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This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-08-057
Date: November 2008

Long-Term Pavement Performance Computed Parameter: Frost Penetration


  1. NOAA Manual NOS NS 1, GeodetiGc Bench Marks, Department Of Commerce, NOAA, Rockville, MD, September 1978.
  2. Boyd, D. W., Normal freezing and thawing degree-days for Canada . Environment Canada Atmos. Environ., Rep. CL 14–73, 1973.
  3. Ali, H. A. and Tayabji, S.D., Determination of Frost Penetration in LTPP Sections , FHWA-RD-99-088, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 1999.
  4. FHWA, LTPP Seasonal Monitoring Program: Instrumentation Installation and Data Collection Guidelines, Report No. FHWA-RD-94-110, April 1994.
  5. FHWA, LTPP Guidelines for SMP Phase II Equipment and Instrumentation Installation, SM-35, April 10, 2000.
  6. FHWA, LTPP SMP Phase II Monitoring, SM-31, December 7, 1999.
  7. LTPP Seasonal Monitoring Program SMP II Equipment Installation/De-Installation Reports prepared by LTPP Regional Contractor Offices for individual sites.
  8. Computed Parameters: Freeze/Thaw Monograph for LTPP. Publication No. FHWA-RD-98-177, 1998.
  9. LTPP Information Management System, IMS Quality Control Checks, FHWA.
  10. Jiang, Y. J. and Tayabji, S.D., Analysis of Time Domain Reflectometry Data From LTPP Seasonal Monitoring Program Test Sections, Final Report, Publication No. FHWA-RD-99-115, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 1999.
  11. Larson, G., and Dempsey, B.J., Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model, Version 2.0, Final Report, Contract DTFA MN/DOT 72114, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997.
  12. Roberson and Siekmeier, Transportation Research Record 1709: Using a Multi-Segment TDR probe to Determine Frost Depth in Pavement Systems, 2000.
  13. Benson and Bosscher, Remote Field Methods to Measure Frost Depths, in Field Instrumentations of Rock and Soil, ASTM 1358, 1999.
  14. Lytton, R.L., Pufahl, D.E., Michalak, C.H., Liang, H.S., and Dempsey, B.J., An Integrated Model of the Climatic Effects on Pavements, Report No. FHWA-RD-90-033, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 1993.
  15. Zou and Elkins, Pavement Responses to Seasonal Variations, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields, Minneapolis, MN, July 1994.
  16. E.C. Drumm and R. Meier, LTPP Data Analysis Daily and Seasonal Variations in In-situ Material Properties, NCHRP Web Document 60, November 2003.
  17. C.A. Richter, Seasonal Variations in the Moduli of Unbound Pavement Layers, Report No. FHWA-RD-04-079, FHWA, August 2003.
  18. Farrington, S.P., M. L. Gildea, D. Dougherty, D. Rizzo, Frost Penetration Prediction and Mapping, Final Report of Contract #984024, Agency of Transportation, State of Vermont.
  19. Dempsey, B.J., Herlach, W.A. and Patel, A.J., The Climatic-Materials-Structural Pavement Analysis Program, Final Report, FHWA/RD-84-115, Volume 3, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1985.
  20. Liu, S.J. and Lytton, R.L., Environmental Effects on Pavement Drainage, Volume IV, Report No. FHWA-DTFH61-87-C-00057, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1985.
  21. Guymon, G.L., Berg, R.L., and Johnston, T.C., Mathematical Model of Frost Heave and Thaw Settlement in Pavements, Report: U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 1986.
  22. D. Zollinger, S. Lee, J. Puccinelli, N. Jackson, Long Term Pavement Performance Computed Parameter: Moisture Content, Final Report, Publication No. FHWA-HRT-08-030, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2008.
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