3 mm in 305 mm).
99 Other comment (describe in a note).

Any six codes from the above list can be used to report the results of the visual examination. A note may also be recorded (the note shall not be more than 25 characters long).

LTPP LABORATORY MATERIAL HANDLING AND TESTING
LABORATORY MATERIAL TEST DATA
DESCRIPTION OF MATERIAL AND TYPE OF TREATMENT
LAB DATA SHEET T31

TREATED BASE/SUBBASE AND SUBGRADE LAYERS
LTPP TEST DESIGNATION TB01/LTPP PROTOCOL P31

LABORATORY PERFORMING TEST:____________________________________________________________________________

LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION CODE:__ __ __ __

REGION _________________ STATE ___________________ STATE CODE __ __

EXPERIMENT NO _____ SHRP ID __ __ __ __

SAMPLED BY: ______________________________________________ FIELD SET NO. __

DATE SAMPLED: __ __-__ __-__ __ __ __

TREATED LAYER MATERIAL TYPE: (CIRCLE ONE) TREATED BASE/TREATED SUBBASE/TREATED SUBGRADE

1. LAYER NUMBER (FROM LAB SHEET L04) __

2. SAMPLING AREA NO. (SA-) _ _ _ _

3. LABORATORY TEST NUMBER ....... _ _

4. LOCATION NUMBER ................... _ _ _ _ _ _

5. LTPP SAMPLE NUMBER ................ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

6. PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION (SECTION 11.3.1 OF PROTOCOL P31)

      (a) TREATED MATERIAL TYPE (TABLE 4.29, CHAPTER 4, LTPP LAB GUIDE)

        (a.1) TREATED MATERIAL CODE ........ _ _ _ _ _ _

        (a.2) TREATMENT TYPE CODE ......... _ _ _ _ _ _

      (b) PROTOCOL DESIGNATION FOR CORES

        (b.1) DESIGNATED CORES ..... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

        (b.2) DESIGNATED PROTOCOL

        (P32 Method A, P32 Method B or P33) _____________ _____________

      (c) TREATED LAYER INFORMATION

        *(c.1) AVERAGE THICKNESS, INCHES _ _._ _ _._

        (c.2) THICKNESS CODE ............ _ _ _ _

      (d) VISUAL EXAMINATION

        (d.1) CODE ...................... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

        (d.2) NOTE ...................... _____________ _____________

7. DETAILED DESCRIPTION (SECTION 11.3.2 OF PROTOCOL P31)

      (a) CODES (TABLE 4.27, CHAPTER 4, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

DESCRIPTION LTPP LAB GUIDE) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

      (b) COLOR DESCRIPTION ............ _____________ ____________

      (c) TREATED MATERIAL TYPE (TABLE 4.29, CHAPTER 4, LTPP LAB GUIDE)

        (c.1) CODE ....................... _ _ _ _ _ _

        (c.2) NOTE ....................... _____________ ____________

TREATMENT TYPE

        (c.3) CODE ....................... _ _ _ _ _ _

        (c.4) NOTE ....................... _____________ ____________

      (d) AGGREGATE TYPE DESCRIPTION (TABLE 4.30, CHAPTER 4, LTPP LAB GUIDE)

        (d.1) CODE ....................... _ _ _ _ _ _

        (d.2) NOTE ....................... ______________ _____________

      (e) GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION CODE (TABLE 4.31, CHAPTER 4, LTPP LAB GUIDE)

        (e.1) CODE ....................... _ _ _ _

        (e.2) NOTE ....................... ______________ _____________

8. COMMENTS (SECTION 11.3.3 OF PROTOCOL P31)

      (a) CODE ......................... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

      (b) NOTE ......................... _____________ _____________

9. TEST DATE ........................ __ __-__ __-__ __ __ __ __ __-__ __-__ __ __ __

* Layer thickness should be measured prior to sawing from other bonded cores.

GENERAL REMARKS:___________________________________________________________________________
SUBMITTED BY, DATECHECKED AND APPROVED, DATE
____________________________________________________________
LABORATORY CHIEF
Affiliation______________________
Affiliation______________________

 

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration